Results for 'Quantities'

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Bibliography: Quantities in Metaphysics
  1. Kant on Negative Quantities, Real Opposition and Inertia.Jennifer McRobert - manuscript
    Kant's obscure essay entitled An Attempt to Introduce the Concept of Negative Quantities into Philosophy has received virtually no attention in the Kant literature. The essay has been in English translation for over twenty years, though not widely available. In his original 1983 translation, Gordon Treash argues that the Negative Quantities essay should be understood as part of an ongoing response to the philosophy of Christian Wolff. Like Hoffmann and Crusius before him, the Kant of 1763 is at (...)
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  2.  15
    Conditional Random Quantities and Compounds of Conditionals.Angelo Gilio & Giuseppe Sanfilippo - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (4):709-729.
    In this paper we consider conditional random quantities (c.r.q.’s) in the setting of coherence. Based on betting scheme, a c.r.q. X|H is not looked at as a restriction but, in a more extended way, as \({XH + \mathbb{P}(X|H)H^c}\) ; in particular (the indicator of) a conditional event E|H is looked at as EH + P(E|H)H c . This extended notion of c.r.q. allows algebraic developments among c.r.q.’s even if the conditioning events are different; then, for instance, we can give (...)
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  3.  48
    Intensive and Extensive Quantities.Zee Perry - manuscript
    Quantities are properties and relations which exhibit "quantitative structure". For physical quantities, this structure can impact the non-quantitative world in different ways. In this paper I introduce and motivate a novel distinction between quantities based on the way their quantitative structure constrains the possible mereological structure of their instances. Specifically, I identify a category of “properly extensive” quantities, which are a proper sub-class of the additive or extensive quantities. I present and motivate this distinction using (...)
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  4. Armstrong on Quantities and Resemblance.M. Eddon - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 136 (3):385-404.
    Resemblances obtain not only between objects but between properties. Resemblances of the latter sort - in particular resemblances between quantitative properties - prove to be the downfall of a well-known theory of universals, namely the one presented by David Armstrong. This paper examines Armstrong's efforts to account for such resemblances within the framework of his theory and also explores several extensions of that theory. All of them fail.
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  5. Properly Extensive Quantities.Zee R. Perry - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):833-844.
    This article introduces and motivates the notion of a “properly extensive” quantity by means of a puzzle about the reliability of certain canonical length measurements. An account of these measurements’ success, I argue, requires a modally robust connection between quantitative structure and mereology that is not mediated by the dynamics and is stronger than the constraints imposed by “mere additivity.” I outline what it means to say that length is not just extensive but properly so and then briefly sketch an (...)
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  6.  37
    A Set of Independent Axioms for Extensive Quantities.Patrick Suppes - 1951 - Portugaliae Mathematica 10 (4):163-172.
  7. Aristotle’s Prohibition Rule on Kind-Crossing and the Definition of Mathematics as a Science of Quantities.Paola Cantù - 2010 - Synthese 174 (2):225-235.
    The article evaluates the Domain Postulate of the Classical Model of Science and the related Aristotelian prohibition rule on kind-crossing as interpretative tools in the history of the development of mathematics into a general science of quantities. Special reference is made to Proclus’ commentary to Euclid’s first book of Elements , to the sixteenth century translations of Euclid’s work into Latin and to the works of Stevin, Wallis, Viète and Descartes. The prohibition rule on kind-crossing formulated by Aristotle in (...)
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  8. Zero-Value Physical Quantities.Yuri Balashov - 1999 - Synthese 119 (3):253-286.
    To state an important fact about the photon, physicists use such expressions as (1) “the photon has zero (null, vanishing) mass” and (2) “the photon is (a) massless (particle)” interchangeably. Both (1) and (2) express the fact that the photon has no non-zero mass. However, statements (1) and (2) disagree about a further fact: (1) attributes to the photon the property of zero-masshood whereas (2) denies that the photon has any mass at all. But is there really a difference between (...)
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  9.  22
    Is There a Humean Account of Quantities?Phillip Bricker - 2017 - Philosophical Issues 27 (1):26-51.
    Humeans have a problem with quantities. A core principle of any Humean account of modality is that fundamental entities can freely recombine. But determinate quantities, if fundamental, seem to violate this core principle: determinate quantities belonging to the same determinable necessarily exclude one another. Call this the problem of exclusion. Prominent Humeans have responded in various ways. Wittgenstein, when he resurfaced to philosophy, gave the problem of exclusion as a reason to abandon the logical atomism of the (...)
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  10. On the Nature of Continuous Physical Quantities in Classical and Quantum Mechanics.Hans Halvorson - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (1):27-50.
    Within the traditional Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics, it is not possible to describe a particle as possessing, simultaneously, a sharp position value and a sharp momentum value. Is it possible, though, to describe a particle as possessing just a sharp position value (or just a sharp momentum value)? Some, such as Teller, have thought that the answer to this question is No - that the status of individual continuous quantities is very different in quantum mechanics than in (...)
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  11. Finite Quantities.Daniel Nolan - 2008 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 108 (1pt1):23-42.
    Quantum Mechanics, and apparently its successors, claim that there are minimum quantities by which objects can differ, at least in some situations: electrons can have various “energy levels” in an atom, but to move from one to another they must jump rather than move via continuous variation: and an electron in a hydrogen atom going from -13.6 eV of energy to -3.4 eV does not pass through states of -10eV or -5.1eV, let along -11.1111115637 eV or -4.89712384 eV.
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  12.  94
    On Symmetry and Conserved Quantities in Classical Mechanics.Jeremy Butterfield - unknown
    This paper expounds the relations between continuous symmetries and conserved quantities, i.e. Noether's ``first theorem'', in both the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian frameworks for classical mechanics. This illustrates one of mechanics' grand themes: exploiting a symmetry so as to reduce the number of variables needed to treat a problem. I emphasise that, for both frameworks, the theorem is underpinned by the idea of cyclic coordinates; and that the Hamiltonian theorem is more powerful. The Lagrangian theorem's main ``ingredient'', apart from cyclic (...)
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  13.  7
    Laue's Theorem Revisited: Energy-Momentum Tensors, Symmetries, and the Habitat of Globally Conserved Quantities.Domenico Giulini - 2018 - International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics 15 (10).
    The energy-momentum tensor for a particular matter component summarises its local energy-momentum distribution in terms of densities and current densities. We re-investigate under what conditions these local distributions can be integrated to meaningful global quantities. This leads us directly to a classic theorem by Max von Laue concerning integrals of components of the energy-momentum tensor, whose statement and proof we recall. In the first half of this paper we do this within the realm of Special Relativity and in the (...)
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  14.  66
    Real Numbers, Quantities, and Measurement.Bob Hale - 2002 - Philosophia Mathematica 10 (3):304-323.
    Defining the real numbers by abstraction as ratios of quantities gives prominence to then- applications in just the way that Frege thought we should. But if all the reals are to be obtained in this way, it is necessary to presuppose a rich domain of quantities of a land we cannot reasonably assume to be exemplified by any physical or other empirically measurable quantities. In consequence, an explanation of the applications of the reals, defined in this way, (...)
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  15.  60
    What Are Quantities?Joongol Kim - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (4):792-807.
    ABSTRACTThis paper presents a view of quantities as ‘adverbial’ entities of a certain kind—more specifically, determinate ways, or modes, of having length, mass, speed, and the like. In doing so, it will be argued that quantities as such should be distinguished from quantitative properties or relations, and are not universals but are particulars, although they are not objects, either. A main advantage of the adverbial view over its rivals will be found in its superior explanatory power with respect (...)
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  16.  56
    Quantities, Magnitudes, and Numbers.Henry E. Kyburg Jr - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (3):377-410.
    Quantities are naturally viewed as functions, whose arguments may be construed as situations, events, objects, etc. We explore the question of the range of these functions: should it be construed as the real numbers (or some subset thereof)? This is Carnap's view. It has attractive features, specifically, what Carnap views as ontological economy. Or should the range of a quantity be a set of magnitudes? This may have been Helmholtz's view, and it, too, has attractive features. It reveals the (...)
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  17. Generalizing the Algebra of Physical Quantities.Mark Sharlow - manuscript
    In this paper, I define and study an abstract algebraic structure, the dimensive algebra, which embodies the most general features of the algebra of dimensional physical quantities. I prove some elementary results about dimensive algebras and suggest some directions for future work.
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  18.  8
    Symmetry, Reference Frames, and Relational Quantities in Quantum Mechanics.Leon Loveridge, Takayuki Miyadera & Paul Busch - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (2):135-198.
    We propose that observables in quantum theory are properly understood as representatives of symmetry-invariant quantities relating one system to another, the latter to be called a reference system. We provide a rigorous mathematical language to introduce and study quantum reference systems, showing that the orthodox “absolute” quantities are good representatives of observable relative quantities if the reference state is suitably localised. We use this relational formalism to critique the literature on the relationship between reference frames and superselection (...)
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  19.  7
    Bolzano’s Infinite Quantities.Kateřina Trlifajová - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (4):681-704.
    In his Foundations of a General Theory of Manifolds, Georg Cantor praised Bernard Bolzano as a clear defender of actual infinity who had the courage to work with infinite numbers. At the same time, he sharply criticized the way Bolzano dealt with them. Cantor’s concept was based on the existence of a one-to-one correspondence, while Bolzano insisted on Euclid’s Axiom of the whole being greater than a part. Cantor’s set theory has eventually prevailed, and became a formal basis of contemporary (...)
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  20.  3
    Against Reducing Newtonian Mass to Kinematical Quantities.Niels C. M. Martens - unknown
    It is argued that Newtonian mass cannot be reduced to kinematical quantities---distance, velocity and acceleration---without losing the explanatory and predictive power of Newtonian Gravity.
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  21. On Symmetry and Conserved Quantities in Classical Mechanics.I. Pitowsky - unknown
    This paper expounds the relations between continuous symmetries and conserved quantities, i.e. Noether’s “first theorem”, in both the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian frameworks for classical mechanics. This illustrates one of mechanics’ grand themes: exploiting a symmetry so as to reduce the number of variables needed to treat a problem. I emphasise that, for both frameworks, the theorem is underpinned by the idea of cyclic coordinates; and that the Hamiltonian theorem is more powerful. The Lagrangian theorem’s main “ingredient”, apart from cyclic (...)
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  22.  46
    Four-Dimensional Geometric Quantities Versus the Usual Three-Dimensional Quantities: The Resolution of Jackson's Paradox. [REVIEW]Tomislav Ivezić - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (10):1511-1534.
    In this paper we present definitions of different four-dimensional (4D) geometric quantities (Clifford multivectors). New decompositions of the torque N and the angular momentum M (bivectors) into 1-vectors Ns, Nt and Ms, Mt, respectively, are given. The torques Ns, Nt (the angular momentums Ms, Mt), taken together, contain the same physical information as the bivector N (the bivector M). The usual approaches that deal with the 3D quantities $\varvec{E,\,B,\,F,\,L,\,N}$ etc. and their transformations are objected from the viewpoint of (...)
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  23.  68
    On the Usefulness of Quantities.Kathleen C. Cook - 1975 - Synthese 31 (3-4):443 - 457.
    I have argued that there is a philosophical problem posed by a need to determine the reference of expressions which seem to refer to kinds of stuff or matter and to make identity claims about it (e.g., ‘the gold’, ‘the same clay’). Ordinary sortal expressions such as ‘lump’, and ‘piece’ have been shown to be inadequate to the task of providing reference for the expressions in question. What is necessary is an expression which does not have an ordinary sortal use (...)
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  24.  11
    Vague References to Quantities as a Face-Saving Strategy in Teacher-Student Interaction.Jūratė Ruzaitė - 2007 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 3:157-178.
    Vague References to Quantities as a Face-Saving Strategy in Teacher-Student Interaction The main focus of the present paper is to show how vague language categories can function as a face-saving strategy. The observations made in this article are based on the analysis of one category of vague language, that is, quantifiers in British and American spoken academic discourse. The data used for the present investigation have been obtained from two corpora: the sub-corpus of educational events of the British National (...)
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  25.  4
    Relations Between Units and Relations Between Quantities.S. G. Sterrett - unknown
    The proposed revision to the International System of Units contains two features that are bound to be of special interest to those concerned with foundational questions in philosophy of science. These are that the proposed system of international units can be defined without drawing a distinction between base units and derived units, and without restricting the means by which the value of the quantities associated with the units are to be established. In this paper, I address the question of (...)
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  26.  20
    On the Ghosts of Departed Quantities.Fred Ablondi - 2012 - Metascience 21 (3):681-683.
    On the ghosts of departed quantities Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9606-5 Authors Fred Ablondi, Department of Philosophy, Hendrix College, Conway, AR, USA Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  27.  5
    Beyond Quantities and Qualities: Frege and Jevons on Measurement.Raphaël Sandoz - 2016 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 6 (2):212-238.
    On which philosophical foundations is the attribution of numerical magnitudes to qualitative phenomena based? That is, what is the philosophical basis for attributing, through measurement operations, numbers to empirical qualities that our senses perceive in the outside world? This question, nowadays rarely addressed in such a way, actually refers to an old debate about the quantification of qualities. A historical analysis reveals that it was a major issue in the “context of discovery” of the first attempts to mathematize new fields (...)
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  28.  16
    Natural Economic Quantities and Their Measurement.Julian Reiss - 2001 - Journal of Economic Methodology 8 (2):287-311.
    This paper discusses and develops an important distinction drawn by Jevons, viz . that between natural and fictitious quantities. This distinction provides a basis for a theory of economic concept formation that aims at picking out families of models that are phenomenally adequate, explanatory and exact simultaneously. Essentially, the theory demands of an economic quantity to be natural that (1) it is explained by a causal model, (2) it is measurable and (3) the measurement procedure is justified. The proposed (...)
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  29.  9
    Quantities Enduring in Time.Antonina Kowalska - 2008 - Dialogue and Universalism 18 (9-10):27-38.
    Despite changeability of the world, the human mind also ponders on those quantities that remain constant over time. This was the case in ancient times, in the middle ages, and the same applies in modern physics. This paper discusses i.a. Zenon paradoxes, the principle of inertia, and the Emma Noether theorem, ending with the modern, so-called Zeno’s quantum effect. The foot-notes concern the ancient “Achilles” paradox, spot speed, as well as some of the facts taken out of the life-history (...)
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  30.  47
    Do Lions Have Manes? For Children, Generics Are About Kinds, Not Quantities.Amanda Brandone, Andrei Cimpian, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Susan Gelman - 2012 - Child Development 83:423-433.
  31.  20
    Priming Reveals Differential Coding of Symbolic and Non-Symbolic Quantities.Chantal Roggeman, Tom Verguts & Wim Fias - 2007 - Cognition 105 (2):380-394.
  32.  1
    Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence Against a Strong Association Between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent.Ian M. Lyons, Daniel Ansari & Sian L. Beilock - 2012 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 141 (4):635-641.
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  33.  53
    Are Quantities Relations? A Reply to Bigelow and Pargetter.D. M. Armstrong - 1988 - Philosophical Studies 54 (3):305 - 316.
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  34.  66
    Causality and Conserved Quantities: A Reply to Salmon.Phil Dowe - 1995 - Philosophy of Science 62 (2):321-333.
    In a recent paper (1994) Wesley Salmon has replied to criticisms (e.g., Dowe 1992c, Kitcher 1989) of his (1984) theory of causality, and has offered a revised theory which, he argues, is not open to those criticisms. The key change concerns the characterization of causal processes, where Salmon has traded "the capacity for mark transmission" for "the transmission of an invariant quantity." Salmon argues against the view presented in Dowe (1992c), namely that the concept of "possession of a conserved quantity" (...)
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  35. Quantities.Helen Morris Cartwright - 1970 - Philosophical Review 79 (1):25-42.
  36.  7
    Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities Across Senses.Elizabeth M. Brannon Kerry E. Jordan, Evan L. MacLean - 2008 - Cognition 108 (3):617.
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  37. Quantities.John Bigelow, Robert Pargetter & D. M. Armstrong - 1988 - Philosophical Studies 54 (3):287 - 304.
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  38.  92
    On Quantities and Qualities of Pleasure.Jonathan Riley - 1993 - Utilitas 5 (2):291.
  39.  35
    Fictions at Work: The Real Qualities of Fictional Quantities.Tzuchien Tho - manuscript
  40. Explicating the Notion of Causation: The Role of Extensive Quantities.G. Boniolo, R. Faraldo & A. Saggion - 2011 - In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 502--525.
     
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  41.  5
    Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities Across Senses.Kerry E. Jordan, Evan L. MacLean & Elizabeth M. Brannon - 2008 - Cognition 108 (3):617-625.
  42.  8
    Symmetries as by-Products of Conserved Quantities.Diego Romero-Maltrana - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 52 (Part B):358-368.
  43. Understanding the Role of Measurements in Creating Physical Quantities: A Case Study of Learning to Quantify Temperature in Physics Teacher Education.Terhi Mäntylä & Ismo T. Koponen - 2007 - Science and Education 16 (3-5):291-311.
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  44.  25
    Communicating Quantities: A Psychological Perspective (Essays in Cognitive Psychology).Linda M. Moxey & Anthony J. Sanford - 1993 - Psychology Press.
  45.  43
    Quantum Mechanics and the Nature of Continuous Physical Quantities.Paul Teller - 1979 - Journal of Philosophy 76 (7):345-361.
  46.  19
    Hoping for More: The Influence of Outcome Desirability on Information Seeking and Predictions About Relative Quantities.Aaron M. Scherer, Paul D. Windschitl, Jillian O’Rourke & Andrew R. Smith - 2012 - Cognition 125 (1):113-117.
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  47.  99
    Relativistic Transformations of Thermodynamic Quantities.Noam Agmon - 1977 - Foundations of Physics 7 (5-6):331-339.
    A unique solution is proposed to the problem of how thermodynamic processes between thermodynamic systems at relative rest “appear” to a moving observer. Assuming only transformations for entropy, pressure, and volume and the invariance of the “fundamental thermodynamic equation,” one can derive transformations for (thermodynamic) energy and temperature. The invariance of the first and second laws entails transformations for work and heat. All thermodynamic relations become Lorentz-invariant. The transformations thus derived are in principle equivalent to those of Einstein and Planck, (...)
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  48.  95
    Laws of Nature as Relations Between Quantities?John Forge - 1999 - In Howard Sankey (ed.), Causation and Laws of Nature. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 111--124.
  49.  74
    Which Arithmetization for Which Logicism? Russell on Relations and Quantities in The Principles of Mathematics.Sébastien Gandon - 2008 - History and Philosophy of Logic 29 (1):1-30.
    This article aims first at showing that Russell's general doctrine according to which all mathematics is deducible 'by logical principles from logical principles' does not require a preliminary reduction of all mathematics to arithmetic. In the Principles, mechanics (part VII), geometry (part VI), analysis (part IV-V) and magnitude theory (part III) are to be all directly derived from the theory of relations, without being first reduced to arithmetic (part II). The epistemological importance of this point cannot be overestimated: Russell's logicism (...)
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  50.  24
    Why Humans Can Count Large Quantities Accurately.Helen De Cruz - 2004 - Philosophica 74.
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