Results for 'Quantities'

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Bibliography: Quantities in Metaphysics
  1. Quantity Tropes and Internal Relations.Markku Keinänen, Antti Keskinen & Jani Hakkarainen - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (3):519-534.
    In this article, we present a new conception of internal relations between quantity tropes falling under determinates and determinables. We begin by providing a novel characterization of the necessary relations between these tropes as basic internal relations. The core ideas here are that the existence of the relata is sufficient for their being internally related, and that their being related does not require the existence of any specific entities distinct from the relata. We argue that quantity tropes are, as determinate (...)
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  2.  36
    Quantity Implicatures.Bart Geurts - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Gricean pragmatics. Saying vs. implicating ; Discourse and cooperation ; Conversational implicatures ; Generalised vs. particularised ; Cancellability ; Gricean reasoning and the pragmatics of what is said -- The standard recipe for Q-implicatures. The standard recipe ; Inference to the best explanation ; Weak implicatures and competence ; Relevance ; Conclusion -- Scalar implicatures. Horn scales and the generative view ; Implicatures and downward entailing environments ; Disjunction : exclusivity and ignorance ; Conclusion -- Psychological plausibility. Charges of psychological (...)
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  3.  31
    Quantity and Diversity: Simulating Early Word Learning Environments.Jessica L. Montag, Michael N. Jones & Linda B. Smith - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):375-412.
    The words in children's language learning environments are strongly predictive of cognitive development and school achievement. But how do we measure language environments and do so at the scale of the many words that children hear day in, day out? The quantity and quality of words in a child's input are typically measured in terms of total amount of talk and the lexical diversity in that talk. There are disagreements in the literature whether amount or diversity is the more critical (...)
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  4. Quantity in Lewisian Metaphysics.John Hawthorne - 2006 - In Metaphysical Essays. Oxford University Press. pp. 229-237.
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  5.  95
    Quantity, Volubility, and Some Varieties of Discourse.Mitchell S. Green - 1995 - Linguistics and Philosophy 18 (1):83 - 112.
    Grice's Quantity maxims have been widely misinterpreted as enjoining a speaker to make the strongest claim that she can, while respecting the other conversational maxims. Although many writers on the topic of conversational implicature interpret the Quantity maxims as enjoining such volubility, so construed the Quantity maxims are unreasonable norms for conversation. Appreciating this calls for attending more closely to the notion of what a conversation requires. When we do so, we see that eschewing an injunction to maximal informativeness need (...)
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  6.  54
    Quantity and Quality: Naturalness in Metaphysics.M. Eddon - 2009 - Dissertation, Rutgers University
    Ever since David Lewis argued for the indispensibility of natural properties, they have become a staple of mainstream metaphysics. This dissertation is a critical examination of natural properties. What roles can natural properties play in metaphysics, and what structure do natural properties have? In the first half of the dissertation, I argue that natural properties cannot do all the work they are advertised to do. In the second half of the dissertation, I look at questions relating to the structure of (...)
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  7. Quantity and Number.James Franklin - 2014 - In Daniel D. Novotný & Lukáš Novák (eds.), Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives in Metaphysics. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 221-244.
    Quantity is the first category that Aristotle lists after substance. It has extraordinary epistemological clarity: "2+2=4" is the model of a self-evident and universally known truth. Continuous quantities such as the ratio of circumference to diameter of a circle are as clearly known as discrete ones. The theory that mathematics was "the science of quantity" was once the leading philosophy of mathematics. The article looks at puzzles in the classification and epistemology of quantity.
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    Individuating Quantities.Eran Tal - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (4):853-878.
    When discrepancies are discovered between the outcomes of different measurement procedures, two sorts of explanation are open to scientists. Either some of the outcomes are inaccurate or the procedures are not measuring the same quantity. I argue that, due to the possibility of systematic error, the choice between and is underdetermined in principle by any possible evidence. Consequently, foundationalist criteria of quantity individuation are either empty or circular. I propose a coherentist, model-based account of measurement that avoids the underdetermination problem, (...)
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  9.  43
    Communicating Quantities: A Psychological Perspective (Essays in Cognitive Psychology).Linda M. Moxey & Anthony J. Sanford - 1993 - Psychology Press.
    Every day, in many situations, we use expressions which seem only vaguely to provide us with information. The weather forecaster tells us that "some showers are likely in Northern regions during the night", a statement which is vague with respect to number of showers, location, and time. Yet such messages are informative, and often it is not possible for the producer of the message to be more precise. A tutor tells his students that "only a few students fail their exams (...)
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  10. Newton on Active and Passive Quantities of Matter.Adwait A. Parker - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 84:1-11.
    Newton published his deduction of universal gravity in Principia (first ed., 1687). To establish the universality (the particle-to-particle nature) of gravity, Newton must establish the additivity of mass. I call ‘additivity’ the property a body's quantity of matter has just in case, if gravitational force is proportional to that quantity, the force can be taken to be the sum of forces proportional to each particle's quantity of matter. Newton's argument for additivity is obscure. I analyze and assess manuscript versions of (...)
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  11.  77
    Are Quantities Relations? A Reply to Bigelow and Pargetter.D. M. Armstrong - 1988 - Philosophical Studies 54 (3):305 - 316.
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  12. Quantity and Quantity Value.Luca Mari & Alessandro Giordani - 2012 - Metrologia 49 (6):756-764.
    The concept system around 'quantity' and 'quantity value' is fundamental for measurement science, but some very basic issues are still open on such concepts and their relation. This paper argues that quantity values are in fact individual quantities, and that a complementarity exists between measurands and quantity values. This proposal is grounded on the analysis of three basic 'equality' relations: (i) between quantities, (ii) between quantity values and (iii) between quantities and quantity values. A consistent characterization of (...)
     
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  13.  80
    Quantities, Magnitudes, and Numbers.Henry E. Kyburg Jr - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (3):377-410.
    Quantities are naturally viewed as functions, whose arguments may be construed as situations, events, objects, etc. We explore the question of the range of these functions: should it be construed as the real numbers (or some subset thereof)? This is Carnap's view. It has attractive features, specifically, what Carnap views as ontological economy. Or should the range of a quantity be a set of magnitudes? This may have been Helmholtz's view, and it, too, has attractive features. It reveals the (...)
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  14. The Metaphysics of Quantities.J. E. Wolff - 2020 - Oxford University Press.
    What are physical quantities, and in particular, what makes them quantitative? This book presents an original answer to this question through the novel position of substantival structuralism, arguing that quantitativeness is an irreducible feature of attributes, and quantitative attributes are best understood as substantival structured spaces.
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  15. Quantities.Helen Morris Cartwright - 1970 - Philosophical Review 79 (1):25-42.
  16.  24
    Explaining Quantity Implicatures.Robert van Rooij & Tikitu de Jager - 2012 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4):461-477.
    We give derivations of two formal models of Gricean Quantity implicature and strong exhaustivity in bidirectional optimality theory and in a signalling games framework. We show that, under a unifying model based on signalling games, these interpretative strategies are game-theoretic equilibria when the speaker is known to be respectively minimally and maximally expert in the matter at hand. That is, in this framework the optimal strategy for communication depends on the degree of knowledge the speaker is known to have concerning (...)
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  17. Finite Quantities.Daniel Nolan - 2008 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 108 (1pt1):23-42.
    Quantum Mechanics, and apparently its successors, claim that there are minimum quantities by which objects can differ, at least in some situations: electrons can have various “energy levels” in an atom, but to move from one to another they must jump rather than move via continuous variation: and an electron in a hydrogen atom going from -13.6 eV of energy to -3.4 eV does not pass through states of -10eV or -5.1eV, let along -11.1111115637 eV or -4.89712384 eV.
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  18. Quantities.John Bigelow, Robert Pargetter & D. M. Armstrong - 1988 - Philosophical Studies 54 (3):287 - 304.
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  19.  58
    Quantity Judgments and Individuation: Evidence That Mass Nouns Count.David Barner & Jesse Snedeker - 2005 - Cognition 97 (1):41-66.
  20.  3
    Quantity Evaluations in Yudja: Judgements, Language and Cultural Practice.Suzi Lima & Susan Rothstein - 2020 - Synthese 197 (9):3851-3873.
    In this paper we explore the interpretation of quantity expressions in Yudja, an indigenous language spoken in the Amazonian basin, showing that while the language allows reference to exact cardinalities, it does not generally allow reference to exact measure values. It does, however, allow non-exact comparison along continuous dimensions. We use this data to argue that the grammar of exact measurement is distinct from a grammar allowing the expression of exact cardinalities, and that the grammar of counting and the grammar (...)
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  21.  75
    Quantity Recognition Among Speakers of an Anumeric Language.Caleb Everett & Keren Madora - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (1):130-141.
    Recent research has suggested that the Pirahã, an Amazonian tribe with a number-less language, are able to match quantities > 3 if the matching task does not require recall or spatial transposition. This finding contravenes previous work among the Pirahã. In this study, we re-tested the Pirahãs’ performance in the crucial one-to-one matching task utilized in the two previous studies on their numerical cognition, as well as in control tasks requiring recall and mental transposition. We also conducted a novel (...)
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  22.  55
    Conditional Random Quantities and Compounds of Conditionals.Angelo Gilio & Giuseppe Sanfilippo - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (4):709-729.
    In this paper we consider conditional random quantities (c.r.q.’s) in the setting of coherence. Based on betting scheme, a c.r.q. X|H is not looked at as a restriction but, in a more extended way, as \({XH + \mathbb{P}(X|H)H^c}\) ; in particular (the indicator of) a conditional event E|H is looked at as EH + P(E|H)H c . This extended notion of c.r.q. allows algebraic developments among c.r.q.’s even if the conditioning events are different; then, for instance, we can give (...)
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  23. The Metaphysics of Quantity.Brent Mundy - 1987 - Philosophical Studies 51 (1):29 - 54.
    A formal theory of quantity T Q is presented which is realist, Platonist, and syntactically second-order (while logically elementary), in contrast with the existing formal theories of quantity developed within the theory of measurement, which are empiricist, nominalist, and syntactically first-order (while logically non-elementary). T Q is shown to be formally and empirically adequate as a theory of quantity, and is argued to be scientifically superior to the existing first-order theories of quantity in that it does not depend upon empirically (...)
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  24.  6
    Quantity Discrimination in Trained Lizards.Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini, Cristiano Bertolucci & Augusto Foà - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  25. On Quantities and Qualities of Pleasure.Jonathan Riley - 1993 - Utilitas 5 (2):291.
  26.  2
    What Difference Does Quantity Make? On the Epistemology of Big Data in Biology.S. Leonelli - 2014 - Big Data and Society 1 (1).
    Is Big Data science a whole new way of doing research? And what difference does data quantity make to knowledge production strategies and their outputs? I argue that the novelty of Big Data science does not lie in the sheer quantity of data involved, but rather in the prominence and status acquired by data as commodity and recognised output, both within and outside of the scientific community and the methods, infrastructures, technologies, skills and knowledge developed to handle data. These developments (...)
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  27. Properly Extensive Quantities.Zee R. Perry - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):833-844.
    This article introduces and motivates the notion of a “properly extensive” quantity by means of a puzzle about the reliability of certain canonical length measurements. An account of these measurements’ success, I argue, requires a modally robust connection between quantitative structure and mereology that is not mediated by the dynamics and is stronger than the constraints imposed by “mere additivity.” I outline what it means to say that length is not just extensive but properly so and then briefly sketch an (...)
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  28. Armstrong on Quantities and Resemblance.Maya Eddon - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 136 (3):385-404.
    Resemblances obtain not only between objects but between properties. Resemblances of the latter sort - in particular resemblances between quantitative properties - prove to be the downfall of a well-known theory of universals, namely the one presented by David Armstrong. This paper examines Armstrong's efforts to account for such resemblances within the framework of his theory and also explores several extensions of that theory. All of them fail.
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  29. Absolutism Vs Comparativism About Quantity.Shamik Dasgupta - 2013 - Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 8:105-150.
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  30.  81
    Quantity of Matter or Intrinsic Property: Why Mass Cannot Be Both.Mario Hubert - 2016 - In Laura Felline, Antonio Ledda, F. Paoli & Emanuele Rossanese (eds.), New Developments in Logic and Philosophy of Science. London: College Publications. pp. 267–77.
    I analyze the meaning of mass in Newtonian mechanics. First, I explain the notion of primitive ontology, which was originally introduced in the philosophy of quantum mechanics. Then I examine the two common interpretations of mass: mass as a measure of the quantity of matter and mass as a dynamical property. I claim that the former is ill-defined, and the latter is only plausible with respect to a metaphysical interpretation of laws of nature. I explore the following options for the (...)
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  31.  47
    Number Versus Continuous Quantity in Numerosity Judgments by Fish.Christian Agrillo, Laura Piffer & Angelo Bisazza - 2011 - Cognition 119 (2):281-287.
    In quantity discrimination tasks, adults, infants and animals have been sometimes observed to process number only after all continuous variables, such as area or density, have been controlled for. This has been taken as evidence that processing number may be more cognitively demanding than processing continuous variables. We tested this hypothesis by training mosquitofish to discriminate two items from three in three different conditions. In one condition, continuous variables were controlled while numerical information was available; in another, the number was (...)
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  32.  78
    Descartes' Quantity of Motion: 'New Age' Holism Meets the Cartesian Conservation Principle.Edward Slowik - 1999 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 80 (2):178–202.
    This essay explores various problematical aspects of Descartes' conservation principle for the quantity of motion (size times speed), particularly its largely neglected "dual role" as a measure of both durational motion and instantaneous "tendencies towards motion". Overall, an underlying non-local, or "holistic", element of quantity of motion (largely derived from his statics) will be revealed as central to a full understanding of the conservation principle's conceptual development and intended operation; and this insight can be of use in responding to some (...)
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    On Quantity of Logical Values in the Discussive D2 System and in Modular Logic.Jerzy Kotas - 1974 - Studia Logica 33 (3):273-275.
  34. Quantity of Experience: Brain-Duplication and Degrees of Consciousness. [REVIEW]Nick Bostrom - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (2):185-200.
    If a brain is duplicated so that there are two brains in identical states, are there then two numerically distinct phenomenal experiences or only one? There are two, I argue, and given computationalism, this has implications for what it is to implement a computation. I then consider what happens when a computation is implemented in a system that either uses unreliable components or possesses varying degrees of parallelism. I show that in some of these cases there can be, in a (...)
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    Beyond Quantity: Individual Differences in Working Memory and the Ordinal Understanding of Numerical Symbols.Ian M. Lyons & Sian L. Beilock - 2009 - Cognition 113 (2):189-204.
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  36.  90
    Causality and Conserved Quantities: A Reply to Salmon.Phil Dowe - 1995 - Philosophy of Science 62 (2):321-333.
    In a recent paper (1994) Wesley Salmon has replied to criticisms (e.g., Dowe 1992c, Kitcher 1989) of his (1984) theory of causality, and has offered a revised theory which, he argues, is not open to those criticisms. The key change concerns the characterization of causal processes, where Salmon has traded "the capacity for mark transmission" for "the transmission of an invariant quantity." Salmon argues against the view presented in Dowe (1992c), namely that the concept of "possession of a conserved quantity" (...)
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  37.  42
    Quantity, Modality, and Other Kindred Systems of Categories.Robert Blanche - 1952 - Mind 61 (243):369 - 375.
  38. Zero-Value Physical Quantities.Yuri Balashov - 1999 - Synthese 119 (3):253-286.
    To state an important fact about the photon, physicists use such expressions as (1) “the photon has zero (null, vanishing) mass” and (2) “the photon is (a) massless (particle)” interchangeably. Both (1) and (2) express the fact that the photon has no non-zero mass. However, statements (1) and (2) disagree about a further fact: (1) attributes to the photon the property of zero-masshood whereas (2) denies that the photon has any mass at all. But is there really a difference between (...)
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  39.  53
    Is There a Humean Account of Quantities?Phillip Bricker - 2017 - Philosophical Issues 27 (1):26-51.
    Humeans have a problem with quantities. A core principle of any Humean account of modality is that fundamental entities can freely recombine. But determinate quantities, if fundamental, seem to violate this core principle: determinate quantities belonging to the same determinable necessarily exclude one another. Call this the problem of exclusion. Prominent Humeans have responded in various ways. Wittgenstein, when he resurfaced to philosophy, gave the problem of exclusion as a reason to abandon the logical atomism of the (...)
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    Quantity Yields Quality When It Comes to Creativity: A Brain and Behavioral Test of the Equal-Odds Rule.Rex E. Jung, Christopher J. Wertz, Christine A. Meadows, Sephira G. Ryman, Andrei A. Vakhtin & Ranee A. Flores - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  41.  26
    Quantity of Pleasure.John C. Hall - 1967 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 67:35 - 52.
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  42.  25
    Going Beyond Input Quantity: Wh‐Questions Matter for Toddlers' Language and Cognitive Development.Meredith L. Rowe, Kathryn A. Leech & Natasha Cabrera - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S1):162-179.
    There are clear associations between the overall quantity of input children are exposed to and their vocabulary acquisition. However, by uncovering specific features of the input that matter, we can better understand the mechanisms involved in vocabulary learning. We examine whether exposure to wh-questions, a challenging quality of the communicative input, is associated with toddlers' vocabulary and later verbal reasoning skills in a sample of low-income, African-American fathers and their 24-month-old children. Dyads were videotaped in free play sessions at home. (...)
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  43.  26
    The Quantity, Not the Quality, of Affect Predicts Memory Vividness.Daniel Reisberg, Friderike Heuer, John Mclean & Mark O’Shaughnessy - 1988 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (2):100-103.
  44.  23
    Explaining Quantity Implicatures.Robert Rooij & Tikitu Jager - 2012 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4):461-477.
    We give derivations of two formal models of Gricean Quantity implicature and strong exhaustivity in bidirectional optimality theory and in a signalling games framework. We show that, under a unifying model based on signalling games, these interpretative strategies are game-theoretic equilibria when the speaker is known to be respectively minimally and maximally expert in the matter at hand. That is, in this framework the optimal strategy for communication depends on the degree of knowledge the speaker is known to have concerning (...)
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  45. What Are Quantities?Joongol Kim - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (4):792-807.
    ABSTRACTThis paper presents a view of quantities as ‘adverbial’ entities of a certain kind—more specifically, determinate ways, or modes, of having length, mass, speed, and the like. In doing so, it will be argued that quantities as such should be distinguished from quantitative properties or relations, and are not universals but are particulars, although they are not objects, either. A main advantage of the adverbial view over its rivals will be found in its superior explanatory power with respect (...)
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  46.  15
    Are the Quantity and Quality of Sustainability Disclosures Associated with the Innate and Discretionary Earnings Quality?Ling Tuo & Zabihollah Rezaee - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (3):763-786.
    Voluntary disclosures of sustainability information have recently received considerable attention by investors, regulators, and public companies in improving reliability and integrity of corporate reporting. We examine the association between the quantity and quality of sustainability disclosures and earnings quality in the context of corporate ethical value and culture. We posit that sustainability disclosures of environmental, social, and governance performance reports are linked to earnings quality, because of the importance of both earnings quality and ESG sustainability disclosures to investors and trustworthiness (...)
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  47. Real Quantities and Their Sensible Measures.Lawrence Sklar - 1990 - In Phillip Bricker & R. I. G. Hughes (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science. MIT Press. pp. 57--76.
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  48.  13
    Bolzano’s Infinite Quantities.Kateřina Trlifajová - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (4):681-704.
    In his Foundations of a General Theory of Manifolds, Georg Cantor praised Bernard Bolzano as a clear defender of actual infinity who had the courage to work with infinite numbers. At the same time, he sharply criticized the way Bolzano dealt with them. Cantor’s concept was based on the existence of a one-to-one correspondence, while Bolzano insisted on Euclid’s Axiom of the whole being greater than a part. Cantor’s set theory has eventually prevailed, and became a formal basis of contemporary (...)
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  49.  4
    Quantity Discrimination in Wolves.Ewelina Utrata, Zsófia Virányi & Friederike Range - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  50.  9
    Higher Quantity Syllogisms.Philip L. Peterson - 1985 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 26 (4):348-360.
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