Results for 'Quantum Field Theory'

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  1.  88
    Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell.A. Zee - 2010 - Princeton University Press.
    Since it was first published, Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell has quickly established itself as the most accessible and comprehensive introduction to this profound and deeply fascinating area of theoretical physics. Now in this fully revised and expanded edition, A. Zee covers the latest advances while providing a solid conceptual foundation for students to build on, making this the most up-to-date and modern textbook on quantum field theory available. -/- This expanded edition features (...)
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  2. Philosophical foundations of quantum field theory.N. Huggett - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):617-637.
    Much attention has been directed to the philosophical implications of quantum field theory (QFT) in recent years; this paper attempts a survey in low-technical terms. First the relations of QFT to other kinds of theory, classical and quantum, particle and field, are discussed. Then various formulations of QFT are introduced, along with related interpretations. Finally a review is made of some of the most interesting foundational problems.
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  3. Quantum Field Theory for Philosophers.Michael Redhead - 1982 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:57 - 99.
    The metaphysical commitments of quantum field theory are examined. A thesis of underdetermination as between field and particle approaches to the "elementary particles" is argued for but only if a disputed notion of transcendental individuality is admitted. The superiority of the field approach is further emphasized in the context of heuristics.
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  4. Can A Quantum Field Theory Ontology Help Resolve the Problem of Consciousness?Anand Rangarajan - 2019 - In Siddheshwar Rameshwar Bhatt (ed.), Quantum Reality and Theory of Śūnya. Springer. pp. 13-26.
    The hard problem of consciousness arises in most incarnations of present day physicalism. Why should certain physical processes necessarily be accompanied by experience? One possible response is that physicalism itself should be modified in order to accommodate experience: But, modified how? In the present work, we investigate whether an ontology derived from quantum field theory can help resolve the hard problem. We begin with the assumption that experience cannot exist without being accompanied by a subject of experience (...)
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  5.  13
    Consistent Quantum Mechanics Admits No Mereotopology.Chris Fields - 2014 - Axiomathes 24 (1):9-18.
    It is standardly assumed in discussions of quantum theory that physical systems can be regarded as having well-defined Hilbert spaces. It is shown here that a Hilbert space can be consistently partitioned only if its components are assumed not to interact. The assumption that physical systems have well-defined Hilbert spaces is, therefore, physically unwarranted.
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  6. Consistent Quantum Mechanics Admits No Mereotopology.Chris Fields - 2012 - Axiomathes (1):1-10.
    It is standardly assumed in discussions of quantum theory that physical systems can be regarded as having well-defined Hilbert spaces. It is shown here that a Hilbert space can be consistently partitioned only if its components are assumed not to interact. The assumption that physical systems have well-defined Hilbert spaces is, therefore, physically unwarranted.
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  7. Algebraic quantum field theory.Hans Halvorson & Michael Mueger - 2006 - In J. Butterfield & J. Earman (eds.), Handbook of the philosophy of physics. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Algebraic quantum field theory provides a general, mathematically precise description of the structure of quantum field theories, and then draws out consequences of this structure by means of various mathematical tools -- the theory of operator algebras, category theory, etc.. Given the rigor and generality of AQFT, it is a particularly apt tool for studying the foundations of QFT. This paper is a survey of AQFT, with an orientation towards foundational topics. In addition (...)
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  8. Quantum field theory: Underdetermination, inconsistency, and idealization.Doreen Fraser - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (4):536-567.
    Quantum field theory (QFT) presents a genuine example of the underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence. There are variants of QFT—for example, the standard textbook formulation and the rigorous axiomatic formulation—that are empirically indistinguishable yet support different interpretations. This case is of particular interest to philosophers of physics because, before the philosophical work of interpreting QFT can proceed, the question of which variant should be subject to interpretation must be settled. New arguments are offered for basing (...)
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  9. Quantum Field Theory.Meinard Kuhlmann - 2012 - The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is the mathematical and conceptual framework for contemporary elementary particle physics. In a rather informal sense QFT is the extension of quantum mechanics (QM), dealing with particles, over to fields, i.e. systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom. (See the entry on quantum mechanics.) In the last few years QFT has become a more widely discussed topic in philosophy of science, with questions ranging from methodology and semantics to ontology. (...)
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  10. Quantum Field Theory: An Introduction.Ryan Reece - manuscript
    This document is a set of notes I took on QFT as a graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania, mainly inspired in lectures by Burt Ovrut, but also working through Peskin and Schroeder (1995), as well as David Tong’s lecture notes available online. They take a slow pedagogical approach to introducing classical field theory, Noether’s theorem, the principles of quantum mechanics, scattering theory, and culminating in the derivation of Feynman diagrams.
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  11.  19
    Decompositional Equivalence: A Fundamental Symmetry Underlying Quantum Theory.Chris Fields - 2016 - Axiomathes 26 (3):279-311.
    Decompositional equivalence is the principle that there is no preferred decomposition of the universe into subsystems. It is shown here, by using a simple thought experiment, that quantum theory follows from decompositional equivalence together with Landauer’s principle. This demonstration raises within physics a question previously left to psychology: how do human—or any—observers identify or agree about what constitutes a “system of interest”?
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  12. Interpreting quantum field theory.Laura Ruetsche - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (2):348-378.
    The availability of unitarily inequivalent representations of the canonical commutation relations constituting a quantization of a classical field theory raises questions about how to formulate and pursue quantum field theory. In a minimally technical way, I explain how these questions arise and how advocates of the Hilbert space and of the algebraic approaches to quantum theory might answer them. Where these answers differ, I sketch considerations for and against each approach, as well as (...)
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  13. How is Quantum Field Theory Possible?Sunny Y. Auyang - 1995 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Quantum field theory (QFT) combines quantum mechanics with Einstein's special theory of relativity and underlies elementary particle physics. This book presents a philosophical analysis of QFT. It is the first treatise in which the philosophies of space-time, quantum phenomena, and particle interactions are encompassed in a unified framework. Describing the physics in nontechnical terms, and schematically illustrating complex ideas, the book also serves as an introduction to fundamental physical theories. The philosophical interpretation both upholds (...)
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  14.  96
    An Interpretive Introduction to Quantum Field Theory.Paul Teller - 1995 - Princeton University Press.
    Quantum mechanics is a subject that has captured the imagination of a surprisingly broad range of thinkers, including many philosophers of science. Quantum field theory, however, is a subject that has been discussed mostly by physicists. This is the first book to present quantum field theory in a manner that makes it accessible to philosophers. Because it presents a lucid view of the theory and debates that surround the theory, An Interpretive (...)
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  15. A Physics-Based Metaphysics is a Metaphysics-Based Metaphysics.Chris Fields - 2014 - Acta Analytica 29 (2):131-148.
    The common practice of advancing arguments based on current physics in support of metaphysical conclusions has been criticized on the grounds that current physics may well be wrong. A further criticism is leveled here: current physics itself depends on metaphysical assumptions, so arguing from current physics is in fact arguing from yet more metaphysics. It is shown that the metaphysical assumptions underlying current physics are often deeply embedded in the formalism in which theories are presented, and hence impossible to dismiss (...)
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  16.  87
    On the Ollivier–Poulin–Zurek Definition of Objectivity.Chris Fields - 2014 - Axiomathes 24 (1):137-156.
    The Ollivier–Poulin–Zurek definition of objectivity provides a philosophical basis for the environment as witness formulation of decoherence theory and hence for quantum Darwinism. It is shown that no account of the reference of the key terms in this definition can be given that does not render the definition inapplicable within quantum theory. It is argued that this is not the fault of the language used, but of the assumption that the laws of physics are independent of (...)
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  17. The Quantum Field Theory on Which the Everyday World Supervenes.Sean M. Carroll - 2022 - In Stavros Ioannidis, Gal Vishne, Meir Hemmo & Orly Shenker (eds.), Levels of Reality in Science and Philosophy. Copenhagen: Springer Cham. pp. 27-46.
    Effective Field Theory (EFT) is the successful paradigm underlying modern theoretical physics, including the "Core Theory" of the Standard Model of particle physics plus Einstein's general relativity. I will argue that EFT grants us a unique insight: each EFT model comes with a built-in specification of its domain of applicability. Hence, once a model is tested within some domain (of energies and interaction strengths), we can be confident that it will continue to be accurate within that domain. (...)
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  18. Philosophical foundations of quantum field theory.Harvey R. Brown & Rom Harré (eds.) - 1988 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Quantum field theory, one of the most rapidly developing areas of contemporary physics, is full of problems of great theoretical and philosophical interest. This collection of essays is the first systematic exploration of the nature and implications of quantum field theory. The contributors discuss quantum field theory from a wide variety of standpoints, exploring in detail its mathematical structure and metaphysical and methodological implications.
  19.  67
    Quantum field theory, its concepts viewed from a semiotic perspective.Hans Günter Dosch, Volkhard F. Müller & Norman Sieroka - unknown
    Examining relativistic quantum field theory we claim that its description of subnuclear phenomena can be understood most adequately from a semiotic point of view. The paper starts off with a concise and non-technical outline of the firmly based aspects of relativistic quantum field theories. The particular methods, by which these different aspects have to be accessed, can be described as distinct facets of quantum field theory. They differ with respect to the relation (...)
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  20. Quantum field theories in classical spacetimes and particles.Jonathan Bain - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 42 (2):98-106.
    According to a Received View, relativistic quantum field theories (RQFTs) do not admit particle interpretations. This view requires that particles be localizable and countable, and that these characteristics be given mathematical expression in the forms of local and unique total number operators. Various results (the Reeh-Schlieder theorem, the Unruh Effect, Haag's theorem) then indicate that formulations of RQFTs do not support such operators. These results, however, do not hold for nonrelativistic QFTs. I argue that this is due to (...)
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  21.  41
    Free Quantum Field Theory from Quantum Cellular Automata.Alessandro Bisio, Giacomo Mauro D’Ariano, Paolo Perinotti & Alessandro Tosini - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (10):1137-1152.
    After leading to a new axiomatic derivation of quantum theory, the new informational paradigm is entering the domain of quantum field theory, suggesting a quantum automata framework that can be regarded as an extension of quantum field theory to including an hypothetical Planck scale, and with the usual quantum field theory recovered in the relativistic limit of small wave-vectors. Being derived from simple principles, the automata theory is (...)
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  22.  41
    Chaosmologies: Quantum Field Theory, Chaos and Thought in Deleuze and Guattari's What is Philosophy?Arkady Plotnitsky - 2006 - Paragraph 29 (2):40-56.
    This article explores the relationships between the philosophical foundations of quantum field theory, the currently dominant form of quantum physics, and Deleuze's concept of the virtual, most especially in relation to the idea of chaos found in Deleuze and Guattari's What is Philosophy?. Deleuze and Guattari appear to derive this idea partly from the philosophical conceptuality of quantum field theory, in particular the concept of virtual particle formation. The article then goes on to (...)
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  23.  35
    Quantum Field Theory: Motivating the Axiom of Microcausality.Jessey Wright - unknown
    Axiomatic quantum field theory is one approach to the project of merging the special theory of relativity with that of ordinary quantum mechanics. The project begins with the postulation of a set of axioms. Axioms should be motivated by reasonable physical principles in a way that illustrates how a given axiom is true. Motivations are often grounded in the principles of the parent theories: ordinary quantum mechanics or the theory of special relativity. Amongst (...)
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  24.  54
    Quantum field theories and aesthetic disparity.Gideon Engler - 2001 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (1):51 – 63.
    The theoretical physicist Paul Dirac rejected, explicitly on aesthetic grounds, a successful theory known as quantum electrodynamics (QED), which is the prototype for the family of theories known as quantum field theories (QFTs). Remarkably, the theoretical physicist Steven Weinberg, also largely on aesthetic grounds, supports QED and other QFTs. In order to evaluate these opposing aesthetic views a short introduction to the physical properties of QFTs is presented together with a detailed analysis of the aesthetic claims (...)
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  25. The Ontology of Quantum Field Theory: Structural Realism Vindicated?David Glick - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 59:78-86.
    In this paper I elicit a prediction from structural realism and compare it, not to a historical case, but to a contemporary scientific theory. If structural realism is correct, then we should expect physics to develop theories that fail to provide an ontology of the sort sought by traditional realists. If structure alone is responsible for instrumental success, we should expect surplus ontology to be eliminated. Quantum field theory (QFT) provides the framework for some of the (...)
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  26.  22
    Quantum Field Theory of Black-Swan Events.H. Kleinert - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (5):546-556.
    Free and weakly interacting particles are described by a second-quantized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, or relativistic versions of it. They describe Gaussian random walks with collisions. By contrast, the fields of strongly interacting particles are governed by effective actions, whose extremum yields fractional field equations. Their particle orbits perform universal Lévy walks with heavy tails, in which rare events are much more frequent than in Gaussian random walks. Such rare events are observed in exceptionally strong windgusts, monster or rogue waves, (...)
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  27.  13
    A Quantum Field Theory View of Interaction Free Measurements.Filipe C. R. Barroso & Orfeu Bertolami - 2020 - Foundations of Physics 50 (8):764-771.
    We propose a Quantum Field Theory description of beams on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer and apply the method to describe Interaction Free Measurements, concluding that there is a change of momentum of the fields in IFMs. Analysing the factors involved in the probability of emission of low-energy photons, we argue that they do not yield meaningful contributions to the probabilities of the IFMs.
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  28. Philosophical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory.Nick Huggett - 2003 - In Peter Clark & Katherine Hawley (eds.), Philosophy of science today. Oxford University Press UK.
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  29.  46
    A Quantum Field Theory Description of Elementary Fermion “Epigenetics”.Claudio Verzegnassi - 2016 - World Futures 72 (3-4):187-190.
    I derive a number of impressive analogies between the modifications of the elementary components of Matter, generated by an external source of interaction, and the analogous modifications of the elementary components of an Organism. I will consider the interaction between the elementary components of matter and a weak classic magnetic field. This interaction will be treated in the theoretical quantum field theory formalism.
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  30.  4
    Eliminating the ‘Impossible’: Recent Progress on Local Measurement Theory for Quantum Field Theory.Maria Papageorgiou & Doreen Fraser - 2024 - Foundations of Physics 54 (3):1-75.
    Arguments by Sorkin (Impossible measurements on quantum fields. In: Directions in general relativity: proceedings of the 1993 International Symposium, Maryland, vol 2, pp 293–305, 1993) and Borsten et al. (Phys Rev D 104(2), 2021. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.104.025012 ) establish that a natural extension of quantum measurement theory from non-relativistic quantum mechanics to relativistic quantum theory leads to the unacceptable consequence that expectation values in one region depend on which unitary operation is performed in a spacelike separated (...)
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  31. The Vacuum in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory.Michael Redhead - 1994 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:77 - 87.
    The status of the vacuum in relativistic quantum field theory is examined. A sharp distinction arises between the global vacuum and the local vacuum. The concept of local number density is critically assessed. The global vacuum state implies fluctuations for all local observables. Correlations between such fluctuations in space-like separated regions of space-time are discussed and the existence of correlations which are maximal in a certain sense is remarked on, independently of how far apart those regions may (...)
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  32.  23
    Quantum field theories in classical spacetimes and particles.Jonathan Bain - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 42 (2):98-106.
  33.  54
    Axiomatic Foundations of Galilean Quantum Field Theories.G. Puccini & H. Vucetich - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (2):263-295.
    A realistic axiomatic formulation of Galilean Quantum Field Theories is presented, from which the most important theorems of the theory can be deduced. In comparison with others formulations, the formal aspect has been improved by the use of certain mathematical theories, such as group theory and the theory of rigged Hilbert spaces. Our approach regards the fields as real things with symmetry properties. The general structure is analyzed and contrasted with relativistic theories.
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  34.  15
    Ontological Aspects of Quantum Field Theory.Meinard Kuhlmann, Holger Lyre & Andrew Wayne (eds.) - 2002 - Singapore: World Scientific.
    Quantum field theory provides the framework for many fundamental theories in modern physics, and over the last few years there has been growing interest in its historical and philosophical foundations. This anthology on the foundations of QFT brings together 15 essays by well-known researchers in physics, the philosophy of physics, and analytic philosophy.Many of these essays were first presented as papers at the conference?Ontological Aspects of Quantum Field Theory?, held at the Zentrum fr interdisziplin„re (...)
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  35. Renormalized Quantum Field Theory and Cassirer's Epistemological System.H. G. Dosch - 1991 - Philosophia Naturalis 28 (part 1):97-114.
     
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  36.  39
    Quantum Field Theory Formulated as a Markov Process Determined by Local Configuration.Jun Ni - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (3):1-17.
    We propose the quantum field formalism as a new type of stochastic Markov process determined by local configuration. Our proposed Markov process is different with the classical one, in which the transition probability is determined by the state labels related to the character of state. In the new quantum Markov process, the transition probability is determined not only by the state character, but also by the occupation of the state. Due to the probability occupation of the state, (...)
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  37.  6
    A philosophical approach to quantum field theory.Hans Christian Öttinger - 2017 - New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    Approach to quantum field theory -- Scalar field theory -- Quantum electrodynamics -- Perspectives.
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  38. Science Generates Limit Paradoxes.Eric Dietrich & Chris Fields - 2015 - Axiomathes 25 (4):409-432.
    The sciences occasionally generate discoveries that undermine their own assumptions. Two such discoveries are characterized here: the discovery of apophenia by cognitive psychology and the discovery that physical systems cannot be locally bounded within quantum theory. It is shown that such discoveries have a common structure and that this common structure is an instance of Priest’s well-known Inclosure Schema. This demonstrates that science itself is dialetheic: it generates limit paradoxes. How science proceeds despite this fact is briefly discussed, (...)
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  39. Against Field Interpretations of Quantum Field Theory.David John Baker - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (3):585-609.
    I examine some problems standing in the way of a successful `field interpretation' of quantum field theory. The most popular extant proposal depends on the Hilbert space of `wavefunctionals.' But since wavefunctional space is unitarily equivalent to many-particle Fock space, two of the most powerful arguments against particle interpretations also undermine this form of field interpretation. IntroductionField Interpretations and Field OperatorsThe Wavefunctional InterpretationFields and Inequivalent Representations 4.1. The Rindler representation 4.2. Spontaneous symmetry breaking 4.3. (...)
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  40. Primitive ontology and quantum field theory.Vincent Lam - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (3):387-397.
    Primitive ontology is a recently much discussed approach to the ontology of quantum theory according to which the theory is ultimately about entities in 3-dimensional space and their temporal evolution. This paper critically discusses the primitive ontologies that have been suggested within the Bohmian approach to quantum field theory in the light of the existence of unitarily inequivalent representations. These primitive ontologies rely either on a Fock space representation or a wave functional representation, which (...)
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  41. Bell's inequalities, relativistic quantum field theory and the problem of hidden variables.Miklós Rédei - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (4):628-638.
    Based partly on proving that algebraic relativistic quantum field theory (ARQFT) is a stochastic Einstein local (SEL) theory in the sense of SEL which was introduced by Hellman (1982b) and which is adapted in this paper to ARQFT, the recently proved maximal and typical violation of Bell's inequalities in ARQFT (Summers and Werner 1987a-c) is interpreted in this paper as showing that Bell's inequalities are, in a sense, irrelevant for the problem of Einstein local stochastic hidden (...)
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  42. The dissipative approach to quantum field theory: conceptual foundations and ontological implications.Andrea Oldofredi & Hans Christian Öttinger - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (1):1-36.
    Many attempts have been made to provide Quantum Field Theory with conceptually clear and mathematically rigorous foundations; remarkable examples are the Bohmian and the algebraic perspectives respectively. In this essay we introduce the dissipative approach to QFT, a new alternative formulation of the theory explaining the phenomena of particle creation and annihilation starting from nonequilibrium thermodynamics. It is shown that DQFT presents a rigorous mathematical structure, and a clear particle ontology, taking the best from the mentioned (...)
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  43. Idealization in Quantum Field Theory.Stephan Hartmann - 1998 - In Niall Shanks (ed.), Idealization in Contemporary Physics. pp. 99-122.
    This paper explores various functions of idealizations in quantum field theory. To this end it is important to first distinguish between different kinds of theories and models of or inspired by quantum field theory. Idealizations have pragmatic and cognitive functions. Analyzing a case-study from hadron physics, I demonstrate the virtues of studying highly idealized models for exploring the features of theories with an extremely rich structure such as quantum field theory and (...)
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  44.  73
    Particles in Quantum Field Theory.Doreen Fraser - 2022 - In Eleanor Knox & Alastair Wilson (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Physics. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 323-336.
    The consensus view among philosophers of physics is that relativistic quantum field theory does not describe particles. That is, according to QFT, particles are not fundamental entities. How is this negative conclusion compatible with the positive role that the particle notion plays in particle physics? The first part of this chapter lays out multiple lines of negative argument that all conclude that QFT cannot be given a particle interpretation. These arguments probe the properties of the `particles' in (...)
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  45.  17
    Interpreting quantum field theory.Fritz Rohrlich - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 27 (1):91-98.
  46.  90
    Bell-type quantum field theories.Sheldon Goldstein - manuscript
    In [3] John S. Bell proposed how to associate particle trajectories with a lattice quantum field theory, yielding what can be regarded as a |Ψ|2-distributed Markov process on the appropriate configuration space. A similar process can be defined in the continuum, for more or less any regularized quantum field theory; such processes we call Bell-type quantum field theories. We describe methods for explicitly constructing these processes. These concern, in addition to the definition (...)
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  47.  62
    Reconditioning in Discrete Quantum Field Theory.Stan Gudder - 2017 - International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Springer-Verlag, USA, 122:1-14.
    AUTHOR: STAN GUDDER (John Evans Professor of Mathematical Physics, University of Denver, USA) -- -/- We consider a discrete scalar, quantum field theory based on a cubic 4-dimensional lattice. We mainly investigate a discrete scattering operator S(x0,r) where x0 and r are positive integers representing time and maximal total energy, respectively. The operator S(x0,r) is used to define transition amplitudes which are then employed to compute transition probabilities. These probabilities are conditioned on the time-energy (x0,r). In order (...)
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  48.  21
    Stochasticity and Bell-type quantum field theory.Andrea Oldofredi - 2020 - Synthese 197 (2):731-750.
    This paper critically discusses an objection proposed by Nikolić against the naturalness of the stochastic dynamics implemented by the Bell-type quantum field theory, an extension of Bohmian mechanics able to describe the phenomena of particles creation and annihilation. Here I present: Nikolić’s ideas for a pilot-wave theory accounting for QFT phenomenology evaluating the robustness of his criticism, Bell’s original proposal for a Bohmian QFT with a particle ontology and the mentioned Bell-type QFT. I will argue that (...)
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  49. Quantum Field Theory in Condensed Matter Physics.P. Coleman - 1996 - Foundations of Physics 26:1733-1735.
     
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  50.  29
    The Quantum Field Theory (QFT) Dual Paradigm in Fundamental Physics and the Semantic Information Content and Measure in Cognitive Sciences.Gianfranco Basti - 2017 - In Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic & Raffaela Giovagnoli (eds.), Representation of Reality: Humans, Other Living Organism and Intelligent Machines. Heidelberg: Springer.
    In this paper we explore the possibility of giving a justification of the “semantic information” content and measure, in the framework of the recent coalgebraic approach to quantum systems and quantum computation, extended to QFT systems. In QFT, indeed, any quantum system has to be considered as an “open” system, because it is always interacting with the background fluctuations of the quantum vacuum. Namely, the Hamiltonian in QFT always includes the quantum system and its inseparable (...)
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