Although the popularity of Humane Education Programs as a method of teaching compassion and caring for all living beings is increasing, there is a need for rigorous, methodologically sound research evaluating the efficacy of HEP. Recent calls for the inclusion of HEP within broader humanistic, environmental, and social justice frameworks underline the importance of HEP beyond a simple “treatment of animals” model. Lack of methodological rigor in the majority of published HEP studies and dispersal across disparate fields , however, means (...) that there is a potential for the popular use of HEP to outstrip our understanding of the variables that impact efficacy. The current study discusses some of these issues and presents a pilot study of a literature-only HEP intervention. Comparisons with an age-matched control group indicated that the four-week HEP resulted in an increase in measures of empathy and treatment of animals, although only the increase in empathy levels was significant. This paper discusses the implications of the current results and areas in need of future consideration. (shrink)
Richard Sugarman's Rancor Against Time examines the problem of time as it relates to the finitude of human existence. Its subject-matter and its methodology mark it as a work in phenomenological ontology; yet it also draws heavily upon the classical texts of German existentialism. Its central thrust consists of both a penetrating analysis and a critique of Nietzsche's theory of time. While the lucidity of this analysis makes it a valuable commentary, the primary importance of Rancor Against Time is as (...) an original work of philosophy. (shrink)
After suggesting that religion may be defined rather generally as "positive concern," and after stipulating that the essence of worship consists in some form of "earnest dedication," Robins discusses the relationship between religion, magic, and morality. Thereafter he traces the history of Judaism and Christianity in order to cast some light on our religious inheritance. The author emphasizes the purely natural origin of religion, the questionable authenticity of the Bible, the mythological status of the God-man Jesus, and the pragmatic value (...) of believing in the Trinity. The author apparently takes the view that religion is primarily a manifestation of our deepest natural needs as well as an embodiment of our highest human aspirations, and that in the evolutionary process alteration of religious doctrines is indeed necessary if religion is to be humanly meaningful. The institutional embodiment of religious ideas is looked upon as more dangerous than necessary, given the threat of authoritarianism and the consequent loss of individuality and responsibility. In the chapter on mysticism Robins maintains that mysticism, like religion, is largely a matter of feeling; in the chapter on immortality he opts for the notion of "social immortality" in lieu of personal immortality. The book is conversational in tone, pragmatic in its final evaluation of religious experience, and is seemingly aimed at a popular audience rather than a scholarly few interested in depth, consistency, and refinement of expression.—R. A. (shrink)
This book, written by two central figures of generative grammar, represent the culmination of some ten years work on phonological theory and specifically on the sound system of English. As such, it is of interest to anyone concerned with phonology in general no less than to the student of English. Their description of the phonological structure of modern English, while not claiming to be exhaustive, reveals the deep and hitherto largely uncharacterized, regularities underlying this system in at least two major (...) areas: in the analysis of English stress, which is shown to be in large measure predictable at the level of both word and phrase; and in the account of vowel and consonant alternations in such cases as sane-sanity, deceive-deception, decide-decision, cone-conic and democrat-democracy respectively. Secondly the book constitutes a major contribution to general phonological theory. Thus, for example, the note of the phonological component of a generative grammar is viewed as the mapping of the abstract string of formatives that constitute the surface structure output of the syntax onto concrete phonetic space, via a series of carefully formalized rules; a clearly-defined, highly abstract view is taken of underlying phonological representations, which in turn are related in a non-arbitrary fashion to the actual phonetic output; and the choice of phonological primes is motivated in terms of certain crucial departures from the earlier set of distinctive features established by Roman Jakobson--to whom the book is dedicated. Thirdly, the book is of major importance for general linguistic theory, as it makes substantive contributions to areas such as: language change and the relation between diachrony and synchrony; the nature and ordering of grammatical rules ; or the key notion of the "cyclical" applications of rules--first introduced in this work in order to handle the assignment of English stress to words and phrases beyond the single-morpheme level, and by now a crucial feature of the transformational rules of generative syntax. In their preface, the authors describe The Sound Pattern of English as "an interim report on work in progress." That this is true is attested to by the debate now being waged on nearly every aspect of phonological theory by followers of Chomsky and Halle. The book has already given rise to considerable critical discussion, ranging from specific points such as the correctness of the particular set of distinctive features established by the authors, to far deeper issues concerning the abstractness of phonological representations, the inter-relation between phonology and the syntactic and semantic components of grammar, the place of phonetics within the field of linguistics. These very controversies should insure this book its place as a central text for all serious students of English, phonology, and language.--R. A. (shrink)
An interesting and careful study of Kant's philosophy of science: its dependence on, and polemic against, Leibniz; its relation to contemporary theories; and its neglected ontological implications. The theme of Part I is the concept of unity, and its dependence on the unifying activity of thought. Part II is more metaphysical in character, containing not only an analysis of Kantian ontology, but also an argument for the harmony of the first and second Critiques.--A. R.
An analysis of the treatment of time in literature and its relationship to science and philosophy. Since the consciousness of time seems to the author to have greatly increased in contemporary culture, he refers primarily to such twentieth-century authors as Proust, Joyce and Mann.--A. R.
A well illustrated study of Byzantine art, which analyses the elements of architecture and painting in terms of the aesthetic categories, "sublime" and "beautiful." The final section of the book argues that though these two categories are distinct, they are also interdependent because their source is the same, viz., "the aesthetic joy which includes every potential aesthetic emotion".--A. R.
Section Philosophique, No. 39. Bruges: Desclée De Brouwer, 1955. 227 pp. 245 fr. B.--A Thomistic defense of Plato against Gilson's criticism of "essentialism." The first of the book's two sections, that dealing with "ascending" dialectic, argues that 1) Being or intelligible Form is not merely essence, but is considered as existent, 2) Plato proves the existence of a transcendent and supreme Being, and 3) the supreme Being whose existence is proven in the Republic is identical with the primary object of (...) the intellect defined in the Symposium. The second section, on "descending" dialectic, treats the problems of participation, and attempts to derive the world of becoming from the world of Forms, without, however, accepting a neo-Platonic account of emanations. An interesting, but highly controversial interpretation of Plato. --A. R. (shrink)
The author sees two functions for the critic: comparative evaluations of works of art and the stimulation of appreciation. Aesthetics must therefore concern itself not only with finding the universal and exhaustive criteria which distinguish good from bad art, but also with analyzing the psychology of appreciation; it must supplement a study of the objective qualities of beauty with one of the subjective receptivity of beauty. The book is critical as well as constructive, and includes acute discussions of previous theories (...) of aesthetics, and the special problems of literature, music and the plastic arts.--A. R. (shrink)
Both Kant and Dilthey distinguish between cognition and knowledge, but they do so differently in accordance with their respective theoretical interests. Kant's primary cognitive interest is in the natural sciences, and from this perspective the status of psychology is questioned because its phenomena are not mathematically measurable. Dilthey, by contrast, reconceives psychology as a human science.For Kant, knowledge is conceptual cognition that has attained certainty by being part of a rational system. Dilthey also links knowledge with certainty; however, he derives (...) the latter from life-experience rather than from reason. Dilthey's psychology begins with the self-certainty of lived experience and life-knowledge, but this turns out to fall short of cognitive understanding. In the final analysis, both Kant and Dilthey move beyond psychology to arrive at self-understanding. Because of his doubts about introspection, Kant replaces psychology with a pragmatic anthropology to provide a communal framework for self-understanding. Dilthey supplements psychology with other human sciences as part of a project of anthropological reflection. (shrink)
A detailed exposition of what the author considers to be the few fundamental principles in the theology of St. Bonaventure: the continuity between theology and revealed scripture, the preeminence of faith, the discontinuity between theological and philosophical reason, and the development of theology as "the progression of... spiritual life."--A. R.
A theistic study which rejects negative and purely analogical theology. An historical review of the traditional categories applied to the divine nature shows that God's perfection includes an infinity of possibles whose actualization is a matter of free but controlled selection. The argument does not always appear precise or inevitable, but it is suggestive.--A. R.
The Neuzeit is that of "modern Scholasticism", a period rich in the investigation of logical questions, but relatively neglected by historians and philosophers interested in these matters. Hickman here offers a general outline and interpretation of the major tendencies of Neuzeit theories of second intentions through the examination of several characteristic examples. The opening chapter is devoted primarily to an interpretation of modern scholastic predication theory in terms of class membership and class inclusion, following which he proceeds to a discussion (...) of the sense in which "intention" was used by various authors and schools, distinguishing several basic trends, the more detailed analysis of which occupies the greater part of the book. 1) "Psychologistic Conceptualism and Nominalism", is a series of variations on a single theme, represented here chiefly by William of Ockham for the former and John Major for the latter. Hickman notes that albeit one distinguished first and second intentions, the theory did not formally recognise higher level predicates as such, since intentions were understood as psychological entities and though a second intention was thus considered the concept of a concept or sign or a sign, it nonetheless signifies a first level existent, viz., another sign, really existing in the thinker. The tendency was carried even further, Hickman says, by John Major and his disciples, who tended to neglect in practice the distinction between intentions and words. (shrink)
Father Lonergan, Professor at the Gregorian University in Rome, writes from the conviction that by thoroughly understanding what it is to understand, one will understand the structure of all that is and can be understood. Focussing on insight, the very essence of understanding, Father Lonergan examines illustrations of insight in mathematics, science, common sense, etc., in order to bring the reader to an insight into insight. The sometimes annoyingly prolix discussion is intended to enable the reader to grasp within his (...) own self-consciousness the structure or invariant pattern of all understanding. The advance from lower to higher standpoints of understanding is traced, and a plurality of patterns appropriate to diverse domains, each standpoint of insight exhibiting a structure of understanding correlative to an intelligibility immanent in its subject matter, is acknowledged. Yet Father Lonergan pursues insight until at last he claims to discover the unifying, universal, invariant pattern and hence the ultimate metaphysical intelligibility. This structure or pattern proves to be essentially scholastic in conception, in particular Thomistic; yet the scholasticism Father Lonergan advances contains important revisions in matters of method and content. A carefully argued book, Insight is a remarkable combination of orthodoxy and originality.--A. J. R. (shrink)
The twenty volumes of the Robinet edition of the Oeuvres complètes de Malebranche contain a breadth, depth, and complexity of systemic metaphysical thinking that rivals that of any of the Modern philosophers. Yet there is no readily available translation in English of any of the works of Malebranche. This situation is a scandal of linguistic parochialism and textbook conservatism. Besides that, Malebranche is hard. Only four booklength studies have been attempted in English on the Malebranchean system in recent times: Ralph (...) Withington Church’s A Study in the Philosophy of Malebranche, Beatrice K. Rome’s The Philosophy of Malebranche, Craig Walton’s De la recherche de bien: A Study of Malebranche’s Science of Ethics, and now Daisie Radner’s historical/analytical study, Malebranche. In my estimation, this last is the best. Radner places Malebranche firmly in "The Cartesian Framework" and then provides comprehensive and concise expositions and interpretations in her six remaining chapters on the major Malebranchean themes: "Causality: The Doctrine of Occasionalism," "Vision in God," "Four Ways of Knowing," "Intelligible Extension," "The Polemic Concerning Ideas," "Will and Method." Her text is clean, and some of the arguments are elegantly expressed. Large amounts of Malebranchean metaphysics are distilled into detailed expositions compactly conveyed in a few pages. The substance of Malebranche’s critics and previous interpreters is chiseled down unmercifully, but is always fair. What remains is a solid, balanced précis of the essential content and structure of Malebranche’s highly original metaphysical system. (shrink)