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Robert Edward Freeman
University of Virginia
  1. The Politics of Stakeholder Theory: Some Future Directions.R. Edward Freeman - 1994 - Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4):409-421.
    The purpose of this paper is to enter the conversation about stakeholder theory with the goal of clarifying certain foundational issues. I want to show, along with Boatright, that there is no stakeholder paradox, and that the principle on which such a paradox is built, the Separation Thesis, is nicely self-serving to business and ethics academics. If we give up such a thesis we find there is no stakeholder theory but that stakeholder theory becomes a genre that is quite rich. (...)
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  2. Ending the so-Called 'Friedman-Freeman'debate.R. Edward Freeman - 2008 - Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2):153-190.
  3. Dialogue: Toward Superior Stakeholder Theory.Bradley R. Agle, Thomas Donaldson & R. Edward Freeman - 2008 - Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2):153-190.
    A quick look at what is happening in the corporate world makes it clear that the stakeholder idea is alive, well, and flourishing; and the question now is not “if ” but “how” stakeholder theory will meet the challenges of its success. Does stakeholder theory’s “arrival” mean continued dynamism, refinement, and relevance, or stasis? How will superior stakeholder theory continue to develop? In light of these and related questions, the authors of these essays conducted an ongoing dialogue on the current (...)
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  4. Stakeholder Theory: The State of the Art.T. Jones, A. Wicks & R. Edward Freeman - 2002 - In Norman E. Bowie (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Business Ethics. Blackwell. pp. 19--37.
     
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  5. A Stakeholder Theory of the Modern Corporation.R. Edward Freeman - 2001 - Perspectives in Business Ethics Sie 3:144.
  6. Stakeholder Theory: A Libertarian Defense.R. Edward Freeman & Robert A. Phillips - 2002 - Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (3):331-350.
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest that at least one strain of what has come to be called “stakeholder theory” has roots that are deeply libertarian. We begin by explicating both “stakeholder theory” and “libertarian arguments.” We show how there are libertarian arguments for both instrumental and normative stakeholder theory, and we construct a version of capitalism, called “stakeholder capitalism,” that builds on these libertarian ideas. We argue throughout that strong notions of “freedom” and “voluntary action” are (...)
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  7.  9
    Focusing on Ethics and Broadening Our Intellectual Base.Michelle Greenwood & R. Edward Freeman - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (1):1-3.
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  8. Corporate Strategy and the Search for Ethics.R. Edward Freeman & Daniel R. Gilbert - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (7):514-554.
  9.  24
    A Feminist Reinterpretation of The Stakeholder Concept.R. Edward Freeman - 1994 - Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4):475-497.
    Stakeholder theory has become one of the most important developments in the field of business ethics. While this concept has evolved and gained prominence as a method of integrating ethics into the basic purposes and strategic objectives of the firm, the authors argue that stakeholder theory has retained certain “masculinist” assumptions from the wider business literature that limit its usefulness. The resources of feminist thought, specifically the work of Carol Gilligan, provide a means of reinterpreting the stakeholder concept in a (...)
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  10. Stakeholder Capitalism.R. Edward Freeman, Kirsten Martin & Bidhan Parmar - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (4):303-314.
    In this article, we will outline the principles of stakeholder capitalism and describe how this view rejects problematic assumptions in the current narratives of capitalism. Traditional narratives of capitalism rely upon the assumptions of competition, limited resources, and a winner-take-all mentality as fundamental to business and economic activity. These approaches leave little room for ethical analysis, have a simplistic view of human beings, and focus on value-capture rather than value-creation. We argue these assumptions about capitalism are inadequate and leave four (...)
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  11.  28
    Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage: The Theory and Practice of Stakeholder Engagement in Scandinavia. [REVIEW]Robert Strand & R. Edward Freeman - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 127 (1):1-21.
    In this article, we first provide evidence that Scandinavian contributions to stakeholder theory over the past 50 years play a much larger role in its development than is presently acknowledged. These contributions include the first publication and description of the term “stakeholder”, the first stakeholder map, and the development of three fundamental tenets of stakeholder theory: jointness of interests, cooperative strategic posture, and rejection of a narrowly economic view of the firm. We then explore the current practices of Scandinavian companies (...)
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  12.  10
    Intra‐Stakeholder Alliances in Plant‐Closing Decisions: A Stakeholder Theory Approach.Yves Fassin, Simone de Colle & R. Edward Freeman - 2017 - Business Ethics: A European Review 26 (2):97-111.
    This article discusses plant-closing decisions by multinational enterprises applying a stakeholder theory approach. In particular, we focus on the emergence of “intra-stakeholder alliances,” that is, alliances among the various stakeholder groups of a specific corporation. We analyze the emergence of stakeholder alliances in reaction to MNEs' decisions to terminate production locally and discuss their influence on the outcomes of such decisions. Our research is inspired by two exceptional case studies of two multinational breweries that announced their decisions to close niche (...)
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  13.  94
    Values, Authenticity, and Responsible Leadership.R. Edward Freeman & Ellen R. Auster - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 98 (S1):15-23.
    The recent financial crisis has prompted questioning of our basic ideas about capitalism and the role of business in society. As scholars are calling for “responsible leadership” to become more of the norm, organizations are being pushed to enact new values, such as “responsibility” and “sustainability,” and pay more attention to the effects of their actions on their stakeholders. The purpose of this study is to open up a line of research in business ethics on the concept of “ authenticity (...)
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  14.  22
    The “Business Sucks” Story.R. Edward Freeman - 2018 - Humanistic Management Journal 3 (1):9-16.
    The purpose of this essay is to suggest that one of the dominant modes of thought in our society is a profound mistrust and misunderstanding of the role of business. A dominant myth in society is that business occupies the moral low ground, separate from ethics or a moral point of view. This position is characterized as the “business sucks” story, and the essay shows how the enactment of this story underlies business thinking among managers and business theorists. The essay (...)
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  15.  56
    Enhancing Stakeholder Practice: A Particularized Exploration of Community.Laura Dunham, R. Edward Freeman & Jeanne Liedtka - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (1):23-42.
    Lack of specificity around stakeholder identity remains a serious obstacle to the further development of stakeholder theory andits adoption in actual practice by business managers. Nowhere is this shortcoming more evident than in stakeholder theory’s treatment of the constituency known as “community.”In this paper we attempt to set forth what we call “the Problem of Community” as indicative of the definitional problems of stakeholdertheory. We then begin the process of gaining greater specificity around our notions of community and the role (...)
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  16.  79
    Business Ethics at the Millennium.R. Edward Freeman - 2000 - Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (1):169-180.
    Business ethics, as a discipline, appears to be at a crossroads. Down one avenue lies more of the same: mostly philosophers takingwhat they know of ethics and ethical theory and applying it to business. There is a long tradition of scholars working in the area known as “business and society” or “social issues in management.” Most of these scholars are trained as social scientists and teach in business schools. Their raison d’etre has been admirable: trying to get executives and students (...)
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  17. Managing for Stakeholders: Trade-Offs or Value Creation. [REVIEW]R. Edward Freeman - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (S1):7-9.
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  18.  24
    Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability in Scandinavia: An Overview.Robert Strand, R. Edward Freeman & Kai Hockerts - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 127 (1):1-15.
    Scandinavia is routinely cited as a global leader in corporate social responsibility and sustainability. In this article, we explore the foundation for this claim while also exploring potential contributing factors. We consider the deep-seated traditions of stakeholder engagement across Scandinavia including the claim that the recent concept of “creating shared value” has Scandinavian origins, institutional and cultural factors that encourage strong CSR and sustainability performances, and the recent phenomenon of movement from implicit to explicit CSR in a Scandinavian context and (...)
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  19.  56
    Stakeholder Theory, Fact/Value Dichotomy, and the Normative Core: How Wall Street Stops the Ethics Conversation. [REVIEW]Lauren S. Purnell & R. Edward Freeman - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):109-116.
    A review of the stakeholder literature reveals that the concept of "normative core" can be applied in three main ways: philosophical justification of stakeholder theory, theoretical governing principles of a firm, and managerial beliefs/values influencing the underlying narrative of business. When considering the case of Wall Street, we argue that the managerial application of normative core reveals the imbedded nature of the fact/value dichotomy. Problems arise when the work of the fact/value dichotomy contributes to a closed-core institution. We make the (...)
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  20.  60
    Stakeholder Theory: 25 Years Later.R. Edward Freeman - 2009 - Philosophy of Management 8 (3):97-107.
    The purpose of this paper is to suggest that at least one strain of what has come to be called “stakeholder theory” has roots that are deeply libertarian. We begin by explicating both “stakeholder theory” and “libertarian arguments.” We show how there are libertarian arguments for both instrumental and normative stakeholder theory, and we construct a version of capitalism, called “stakeholder capitalism,” that builds on these libertarian ideas. We argue throughout that strong notions of “freedom” and “voluntary action” are the (...)
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  21.  30
    Ethics and HRM.Michelle Greenwood & R. Edward Freeman - 2011 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 30 (3-4):269-292.
    The development of an ethical perspective of HRM that is both employee centered and explicitly normative and, as such, distinct from dominant and criticalperspectives of HRM has progressed in recent years. Reliance on the traditional “threesome” of rights/justice theories, deontology and consequentialism, however, has limited debate to micro-level issues and the search for a “solution.” By understanding the employment relationship as a stakeholder relationship, we open the ethical analysis of HRM to the pluralism and pragmatism that stakeholder theory has to (...)
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  22.  19
    Values and Poetic Organizations: Beyond Value Fit Toward Values Through Conversation. [REVIEW]Ellen R. Auster & R. Edward Freeman - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (1):39-49.
    In the midst of greed, corruption, the economic crash and the general disillusionment of business, current conceptions of leadership, organizational values, and authenticity are being questioned. In this article, we fill a prior research gap by directly exploring the intersection of these three concepts. We begin by delving into the relationship between individual values and organizational values. This analysis reveals that the “value fit” approach to creating authenticity is limited, and also indicates that a deeper exploration of the nature of (...)
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  23. Some Problems with Employee Monitoring.Kirsten Martin & R. Edward Freeman - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (4):353-361.
    Employee monitoring has raised concerns from all areas of society - business organizations, employee interest groups, privacy advocates, civil libertarians, lawyers, professional ethicists, and every combination possible. Each advocate has its own rationale for or against employee monitoring whether it be economic, legal, or ethical. However, no matter what the form of reasoning, seven key arguments emerge from the pool of analysis. These arguments have been used equally from all sides of the debate. The purpose of this paper is to (...)
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  24.  8
    Profit and Other Values: Thick Evaluation in Decision Making.Bastiaan van der Linden & R. Edward Freeman - 2017 - Business Ethics Quarterly 27 (3):353-379.
    ABSTRACT:Profit maximizers have reasons to agree with stakeholder theorists that managers may need to consider different values simultaneously in decision making. However, it remains unclear how maximizing a single value can be reconciled with simultaneously considering different values. A solution can neither be found in substantive normative philosophical theories, nor in postulating the maximization of profit. Managers make sense of the values in a situation by means of the many thick value concepts of ordinary language. Thick evaluation involves the simultaneous (...)
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  25. Business Ethics: The State of the Art.R. Edward Freeman (ed.) - 1991 - Oxford University Press.
    This book is a unique collection of essays by the leading scholars in business ethics. The purpose of the volume is to examine the emergence of business ethics as an important element of managerial practice and as an integral area of scholarship. The four lead essays--by Norman Bowie, Kenneth Goodpaster, Thomas Donaldson, and Ezra Bowen--are examples of some of the best thinking about the role of ethics in business. These essays examine such issues as the nature of scholarship and knowledge (...)
     
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  26.  15
    Tensions in Stakeholder Theory.Rajendra Sisodia, Robert Phillips & R. Edward Freeman - 2020 - Business and Society 59 (2):213-231.
    A number of tensions have been suggested between stakeholder theory and strategic management. Following a brief review of the histories of stakeholder theory and mainstream SM, we argue that many of the tensions are more apparent than real, representing different narratives about stakeholder theory, SM, business, and ethics. Part of the difference in these two theoretical positions is due to the fact that they seek to solve different problems. However, we suggest how there are areas of overlap, and we argue (...)
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  27.  9
    Deepening Ethical Analysis in Business Ethics.Michelle Greenwood & R. Edward Freeman - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 147 (1):1-4.
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  28.  39
    The Separation of Technology and Ethics in Business Ethics.Kirsten E. Martin & R. Edward Freeman - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 53 (4):353-364.
    The purpose of this paper is to draw out and make explicit the assumptions made in the treatment of technology within business ethics. Drawing on the work of Freeman (1994, 2000) on the assumed separation between business and ethics, we propose a similar separation exists in the current analysis of technology and ethics. After first identifying and describing the separation thesis assumed in the analysis of technology, we will explore how this assumption manifests itself in the current literature. A different (...)
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  29.  34
    Related Debates in Ethics and Entrepreneurship: Values, Opportunities, and Contingency.Susan S. Harmeling, Saras D. Sarasvathy & R. Edward Freeman - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3):341-365.
    In this paper, we review two seemingly unrelated debates. In business ethics, the argument is about values: are they universal or emergent? In entrepreneurship, it is about opportunities – are they discovered or constructed? In reality, these debates are similar as they both overlook contingency. We draw insight from pragmatism to define contingency as possibility without necessity. We analyze real-life narratives and show how entrepreneurship and ethics emerge from our discussion as parallel streams of thought.
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  30.  2
    Unethical, Neurotic, or Both? A Psychoanalytic Account of Ethical Failures Within Organizations.Simone Colle & R. Edward Freeman - 2020 - Business Ethics: A European Review 29 (1):167-179.
    Business Ethics: A European Review, EarlyView.
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  31.  19
    Letter From the Incoming Editors.R. Edward Freeman & Michelle Greenwood - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 133 (1):1-3.
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  32. Ethics and Agency Theory: An Introduction.Norman E. Bowie & R. Edward Freeman (eds.) - 1992 - Oxford University Press.
  33.  70
    Values and the Foundations of Strategic Management.R. Edward Freeman, Daniel R. Gilbert & Edwin Hartman - 1988 - Journal of Business Ethics 7 (11):821 - 834.
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of values in strategic management. We discuss recent criticisms of the concept of strategy and argue that the concept of value helps reconcile these criticisms with traditional models of strategy. We show that Andrews' model of corporate strategy rightly takes morally significant values to be essential to effective management. We show how the notion of value can be clarified and used in research into various conceptions of corporate morality.
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  34.  78
    Ethical Leadership and Creating Value for Stakeholders.R. Edward Freeman - forthcoming - Business Ethics.
  35.  10
    Leveraging the Creative Arts in Business Ethics Teaching.R. Edward Freeman, Laura Dunham, Gregory Fairchild & Bidhan Parmar - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 131 (3):519-526.
    The purpose of this paper is to describe a way of teaching business ethics using the creative arts, especially literature and theater. By drawing on these disciplines for both method and texts, we can more easily make the connection to business as a fully human activity, concerned with how meaning is created. Students are encouraged to understand story-telling and narrative and how these tools lend insight into the daily life of businesspeople. The paper describes two main courses, Business Ethics Through (...)
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  36. Corporate Responsibility.Patricia Werhane & R. Edward Freeman - 2003 - In LaFollette H. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Practical Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 514--536.
     
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  37.  30
    Connected Moral Agency in Organizational Ethics.George W. Watson, R. Edward Freeman & Bobby Parmar - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2):323-341.
    We review both the aspects of values-related research that complicate ideations of what we ought to do, as well as the psychological impediments to forming beliefs about the way things are. We find that more traditional moral theories are without solid empirical footing in the psychology of human values. Consequently, we revise the notion of values to align with their socially symbolic utility in self-affirmation and reformulate our understandings of moral agency to allow for the practicalities of context, circumstance, and (...)
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  38.  12
    The New Story of Business: Towards a More Responsible Capitalism.R. Edward Freeman - 2017 - Business and Society Review 122 (3):449-465.
    Business is undergoing a conceptual revolution. Since the Global Financial Crisis there are many new ideas and proposals to make capitalism more responsible. The purpose of this paper is to identify key flaws in the “old story” of capitalism. Six principles are explained that taken together form the basis for a new story of business, one of responsible capitalism.
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  39.  8
    Practicing Human Dignity: Ethical Lessons From Commedia Dell’Arte and Theater.Simone de Colle, R. Edward Freeman, Bidhan Parmar & Leonardo de Colle - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (2):251-262.
    The paper considers two main cases of how the creative arts can inform a greater appreciation of human dignity. The first case explores a form of theater, Commedia dell’Arte that has deep roots in Italian culture. The second recounts a set of theater exercises done with very minimal direction or self-direction in executive education and MBA courses at the Darden School, University of Virginia, in the United States. In both cases we highlight how the creative arts can be important for (...)
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  40.  31
    Business as a Humanity.Thomas Donaldson & R. Edward Freeman (eds.) - 1994 - Oxford University Press.
    This latest volume in the acclaimed Ruffin Series in Business Ethics brings together the contributions to the annual Ruffin Lecture series, in which some of the leading scholars in business ethics addressed the question: Can business, and business education, be considered one of the humanities, or is it in a class by itself? At a time when business is coming under attack for its apparent transgressions, this book iluminates the special values that inhere in the business world. Arguing all sides (...)
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  41.  9
    Business, Ethics and Society: A Critical Agenda.R. Edward Freeman & Daniel R. Gllbert - 1992 - Business and Society 31 (1):9-17.
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  42. The Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Business Ethics.R. Edward Freeman & Patricia Hogue Werhane - 1997
     
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  43. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management, Volume II.Patricia H. Werhane & R. Edward Freeman - 2005 - In Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Business Ethics. Sage Publications.
     
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  44.  5
    Deepening Methods in Business Ethics.R. Edward Freeman & Michelle Greenwood - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 161 (1):1-3.
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  45.  74
    Poverty and the Politics of Capitalism.R. Edward Freeman - 1998 - The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 1998:31-35.
    1. Here’s a way to think about poverty. People who live in poverty do so because they have few opportunities to pull themselves up by their bootstraps. In fact the gap between rich and poor has increased in recent times due to the more wholesale adoption of capitalist practices around the world. The institutions of business and government conspire to give the poor a Hobson’s choice of minimal wage McJobs or unemployment. Neglect of both urban ghettoes and the rural poor (...)
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  46. Women's Studies and Business Ethics: Toward a New Conversation.Andrea Larson & R. Edward Freeman (eds.) - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    This latest book in the Ruffin Series in Business Ethics is the first work to analyze the significance of gender in the ethical management of business organizations. Scholars from the fields of business ethics and women's studies come together in this book to offer fresh new perspectives on business ethics. The contributors examine the value of feminist theory and scholarship for business ethics, and from this examination four overarching themes emerge. The first theme is that corporations are socially constructed organizations (...)
     
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  47.  66
    The Ethics of Greenmail.R. Edward Freeman, Daniel R. Gilbert & Carol Jacobson - 1987 - Journal of Business Ethics 6 (3):165 - 178.
    In the contemporary flurry of hostile corporate takeover activity, the ethics of the practice of greenmail have been called into question. The authors provide an account of greenmail in parallel with Daniel Ellsberg's conception of blackmail, as consisting of two conditions: a threat condition and a compliance condition.The analysis then proceeds to consider two questions: Is all greenmail morally wrong? Are all hostile takeovers morally wrong? The authors conclude that there is no basis for answering either question in the affirmative. (...)
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  48.  22
    Special Issue on Stakeholder Thinking: A Tribute to Juha Nasi. [REVIEW]R. Edward Freeman, Salme Nasi & Grant Savage - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (S1):1-1.
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  49.  4
    Stakeholder Theory: 25 Years Later.R. Edward Freeman - 2009 - Philosophy of Management 8 (3):97-107.
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  50.  41
    Introduction.R. Edward Freeman - 2002 - The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 3:1-3.
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