R. Forde [13]Reidun Forde [2]
  1.  38
    Ethical difficulties in clinical practice: experiences of European doctors.S. A. Hurst, A. Perrier, R. Pegoraro, S. Reiter-Theil, R. Forde, A.-M. Slowther, E. Garrett-Mayer & M. Danis - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (1):51-57.
    Background: Ethics support services are growing in Europe to help doctors in dealing with ethical difficulties. Currently, insufficient attention has been focused on the experiences of doctors who have faced ethical difficulties in these countries to provide an evidence base for the development of these services.Methods: A survey instrument was adapted to explore the types of ethical dilemma faced by European doctors, how they ranked the difficulty of these dilemmas, their satisfaction with the resolution of a recent ethically difficult case (...)
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  2.  48
    Evaluation of clinical ethics support services and its normativity.Jan Schildmann, Bert Molewijk, Lazare Benaroyo, Reidun Forde & Gerald Neitzke - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (11):681-685.
    Evaluation of clinical ethics support services (CESS) has attracted considerable interest in recent decades. However, few evaluation studies are explicit about normative presuppositions which underlie the goals and the research design of CESS evaluation. In this paper, we provide an account of normative premises of different approaches to CESS evaluation and argue that normativity should be a focus of considerations when designing and conducting evaluation research of CESS. In a first step, we present three different approaches to CESS evaluation from (...)
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  3.  59
    Physicians' Access to Ethics Support Services in Four European Countries.Samia A. Hurst, Stella Reiter-Theil, Arnaud Perrier, Reidun Forde, Anne-Marie Slowther, Renzo Pegoraro & Marion Danis - 2007 - Health Care Analysis 15 (4):321-335.
    Clinical ethics support services are developing in Europe. They will be most useful if they are designed to match the ethical concerns of clinicians. We conducted a cross-sectional mailed survey on random samples of general physicians in Norway, Switzerland, Italy, and the UK, to assess their access to different types of ethics support services, and to describe what makes them more likely to have used available ethics support. Respondents reported access to formal ethics support services such as clinical ethics committees (...)
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  4.  65
    Clinical ethics, information, and communication: review of 31 cases from a clinical ethics committee. [REVIEW]R. Forde - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (2):73-77.
    Objectives: To summarise the types of case brought to the Clinical Ethics Committee of the National Hospital of Norway from 1996 to 2002 and to describe and discuss to what extent issues of information/communication have been involved in the ethical problems. Design: Systematic review of case reports. Findings: Of the 31 case discussions, (20 prospective, 11 retrospective), 19 cases concerned treatment of children. Twenty cases concerned ethical problems related to withholding/withdrawing of treatment. In 25 cases aspects of information/communication were involved (...)
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  5.  3
    European physicians' experience with ethical difficulties in clinical practice.S. A. Hurst, A. Perrier, R. Pegoraro, S. Reiter-Theil, R. Forde, A.-M. Slowther, E. Garrett-Mayer & M. Danis - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (1):51-7.
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  6.  40
    What is happening during case deliberations in clinical ethics committees? A pilot study.R. Pedersen, V. Akre & R. Forde - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (3):147-152.
    Background: Clinical ethics consultation services have been established in many countries during recent decades. An important task is to discuss concrete clinical cases. However, empirical research observing what is happening during such deliberations is scarce. Objectives: To explore clinical ethics committees’ deliberations and to identify areas for improvement. Design: A pilot study including observations of committees deliberating a paper case, semistructured group interviews, and qualitative analysis of the data. Participants: Nine hospital ethics committees in Norway. Results and interpretations: Key elements (...)
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  7.  35
    Should ethics consultants help clinicians face scarcity in their practice?S. A. Hurst, S. Reiter-Theil, A.-M. Slowther, R. Pegoraro, R. Forde & M. Danis - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (4):241-246.
    In an international survey of rationing we have found that European physicians encounter scarcity-related ethical difficulties, and are dissatified with the resolution of many of these cases. Here we further examine survey results to explore whether ethics support services would be potentially useful in addressing scarcity related ethical dilemmas. Results indicate that while the type of help offered by ethics support services was considered helpful by physicians, they rarely referred difficulties regarding scarcity to ethics consultation. We propose that ethics consultants (...)
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  8.  31
    Moral distress among Norwegian doctors.R. Forde & O. G. Aasland - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (7):521-525.
    Background: Medicine is full of value conflicts. Limited resources and legal regulations may place doctors in difficult ethical dilemmas and cause moral distress. Research on moral distress has so far been mainly studied in nurses. Objective: To describe whether Norwegian doctors experience stress related to ethical dilemmas and lack of resources, and to explore whether the doctors feel that they have good strategies for the resolution of ethical dilemmas. Design: Postal survey of a representative sample of 1497 Norwegian doctors in (...)
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  9.  36
    Life-prolonging treatment in nursing homes: how do physicians and nurses describe and justify their own practice?A. Dreyer, R. Forde & P. Nortvedt - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (7):396-400.
    Background Making the right decisions, while simultaneously showing respect for patient autonomy, represents a great challenge to nursing home staff in the issues of life-prolonging treatment, hydration, nutrition and hospitalisation to dying patents in end-of-life. Objectives To study how physicians and nurses protect nursing home patients' autonomy in end-of-life decisions, and how they justify their practice. Design A qualitative descriptive design with analysis of the content of transcribed in-depth interviews with physicians and nurses. Participants Nine physicians and ten nurses in (...)
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  10.  37
    Courteous but not curious: how doctors' politeness masks their existential neglect. A qualitative study of video-recorded patient consultations.K. M. Agledahl, P. Gulbrandsen, R. Forde & A. Wifstad - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (11):650-654.
    Objective To study how doctors care for their patients, both medically and as fellow humans, through observing their conduct in patient–doctor encounters. Design Qualitative study in which 101 videotaped consultations were observed and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach, generating explanatory categories through a hermeneutical analysis of the taped consultations. Setting A 500-bed general teaching hospital in Norway. Participants 71 doctors working in clinical non-psychiatric departments and their patients. Results The doctors were concerned about their patients' health and how their (...)
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  11.  25
    Integrity in the Care of Elderly People, as Narrated by Female Physicians.Ann Nordam, Venke Sørlie & R. Förde - 2003 - Nursing Ethics 10 (4):388-403.
    Three female physicians were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of female and male physicians and nurses, concerning their experience of being in ethically difficult care situations in the care of elderly people. The interviewees expressed great concern for the low status of care for elderly people, and the need to fight for the specialty and for the care and rights of their patients. All the interviewees’ narratives concerned problems relating to perspectives of both action ethics (...)
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  12.  26
    The principle of justice in patient priorities in the intensive care unit: the role of significant others.K. Halvorsen, R. Forde & P. Nortvedt - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (8):483-487.
    Background: Theoretically, the principle of justice is strong in healthcare priorities both nationally and internationally. Research, however, has indicated that questions can be raised as to how this principle is dealt with in clinical intensive care. Objective: The objective of this article is to examine how significant others may affect the principle of justice in the medical treatment and nursing care of intensive care patients. Method: Field observations and in-depth interviews with physicians and nurses in intensive care units (ICU). Emphasis (...)
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  13.  20
    "I don't like that, it's tricking people too much...": acute informed consent to participation in a trial of thrombolysis for stroke.M. Mangset, R. Forde, J. Nessa, E. Berge & T. B. Wyller - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (10):751-756.
    Background: Informed consent is regarded as a contract between autonomous and equal parties and requires the elements of information disclosure, understanding, voluntariness and consent. The validity of informed consent for critically ill patients has been questioned. Little is known about how these patients experience the process of consent.Objective: The aim of this study was to explore critically ill patients’ experience with the principle of informed consent in a clinical trial and their ability to give valid informed consent.Design: 11 stroke patients (...)
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  14.  45
    "Two per cent isn't a lot, but when it comes to death it seems quite a lot anyway": patients' perception of risk and willingness to accept risks associated with thrombolytic drug treatment for acute stroke.M. Mangset, E. Berge, R. Forde, J. Nessa & T. B. Wyller - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (1):42-46.
    Background: Thrombolytic drugs to treat an acute ischaemic stroke reduce the risk of death or major disability. The treatment is, however, also associated with an increased risk of potentially fatal intracranial bleeding. This confronts the patient with the dilemma of whether or not to take a risk of a serious side effect in order to increase the likelihood of a favourable outcome. Objective: To explore acute stroke patients’ perception of risk and willingness to accept risks associated with thrombolytic drug treatment. (...)
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