We confirm a conjecture, about neat embeddings of cylindric algebras, made in 1969 by J. D. Monk, and a later conjecture by Maddux about relation algebras obtained from cylindric algebras. These results in algebraic logic have the following consequence for predicate logic: for every finite cardinal α ≥ 3 there is a logically valid sentence X, in a first-order language L with equality and exactly one nonlogical binary relation symbol E, such that X contains only 3 variables (each of which (...) may occur arbitrarily many times), X has a proof containing exactly α + 1 variables, but X has no proof containing only α variables. This solves a problem posed by Tarski and Givant in 1987. (shrink)
A boolean algebra is shown to be completely representable if and only if it is atomic, whereas it is shown that neither the class of completely representable relation algebras nor the class of completely representable cylindric algebras of any fixed dimension (at least 3) are elementary.
We consider the problem of finding and classifying representations in algebraic logic. This is approached by letting two players build a representation using a game. Homogeneous and universal representations are characterized according to the outcome of certain games. The Lyndon conditions defining representable relation algebras (for the finite case) and a similar schema for cylindric algebras are derived. Finite relation algebras with homogeneous representations are characterized by first order formulas. Equivalence games are defined, and are used to establish whether an (...) algebra is ω-categorical. We have a simple proof that the perfect extension of a representable relation algebra is completely representable. An important open problem from algebraic logic is addressed by devising another two-player game, and using it to derive equational axiomatisations for the classes of all representable relation algebras and representable cylindric algebras. Other instances of this approach are looked at, and include the step by step method. (shrink)
For every finite n ≥ 4 there is a logically valid sentence φ n with the following properties: φ n contains only 3 variables (each of which occurs many times); φ n contains exactly one nonlogical binary relation symbol (no function symbols, no constants, and no equality symbol): φ n has a proof in first-order logic with equality that contains exactly n variables, but no proof containing only n - 1 variables. This result was first proved using the machinery of (...) algebraic logic developed in several research monographs and papers. Here we replicate the result and its proof entirely within the realm of (elementary) first-order binary predicate logic with equality. We need the usual syntax, axioms, and rules of inference to show that φ n has a proof with only n variables. To show that φ n has no proof with only n - 1 variables we use alternative semantics in place of the usual, standard, set-theoretical semantics of first-order logic. (shrink)
We prove that every n-modal logic between K n and S5 n is undecidable, whenever n ≥ 3. We also show that each of these logics is non- finitely axiomatizable, lacks the product finite model property, and there is no algorithm deciding whether a finite frame validates the logic. These results answer several questions of Gabbay and Shehtman. The proofs combine the modal logic technique of Yankov-Fine frame formulas with algebraic logic results of Halmos, Johnson and Monk, and give a (...) reduction of the (undecidable) representation problem of finite relation algebras. (shrink)
We study relation algebras with n-dimensional relational bases in the sense of Maddux. Fix n with 3nω. Write Bn for the class of non-associative algebras with an n-dimensional relational basis, and RAn for the variety generated by Bn. We define a notion of relativised representation for algebras in RAn, and use it to give an explicit equational axiomatisation of RAn, and to reprove Maddux's result that RAn is canonical. We show that the algebras in Bn are precisely those that have (...) a complete relativised representation of this type. Then we prove that whenever 4nshrink)
We examined participants' reading and recall of informed consent documents presented via paper or computer. Within each presentation medium, we presented the document as a continuous or paginated document to simulate common computer and paper presentation formats. Participants took slightly longer to read paginated and computer informed consent documents and recalled slightly more information from the paginated documents. We concluded that obtaining informed consent online is not substantially different than obtaining it via paper presentation. We also provide suggestions for improving (...) informed consent-in both face-to-face and online experiments. (shrink)
We prove, for each 4⩽ n ω , that S Ra CA n+1 cannot be defined, using only finitely many first-order axioms, relative to S Ra CA n . The construction also shows that for 5⩽n S Ra CA n is not finitely axiomatisable over RA n , and that for 3⩽m S Nr m CA n+1 is not finitely axiomatisable over S Nr m CA n . In consequence, for a certain standard n -variable first-order proof system ⊢ m (...) , n of m -variable formulas, there is no finite set of m -variable schemata whose m -variable instances, when added to ⊢ m , n as axioms, yield ⊢ m , n +1. (shrink)
We prove that algebras of binary relations whose similarity type includes intersection, union, and one of the residuals of relation composition form a nonfinitely axiomatizable quasivariety and that the equational theory is not finitely based. We apply this result to the problem of the completeness of the positive fragment of relevance logic with respect to binary relations.
We characterise the class S Ra CA n of subalgebras of relation algebra reducts of n -dimensional cylindric algebras by the notion of a ‘hyperbasis’, analogous to the cylindric basis of Maddux, and by representations. We outline a game–theoretic approximation to the existence of a representation, and how to use it to obtain a recursive axiomatisation of S Ra CA n.
A boolean algebra is shown to be completely representable if and only if it is atomic, whereas it is shown that neither the class of completely representable relation algebras nor the class of completely representable cylindric algebras of any fixed dimension are elementary.
A cylindric algebra atom structure is said to be strongly representable if all atomic cylindric algebras with that atom structure are representable. This is equivalent to saying that the full complex algebra of the atom structure is a representable cylindric algebra. We show that for any finite n >3, the class of all strongly representable n-dimensional cylindric algebra atom structures is not closed under ultraproducts and is therefore not elementary. Our proof is based on the following construction. From an arbitrary (...) undirected, loop-free graph Γ, we construct an n-dimensional atom structure E(Γ), and prove, for infinite Γ, that E(Γ) is a strongly representable cylindric algebra atom structure if and only if the chromatic number of Γ is infinite. A construction of Erdős shows that there are graphs (k < ω)with infinite chromatic number, but having a non-principal ultraproduct $\prod _D\Gamma _k $ whose chromatic number is just two. It follows that $E(\Gamma _k )$ is strongly representable (each k < ω) but $\Pi _D E(\Gamma _k)$ is not. (shrink)
It is known that for all finite n ≥ 5, there are relation algebras with n-dimensional relational bases but no weak representations. We prove that conversely, there are finite weakly representable relation algebras with no n-dimensional relational bases. In symbols: neither of the classes RA n and wRRA contains the other.
We outline a simple approach to axiomatising the class of representable relation algebras, using games. We discuss generalisations of the method to cylindric algebras, homogeneous and complete representations, and atom structures of relation algebras.
We consider the problem of finding and classifying representations in algebraic logic. This is approached by letting two players build a representation using a game. Homogeneous and universal representations are characterized according to the outcome of certain games. The Lyndon conditions defining representable relation algebras and a similar schema for cylindric algebras are derived. Finite relation algebras with homogeneous representations are characterized by first order formulas. Equivalence games are defined, and are used to establish whether an algebra is $\omega$-categorical. We (...) have a simple proof that the perfect extension of a representable relation algebra is completely representable. An important open problem from algebraic logic is addressed by devising another two-player game, and using it to derive equational axiomatisations for the classes of all representable relation algebras and representable cylindric algebras. Other instances of this approach are looked at, and include the step by step method. (shrink)
In this article we establish the undecidability of representability and of finite representability as algebras of binary relations in a wide range of signatures. In particular, representability and finite representability are undecidable for Boolean monoids and lattice ordered monoids, while representability is undecidable for Jónsson's relation algebra. We also establish a number of undecidability results for representability as algebras of injective functions.
We show, for any ordinal γ ≥ 3, that the class RaCAγ is pseudo-elementary and has a recursively enumerable elementary theory. ScK denotes the class of strong subalgebras of members of the class K. We devise games, Fⁿ (3 ≤ n ≤ ω), G, H, and show, for an atomic relation algebra A with countably many atoms, that Ǝ has a winning strategy in Fω(At(A)) ⇔ A ∈ ScRaCAω, Ǝ has a winning strategy in Fⁿ(At(A)) ⇐ A ∈ ScRaCAn, Ǝ (...) has a winning strategy in G(At(A)) ⇐ A ∈ RaCAω, Ǝ has a winning strategy in H(At(A)) ⇒ A ∈ RaRCAω for 3 ≤ n < ω. We use these games to show, for γ ≥ 5 and any class K of relation algebras satisfying RaRCAγ ⊆ K ⊆ ScRaCA₅, that K is not closed under subalgebras and is not elementary. For infinite γ, the inclusion RaCAγ ⊂ ScRaCAγ is strict. For infinite γ and for a countable relation algebra A we show that A has a complete representation if and only if A is atomic and Ǝ has a winning strategy in F(At(A)) if and only if A is atomic and A ∈ ScRaCAγ. (shrink)