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R. M. Williams Williams
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
  1. Studies in Social Psychology in World War II. Vol. I: The American Soldier: Adjustment During Army Life.S. A. Stouffer, E. A. Suchman, L. C. De Vinney, S. A. Star & R. M. Williams - 1951 - Science and Society 15 (1):64-68.
     
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  2.  27
    The Evolution of the Cooperative Group.I. Walker & R. M. Williams - 1976 - Acta Biotheoretica 25 (1):1-43.
    A simple model, illustrating the transition from a population of free swimming, solitary cells to one consisting of small colonies serves as a basis to discuss the evolution of the cooperative group. The transition is the result of a mutation of the dynamics of cell division, delayed cell separation leads to colonies of four cells. With this mutation cooperative features appear, such as synchronised cell divisions within colonies and coordinated flagellar function which enables the colony to swim in definite directions. (...)
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    The Evolution of Sexual Reproduction as a Repair Mechanism Part II. Mathematical Treatment of the Wheel Model and its Significance for Real Systems.R. M. Williams & I. Walker - 1978 - Acta Biotheoretica 27 (3-4):159-184.
    The dynamics of populations of self-replicating, hierarchically structured individuals, exposedto accidents which destroy their sub-units, is analyzed mathematically, specifically with regardto the roles of redundancy and sexual repair. The following points emerge from this analysis:0 A population of individuals with redundant sub-structure has no intrinsic steady-statepoint; it tends to either zero or infinity depending on a critical accident rate α c . Increased redundancy renders populations less accident prone initially, but populationdecline is steeper if a is greater than a fixed (...)
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