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Ronald A. Rensink [37]Ronald Rensink [31]R. Rensink [4]R. A. Rensink [2]
Ron Rensink [2]
  1. To See or Not to See: The Need for Attention to Perceive Changes in Scenes.Ronald A. Rensink, J. Kevin O'Regan & James J. Clark - 1997 - Psychological Science 8:368-373.
    Methods. We employed a "flicker" technique, in which an original and a modified image (each of duration 240 ms) continually alternated, with a blank field (duration 80 ms) between each display. Images were all of real-world scenes. One of three kinds of change (appearance/disappearance, color, or translation) was made to an object or region in each scene. Changes were large and easily seen under normal conditions. Subjects viewed the flicker display, and pressed a key when they noticed the change.
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  2. Change Blindness: Past, Present, and Future.Daniel J. Simons & Ronald A. Rensink - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (1):16-20.
    Change blindness is the striking failure to see large changes that normally would be noticed easily. Over the past decade this phenomenon has greatly contributed to our understanding of attention, perception, and even consciousness. The surprising extent of change blindness explains its broad appeal, but its counterintuitive nature has also engendered confusions about the kinds of inferences that legitimately follow from it. Here we discuss the legitimate and the erroneous inferences that have been drawn, and offer a set of requirements (...)
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  3. Change Detection.Ronald A. Rensink - 2002 - Annual Review of Psychology 53:245-277.
    Five aspects of visual change detection are reviewed. The first concerns the concept of _change_ itself, in particular the ways it differs from the related notions of _motion_ and _difference_. The second involves the various methodological approaches that have been developed to study change detection; it is shown that under a variety of conditions observers are often unable to see large changes directly in front of them. Next, it is argued that this "change blindness" indicates that focused attention is needed (...)
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  4. The Dynamic Representation of Scenes.Ronald A. Rensink - 2000 - Visual Cognition.
    One of the more powerful impressions created by vision is that of a coherent, richly-detailed world where everything is present simultaneously. Indeed, this impression is so compelling that we tend to ascribe these properties not only to the external world, but to our internal representations as well. But results from several recent experiments argue against this latter ascription. For example, changes in images of real-world scenes often go unnoticed when made during a saccade, flicker, blink, or movie cut. This "change (...)
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  5. Change Blindness.Ronald A. Rensink - 2005 - In Laurent Itti, Geraint Rees & John K. Tsotsos (eds.), Neurobiology of Attention. Academic Press. pp. 76--81.
  6.  53
    Competition for Consciousness Among Visual Events: The Psychophysics of Reentrant Visual Processes.Vincent Di Lollo, James T. Enns & Ronald A. Rensink - 2000 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 129 (4):481.
  7. Seeing, Sensing, and Scrutinizing.Ronald A. Rensink - 2000 - Vision Research:469-1487.
    Large changes in a scene often become difficult to notice if made during an eye movement, image flicker, movie cut, or other such disturbance. It is argued here that this _change blindness_ can serve as a useful tool to explore various aspects of vision. This argument centers around the proposal that focused attention is needed for the explicit perception of change. Given this, the study of change perception can provide a useful way to determine the nature of visual attention, and (...)
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  8.  35
    Competition for Consciousness Among Visual Events: The Psychophysics of Reentrant Visual Processes.V. di Lollo, James T. Enns & R. Rensink - 2000 - Journal Of Experimental Psychology-General 129 (4):481-507.
  9.  15
    A Psychologically-Based Taxonomy of Misdirection.Gustav Kuhn, Hugo A. Caffaratti, Robert Teszka & Ronald A. Rensink - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  10. Visual Search for Change: A Probe Into the Nature of Attentional Processing.R. Rensink - 2000 - Visual Cognition 7:345-376.
    A set of visual search experiments tested the proposal that focused attention is needed to detect change. Displays were arrays of rectangles, with the target being the item that continually changed its orientation or contrast polarity. Five aspects of performance were examined: linearity of response, processing time, capacity, selectivity, and memory trace. Detection of change was found to be a self-terminating process requiring a time that increased linearly with the number of items in the display. Capacity for orientation was found (...)
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  11.  94
    Towards a Science of Magic.Ronald A. Rensink - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (9):349-354.
  12.  87
    Picture Changes During Blinks: Looking Without Seeing and Seeing Without Looking.J. Kevin O'Regan, H. Deubel, James J. Clark & R. Rensink - 2000 - Visual Cognition 7:191-211.
    Observers inspected normal, high quality color displays of everyday visual scenes while their eye movements were recorded. A large display change occurred each time an eye blink occurred. Display changes could either involve "Central Interest" or "Marginal Interest" locations, as determined from descriptions obtained from independent judges in a prior pilot experiment. Visual salience, as determined by luminance, color, and position of the Central and Marginal interest changes were equalized.
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  13.  47
    Change Blindness as a Result of Mudsplashes.Kevin J. O'Regan, Ronald A. Rensink & James J. Clark - 1999 - Nature 398 (6722):34-34.
  14. On Failures to Detect Changes in Scenes Across Brief Interruptions.Ronald A. Rensink, Kevin J. O'Regan & James J. Clark - 2000 - Visual Cognition 7 (1-3):127-145.
    When brief blank fields are placed between alternating displays of an original and a modified scene, a striking failure of perception is induced: the changes become extremely difficult to notice, even when they are large, presented repeatedly, and the observer expects them to occur (Rensink, O'Regan, & Clark, 1997). To determine the mechanisms behind this induced "change blindness", four experiments examine its dependence on initial preview and on the nature of the interruptions used. Results support the proposal that representations at (...)
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  15.  7
    Preemption Effects in Visual Search: Evidence for Low-Level Grouping.Ronald A. Rensink & James T. Enns - 1995 - Psychological Review 102 (1):101-130.
  16. Influence of Scene-Based Properties on Visual Search.Ronald Rensink - manuscript
    The task of visual search is to determine as rapidly as possible whether a target item is present or absent in a display. Rapidly detected items are thought to contain features that correspond to primitive elements in the human visual system. In previous theories, it has been assumed that visual search is based on simple two-dimensional features in the image. However, visual search also has access to another level of representation, one that describes properties in the corresponding three-dimensional scene. Among (...)
     
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  17. Preattentive Recovery of Three-Dimensional Orientation From Line Drawings.Ronald Rensink - manuscript
    It has generally been assumed that rapid visual search is based on simple features and that spatial relations between features are irrelevant for this task. Seven experiments involving search for line drawings contradict this assumption; a major determinant of search is the presence of line junctions. Arrow- and Y-junctions were detected rapidly in isolation and when they were embedded in drawings of rectangular polyhedra. Search for T-junctions was considerably slower. Drawings containing T-junctions often gave rise to very slow search even (...)
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  18.  10
    Limits to the Usability of Iconic Memory.Ronald A. Rensink - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  19. Sensitivity to Three-Dimensional Orientation in Visual Search.Ronald Rensink - manuscript
    Previous theories of early vision have assumed that visual search is based on simple two-dimensional aspects of an image, such as the orientation of edges and lines. It is shown here that search can also be based on three-dimensional orientation of objects in the corresponding scene, provided that these objects are simple convex blocks. Direct comparison shows that image-based and scene-based orientation are similar in their ability to facilitate search. These findings support the hypothesis that scene-based properties are represented at (...)
     
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  20. Mindsight: Visual Sensing Without Seeing.Ronald Rensink - unknown
    Purpose. To determine whether an observer can have an accurate feeling about the state of a visual stimulus (sensing) without an accompanying visual experience (seeing).
     
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  21.  7
    Preattentive Recovery of Three¬Dimensional Orientation From Line Drawings.James T. Enns & Ronald A. Rensink - 1991 - Psychological Review 98 (3):335-351.
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  22.  14
    Influencing Choice Without Awareness.Jay A. Olson, Alym A. Amlani, Amir Raz & Ronald A. Rensink - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 37:225-236.
  23. How Much of a Scene is Seen? The Role of Attention in Scene Perception.Ronald Rensink - unknown
    A striking blindness to changes in real-world scenes can be induced using a variety of techniques (e.g., saccade-, blink-, or flicker-contingent change). The strength and robustness of this phenomenon points towards the involvement of mechanisms central to visual perception. It is proposed here that this induced change blindness can be explained by an..
     
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  24.  19
    The Vanishing Ball Illusion: A New Perspective on the Perception of Dynamic Events.Gustav Kuhn & Ronald A. Rensink - 2016 - Cognition 148:64-70.
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  25. Image Flicker is as Good as Saccades in Making Large Scene Changes Invisible.Ronald Rensink - unknown
    Several recent investigations (Grimes, in press; McConkie and Currie, in preparation) report that large changes in images of natural scenes can remain unnoticed if these are made during saccades. We show here that similar massive effects can be obtained without synchronization to saccades. This is done via a "flicker" technique in which an original and an altered image (each of duration 240 ms) are repetitively alternated, with a blank field (duration 27 or 290 ms) between each display. One of four (...)
     
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  26. The Influence of Cast Shadows on Visual Search.Ronald Rensink - manuscript
    We show that cast shadows can have a significant influence on the speed of visual search. In particular, we find that search based on the shape of a region is affected when the region is darker than the background and corresponds to a shadow formed by lighting from above. Results support the proposal that an early-level system rapidly identifies regions as shadows and then discounts them, making their shapes more difficult to access. Several constraints used by this system are mapped (...)
     
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  27. Change Blindness, Representations, and Consciousness: Reply to Noe.Daniel J. Simons & Ronald A. Rensink - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (5):219.
  28.  5
    The Possibility of a Science of Magic.Ronald A. Rensink & Gustav Kuhn - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  29. Change Blindness: Implications for the Nature of Visual Attention.Ronald A. Rensink - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (1):16-20.
  30. Toolbox-Based Routines for MacIntosh Timing and Display.Ronald Rensink - manuscript
    Pascal routines are described for performing and testing various timing and display operations on Macintosh computers. Millisecond timing of internal operations is described, as is a method to time inputs more accurately than tick timing. Techniques are also presented for placing arbitrary bit-image displays on the screen within one screen refresh. All routines are based on Toolbox procedures applicable to the entire range of Macintosh computers.
     
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  31.  11
    Object Substitution Without Reentry?Vincent Di Lollo, James T. Enns & Ronald A. Rensink - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 131 (4):594-596.
  32. The Rapid Recovery of Three-Dimensional Structure From Line Drawings.Ronald Rensink - manuscript
    A computational theory is developed that explains how line drawings of polyhedral objects can be interpreted rapidly and in parallel at early levels of human vision. The key idea is that a time-limited process can correctly recover much of the three-dimensional structure of these objects when split into concurrent streams, each concerned with a single aspect of scene structure.
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  33.  51
    Expression of Nonconscious Knowledge Via Ideomotor Actions.Hélène L. Gauchou, Ronald A. Rensink & Sidney Fels - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):976-982.
    Ideomotor actions are behaviours that are unconsciously initiated and express a thought rather than a response to a sensory stimulus. The question examined here is whether ideomotor actions can also express nonconscious knowledge. We investigated this via the use of implicit long-term semantic memory, which is not available to conscious recall. We compared accuracy of answers to yes/no questions using both volitional report and ideomotor response . Results show that when participants believed they knew the answer, responses in the two (...)
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  34. Processing of Shadows at Preattentive Levels.Ronald Rensink - manuscript
    Recent studies have shown that several scene-based properties can be determined rapidly and in parallel at preattentive levels, including surface convexity and concavity (Ramachandran, 1988), direction of illumination (Enns & Rensink, 1990), and three-dimensional orientation (Enns & Rensink, 1991). We show that in addition to these properties, preattentive vision is also sensitive to scene structure defined by shadows.
     
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  35. Internal Vs. External Information in Visual Perception.Ronald Rensink - manuscript
    One of the more compelling beliefs about vision is that it is based on representations that are coherent and complete, with everything in the visual field described in great detail. However, changes made during a visual disturbance are found to be difficult to see, arguing against the idea that our brains contain a detailed, picture-like representation of the scene. Instead, it is argued here that a more dynamic, "just-in-time" representation is involved, one with deep similarities to the way that users (...)
     
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  36. Seeing Seeing.Ronald Rensink - 2010 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 16 (1):68-78.
    This paper discusses several key issues concerning consciousness and human vision. A brief overview is presented of recent developments in this area, including issues that have been resolved and issues that remain unsettled. Based on this, three Hilbert questions are proposed. These involve three related sets of issues: the kinds of visual experience that exist, the kinds of visual attention that exist, and the ways that these relate to each other.
     
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  37. Obscuring Length Changes During Animated Motion.Ronald Rensink - manuscript
    In this paper we examine to what extent the lengths of the links in an animated articulated figure can be changed without the viewer being aware of the change. This is investigated in terms of a framework that emphasizes the role of attention in visual perception. We conducted a set of five experiments to establish bounds for the sen-sitivity to changes in length as a function of several parameters and the amount of attention available. We found that while length changes (...)
     
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  38. An Object Completion Process in Early Vision.Ronald Rensink - manuscript
    It has recently been demonstrated that early vision is capable of recovering several properties of the three-dimensional world. We describe a series of visual search experiments showing that such recovery includes a completion process that allows for the interpretation of objects that are partially occluded. Search for easily-detectable line segments is made much more difficult when they can be interpreted as the visible parts of a line that has been occluded by a three-dimensional object. We describe some of the conditions (...)
     
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  39. The Modeling and Control of Visual Perception.Ronald Rensink - manuscript
    Recent developments in vision science have resulted in several major changes in our understanding of human visual perception. For example, attention no longer appears necessary for "visual intelligence"--a large amount of sophisticated processing can be done without it. Scene perception no longer appears to involve static, general-purpose descriptions, but instead may involve dynamic representations whose content depends on the individual and the task. And vision itself no longer appears to be limited to the production of a conscious "picture"--it may also (...)
     
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  40.  20
    Visual Attention.Ronald A. Rensink - 2002 - In L. Nagel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Macmillan.
  41. Attentional Processing of Geometric Figures.Ronald Rensink - unknown
    Focused attention is needed to perceive change (Rensink et al., 1997; Psychological Science, 8: 368-373) . But how much attentional processing is given to an item? And does this depend on the nature of the task?
     
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  42. Scene Perception.Ronald A. Rensink - unknown
    Scene Perception is the visual perception of an environment as viewed by an observer at any given time. It includes not only the perception of individual objects, but also such things as their relative locations, and expectations about what other kinds of objects might be encountered. Given that scene perception is so effortless for most observers, it might be thought of as something easy to understand. However, the amount of effort required by a process often bears little relation to its (...)
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  43.  36
    Induced Failures of Visual Awareness.Daniel J. Simons & Ron Rensink - 2003 - Journal of Vision 2 (3).
  44.  38
    Cultural Differences in Visual Search for Geometric Figures.Yoshiyuki Ueda, Lei Chen, Jonathon Kopecky, Emily S. Cramer, Ronald A. Rensink, David E. Meyer, Shinobu Kitayama & Jun Saiki - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):286-310.
    While some studies suggest cultural differences in visual processing, others do not, possibly because the complexity of their tasks draws upon high-level factors that could obscure such effects. To control for this, we examined cultural differences in visual search for geometric figures, a relatively simple task for which the underlying mechanisms are reasonably well known. We replicated earlier results showing that North Americans had a reliable search asymmetry for line length: Search for long among short lines was faster than vice (...)
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  45. Changes.Ronald A. Rensink - unknown
    This past decade has seen a great resurgence of interest in the perception of change. Change has, of course, long been recognized as a phenomenon worthy of study, and vision scientists have given their attention to it at various times in the past (for a review, see Rensink, 2002a). But things seem different this time around. This time, there is an emerging belief that instead of being just another visual ability, the perception of change may be something central to our (...)
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  46. The Perception of Correlation in Scatterplots.Ronald A. Rensink - unknown
    We present a rigorous way to evaluate the visual perception of correlation in scatterplots, based on classical psychophysical methods originally developed for simple properties such as brightness. Although scatterplots are graphically complex, the quantity they convey is relatively simple. As such, it may be possible to assess the perception of correlation in a similar way.
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  47. The Stability of Color, Location, and Object Presence in Mental Representations of Natural Scenes.Ronald Rensink - unknown
    Purpose. Although observers easily extract the global meaning of natural scenes, it is often the case that they do not notice or remember all of their individual properties. It appears that some scene properties are more readily coded in mental representations than others. We tested the role of three different object properties - color, location, and presence/absence - in scene representations.
     
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  48. A New Proof of the NP-Completeness of Visual Match.Ronald Rensink - manuscript
    A new proof is presented of Tsotsos' result that the VISUAL MATCH problem is NP-complete when no (high-level) constraints are imposed on the search space. Like the proof given by Tsotsos, it is based on the polynomial reduction of the NP-complete problem KNAPSACK to VISUAL MATCH. Tsotsos' proof, however, involves limited-precision real numbers, which introduces an extra degree of complexity to his treatment. The reduction of KNAPSACK to VISUAL MATCH presented here makes no use of limited-precision numbers, leading to a (...)
     
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  49. Apparent Length in Preattentive Vision: Evidence for Low Level Grouping.Ronald Rensink - unknown
    Theories of human vision have generally assumed that the features underlying visual search and texture segmentation correspond to simple measurements made at the first stages of visual processing. In this paper, we describe a series of visual search experiments that refute this assumption. Using several variants of the Mueller-Lyer figure, we show that an illusion of length exists in preattentive vision -- search is easy when items contain line segments of equal length, but becomes difficult when these segments are adjusted (...)
     
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  50. Identification of Highlights in Early Vision.Ronald Rensink - unknown
    Methods. Visual search experiments were carried out using simple black and white figures corresponding to shiny objects lit from various directions. These included, for example, depictions of cylinders with highlights positioned at various heights (see figure). Targets and distractors differed only in the arrangement of their constituent regions, allowing them to be distinguished by the position of the highlights on the corresponding objects.
     
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