Results for 'R. Stephen Crespi'

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  1.  75
    An Analysis of Moral Issues Affecting Patenting Inventions in the Life Sciences: A European Perspective.R. Stephen Crespi - 2000 - Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (2):157-180.
    Following the 1980 US Supreme Court decision to allow a patent on a living organism, debate has continued on the moral issues involved in biotechnology patents of many kinds and remains a contentious issue for those opposed to the use of biotechnology in industry and agriculture. Attitudes to patenting in the life sciences, including those of the research scientists themselves, are analysed. The relevance of morality to patent law is discussed here in an international context with particular reference to the (...)
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  2.  68
    Ethico-Legal Issues in Biomedicine Patenting: A Patent Professional Viewpoint.R. Stephen Crespi - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (1):117-136.
    Over the last two decades, the ethical implications of patents for biological materials and processes have been the subject of spirited public debate between the many individuals and groups on which the patent system impacts. Whereas copyright, trade marks, and other species of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are widely acceptable, the patent system evokes criticism from many quarters, especially in relation to the legal protection of inventions in the Life Sciences. Some of these criticisms expressed by prestigious public organisations are (...)
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  3.  30
    Criticism and Perspectivism: The Transition Between Nietzsche's Two Truths.R. Stephen Krebbs - 1997 - The European Legacy 2 (2):388-393.
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  4.  60
    Ethical Considerations in the Use of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising and Pharmaceutical Promotions: The Impact on Pharmaceutical Sales and Physicians. [REVIEW]R. Stephen Parker & Charles E. Pettijohn - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 48 (3):279-290.
    The influence of direct-to-consumer advertising and physician promotions are examined in this study. We further examine some of the ethical issues which may arise when physicians accept promotional products from pharmaceutical companies. The data revealed that direct-to-consumer advertising is likely to increase the request rates of both the drug category and the drug brand choices, as well as the likelihood that those drugs will be prescribed by physicians. The data further revealed that the majority of responding physicians were either neutral (...)
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  5.  10
    Is Friedrich Nietzsche a Precursor to the Holistic Movement?R. Stephen Krebbs - 1989 - History of European Ideas 11 (1-6):701-709.
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  6.  8
    Life: A Resolution to the Post-Modern Problem of Identity and Diversity.R. Stephen Krebbs - 1992 - History of European Ideas 15 (1-3):121-126.
  7. The Works of Francis Bacon [Collected by R. Stephens and J. Locker, Publ. By T. Birch].Francis Bacon, Thomas Birch & Robert Stephens - 1765
     
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  8. Pretending to Be Awake: A Reply.R. Stephen Talmage - 1968 - Noûs 2 (1):91-94.
  9. Hart's Methodological Positivism: Stephen R. Perry.Stephen R. Perry - 1998 - Legal Theory 4 (4):427-467.
    To understand H.L.A. Hart's general theory of law, it is helpful to distinguish between substantive and methodological legal positivism. Substantive legal positivism is the view that there is no necessary connection between morality and the content of law. Methodological legal positivism is the view that legal theory can and should offer a normatively neutral description of a particular social phenomenon, namely law. Methodological positivism holds, we might say, not that there is no necessary connection between morality and law, but rather (...)
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  10.  17
    Utilitarianism and the Morality of Killing.R. Stephen Talmage - 1972 - Philosophy 47 (179):55 - 63.
    In the course of his interesting paper ‘The Morality of Killing’ , Mr. T. Goodrich apparently seeks to prove that decisions about population control cannot be based on the utilitarian principle. More exactly, I think, he wishes to show that such decisions cannot be based on this principle by making appeal either to the interests of those persons who would be brought into existence as a result of a decision to add to the population or to the interests, at times (...)
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  11.  11
    Human Heart Rate Responses During Experimentally Induced Anxiety: A Follow-Up.R. Stephen Jenks & George E. Deane - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (1):109.
  12. An Uneasy Case Against Property Rights in Body Parts*: STEPHEN R. MUNZER.Stephen R. Munzer - 1994 - Social Philosophy and Policy 11 (2):259-286.
    This essay deals with property rights in body parts that can be exchanged in a market. The inquiry arises in the following context. With some exceptions, the laws of many countries permit only the donation, not the sale, of body parts. Yet for some years there has existed a shortage of body parts for transplantation and other medical uses. It might then appear that if more sales were legally permitted, the supply of body parts would increase, because people would have (...)
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  13.  4
    Correspondence.R. Stephen Berry - 1971 - Minerva 9 (4):565-567.
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  14.  19
    L'Islam et la Croisade: Idéologie et Propagande dans les Réactions Musulmanes aux CroisadesL'Islam et la Croisade: Ideologie et Propagande dans les Reactions Musulmanes aux Croisades.R. Stephen Humphreys & Emmanuel Sivan - 1972 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 92 (2):391.
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  15.  19
    Josef van Ess, Theologie und Gesellschaft im 2. und 3. Jahrhundert Hidschra: Eine Geschichte des religiösen Denkens im frühen Islam, 1–2. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1991, 1992. 1: pp. xxxii, 456; 1 table. 2: pp. xi, 742. 1: DM 264. 2: DM 400. [REVIEW]R. Stephen Humphreys - 1994 - Speculum 69 (3):907-910.
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  16.  17
    Studies in Memory of Gaston Wiet.R. Stephen Humphreys & Myriam Rosen-Ayalon - 1981 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 101 (2):224.
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  17.  2
    Why Science?R. Stephen White - 1998 - Kroshka.
    The book Why Science? is written for the millions of science teachers, students and the public who want evidence for their views. Society must make important choices in health and medicine, the environment, energy sources, the courts and in risk and safety. These issues and many other problems facing us require knowledge of science for their solution. Polls show that nearly half of the US population believes the myths, superstition and paranormal delivered by TV and the press. Despite the great (...)
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  18.  10
    A History of the Ayyubid Sultans of Egypt.R. Stephen Humphreys, Taqī al-Dīn al-Maqrīzī, R. J. C. Broadhurst & Taqi al-Din al-Maqrizi - 1983 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 103 (2):449.
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  19.  8
    Middle Eastern Cities: A Symposium on Ancient, Islamic, and Contemporary Middle Eastern Urbanism.R. Stephen Humphreys & Ira M. Lapidus - 1972 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 92 (1):119.
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  20.  23
    Slaves and Citizens: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1985 - Philosophy 60 (231):27-46.
    R. M. Hare has argued 1 that there are conceivable circumstances in which it would be right not to abolish the institution of slavery: in the imaginary land of Juba established slave-plantations are managed by a benevolent elite for the good of all, no ‘cruel or unusual ’ punishments are in use, and citizens of the neighbouring island of Camaica, ‘free ’but impoverished, regularly seek to become slaves. Hare adds that it is unlikely, given human nature, that ‘masters ’would treat (...)
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  21.  3
    A Thematic Analysis Investigating the Impact of Positive Behavioral Support Training on the Lives of Service Providers: “It Makes You Think Differently”.R. Stephen Walsh, Brian McClean, Nancy Doyle, Suzanne Ryan, Sammy-Jo Scarborough-Lang, Anna Rishton & Neil Dagnall - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  22.  42
    Plotinus: Charms and Countercharms: Stephen R.L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2009 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 65:215-231.
    For the last few years, thanks to the Leverhulme Trust, I've been largely absent from my department, working on the late antique philosopher Plotinus. To speak personally – it's been a difficult few years, since my youngest daughter has been afflicted with anorexia during this period, and my own bowel cancer was discovered, serendipitously, and removed, at the end of 2005. Since then I've had ample occasion to consider the importance – and the difficulty – of the practice of detachment, (...)
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  23.  32
    How to Become Unconscious: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2010 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 67:21-44.
    Consistent materialists are almost bound to suggest that ‘conscious experience’, if it exists at all, is no more than epiphenomenal. A correct understanding of the real requires that everything we do and say is no more than a product of whatever processes are best described by physics, without any privileged place, person, time or scale of action. Consciousness is a myth, or at least a figment. Plotinus was no materialist: for him, it is Soul and Intellect that are more real (...)
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  24.  27
    Non-Personal Minds: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2003 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 53:185-209.
    Persons are creatures with a range of personal capacities. Most known to us are also people, though nothing in observation or biological theory demands that all and only people are persons, nor even that persons, any more than people, constitute a natural kind. My aim is to consider what non-personal minds are like. Darwin's Earthworms are sensitive, passionate and, in their degree, intelligent. They may even construct maps, embedded in the world they perceive around them, so as to be able (...)
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  25.  25
    Abstract Morality, Concrete Cases: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1987 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 22:35-53.
    Practitioners of disciplines whose problems are debated by moral philosophers regularly complain that the philosophers are engaged in abstract speculation, divorced from ‘real-life’ consequences and responsibilities, that it is the practitioners who must take the decisions, and that they cannot act in accordance with strict abstract logic.
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  26.  23
    Descartes' Debt to Augustine: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1992 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 32:73-88.
    Jonathan Edwards identified the central act of faith as ‘the cordial consent of beings to Being in general’, which is to say to God . That equation, of Being, Truth and God, is rarely taken seriously in analytical circles. My argument will be that this is to neglect the real context of a great deal of past philosophy, particularly the very Cartesian arguments from which so many undergraduate courses begin. All too many students issue from such courses immunized against enthusiasm, (...)
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  27.  23
    The Better Part: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1993 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 35:29-49.
    According to Aristotle, the goal of anyone who is not simply stupid or slavish is to live a worthwhile life. There are, no doubt, people who have no goal at all beyond the moment's pleasure or release from pain. There may be people incapable of reaching any reasoned decision about what to do, and acting on it. But anyone who asks how she should live implicitly agrees that her goal is to live well, to live a life that she can (...)
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  28.  13
    Tools, Machines and Marvels: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1995 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 38:159-176.
    Technology, according to Derry and Williams's Short History , ‘comprises all that bewilderingly varied body of knowledge and devices by which man progressively masters his natural environment’. Their casual, and unconscious, sexism is not unrelated to my present topic. Women enter the story as spinners, burden bearers and, at long last, typists. ‘The tying of a bundle on the back or the dragging of it along upon the outspread twigs of a convenient branch are contributions [and by implication the only (...)
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  29.  36
    Global Religion: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1994 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 36:113-128.
    The social and environmental problems that we face at this tail end of twentieth-century progress require us to identify some cause, some spirit that transcends the petty limits of our time and place. It is easy to believe that there is no crisis. We have been told too often that the oceans will soon die, the air be poisonous, our energy reserves run dry; that the world will grow warmer, coastlands be flooded and the climate change; that plague, famine and (...)
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  30.  25
    Deconstructing the Laws of Logic: Stephen R.L. Clark.Stephen R. Clark - 2008 - Philosophy 83 (1):25-53.
    I consider reasons for questioning ‘the laws of logic’, and suggest that these laws do not accord with everyday reality. Either they are rhetorical tools rather than absolute truths, or else Plato and his successors were right to think that they identify a reality distinct from the ordinary world of experience, and also from the ultimate source of reality.
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  31.  91
    Therapy and Theory Reconstructed: Plato and His Successors: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2010 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 66:83-102.
    When we speak of philosophy and therapy, or of philosophy as therapy, the usual intent is to suggest that ‘philosophizing’ is or should be a way to clarify the mind or purify the soul. While there may be little point in arguing with psychoses or deeply-embedded neuroses our more ordinary misjudgements, biases and obsessions may be alleviated, at least, by trying to ‘see things clearly and to see them whole’, by carefully identifying premises and seeing what they – rationally – (...)
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  32.  34
    Sexual Ontology and Group Marriage: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1983 - Philosophy 58 (224):215-227.
    Philosophers of earlier ages have usually spent time in considering thenature of marital, and in general familial, duty. Paley devotes an entire book to those ‘relative duties which result from the constitution of the sexes’,1 a book notable on the one hand for its humanity and on the other for Paley‘s strange refusal to acknowledge that the evils for which he condemns any breach of pure monogamy are in large part the result of the fact that such breaches are generally (...)
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  33.  33
    Orwell and the Anti-Realists: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1992 - Philosophy 67 (260):141-154.
    The purpose of Newspeak was not only to provide a medium of expression for the world-view and mental habits proper to the devotees of Ingsoc, but to make all other modes of thought impossible.
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  34.  41
    Where Have All the Angels Gone?1: STEPHEN R. L. CLARK.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1992 - Religious Studies 28 (2):221-234.
    Anyone who wishes to talk about angels has to respond to the mocking question, how many of them can dance on the point of a pin. The answer is: ‘just as many as they please’. Angels being immaterial intellects do not occupy space to the exclusion of any other such intellectual substance, and their being ‘on’ the point of a pin can only mean that they attend to it. The question, however, is not one that concerned our mediaeval predecessors, although (...)
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  35.  31
    The Limits of Explanation: Limited Explanations: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1990 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 27:195-210.
    When I was first approached to read a paper at the conference from which this volume takes its beginning I expected that Flint Schier, with whom I had taught a course on the Philosophy of Biology in my years at Glasgow, would be with us to comment and to criticize. I cannot let this occasion pass without expressing once again my own sense of loss. I am sure that we would all have gained by his presence, and hope that he (...)
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  36.  21
    World Religions and World Orders: STEPHEN R. L. CLARK.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1990 - Religious Studies 26 (1):43-57.
    There are good reasons for being suspicious of the very concept of ‘a religion’, let alone a ‘world religion’. It may be useful for a hospital administrator to know a patient's ‘religion’ – as Protestant or Church of England or Catholic or Buddhist – but such labels clearly do little more than identify the most suitable chaplain, and connote groupings in the vast and confusing region of ‘religious thought and practice’ that are of very different ranks. By any rational, genealogical (...)
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  37.  41
    How Many Selves Make Me?1: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1991 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 29:213-233.
    Cartesian accounts of the mental make it axiomatic that consciousness is transparent: what I feel, I know I feel, however many errors I may make about its cause. ‘I’ names a simple, unextended, irreducible substance, created ex nihilo or eternally existent, and only associated with the complete, extended, dissoluble substance or pretend-substance that is ‘my’ body by divine fiat. Good moderns take it for granted that ‘we’ now realize how shifting, foggy and deconstructible are the boundaries of the self; ‘we’ (...)
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  38.  13
    Thinking About How and Why to Think 1: Stephen R. L. Clark.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1996 - Philosophy 71 (277):385-403.
    1. Believing Enough to Think The Scottish system of university education requires most aspirants to an Ordinary Degree to study some philosophy. Philosophers in Scottish Universities must therefore contend with enormous first-year classes, stocked with youngsters who have little real desire to be philosophers, or even to philosophize. Some years ago, at Glasgow, a question in the final exam was as follows: ‘“Philosophy is of no use, and so should not be studied.” Discuss’. A couple of hundred students answered, more (...)
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  39.  6
    Changes in Aspects of Social Functioning Depend Upon Prior Changes in Neurodisability in People with Acquired Brain Injury Undergoing Post-Acute Neurorehabilitation.Dónal G. Fortune, R. Stephen Walsh, Brian Waldron, Caroline McGrath, Maurice Harte, Sarah Casey & Brian McClean - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  40. The Things We Mean.Stephen R. Schiffer - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Stephen Schiffer presents a groundbreaking account of meaning and belief, and shows how it can illuminate a range of crucial problems regarding language, mind, knowledge, and ontology. He introduces the new doctrine of 'pleonastic propositions' to explain what the things we mean and believe are. He discusses the relation between semantic and psychological facts, on the one hand, and physical facts, on the other; vagueness and indeterminacy; moral truth; conditionals; and the role of propositional content in information acquisition and (...)
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  41.  82
    Remnants of Meaning.Stephen R. Schiffer - 1987 - MIT Press.
    In this foundational work on the theory of linguistic and mental representation, Stephen Schiffer surveys all the leading theories of meaning and content in the philosophy of language and finds them lacking. He concludes that there can be no correct, positive philosophical theory or linguistic or mental representation and, accordingly advocates the deflationary "no-theory theory of meaning and content." Along the way he takes up functionalism, the nature of propositions and their suitability as contents, the language of thought and (...)
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  42.  6
    Islamic History: A Framework for Inquiry.Carole Hillenbrand & R. Stephen Humphreys - 1997 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 117 (4):752.
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  43.  6
    The Psychology of Classroom Learning.Gordon R. Cross & John M. Stephens - 1965 - British Journal of Educational Studies 14 (1):151.
  44.  7
    Cuthman: A Neglected Saint.G. R. Stephens & W. D. Stephens - 1938 - Speculum 13 (4):448-453.
  45. Meaning.Stephen R. Schiffer - 1972 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford, Clarendon Press.
    What is it for marks or sounds to have meaning, and what is it for someone to mean something in producing them? Answering these and related questions, Schiffer explores communication, speech acts, convention, and the meaning of linguistic items in this reissue of a seminal work on the foundations of meaning. A new introduction takes account of recent developments and places his theory in a broader context.
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  46. Book Review: Stephen J. Pope, Human Evolution and Christian Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007). Xiii + 359 Pp. £50/US$95 (Hb), ISBN 978-0-521-86340-7. [REVIEW]Stephen R. L. Clark - 2009 - Studies in Christian Ethics 22 (4):506-509.
  47.  15
    Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Inventory of Personality Organization-Reality Testing Subscale.Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Andrew Parker, Kenneth Drinkwater & R. Stephen Walsh - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  48. Is Understanding a Species of Knowledge?Stephen R. Grimm - 2006 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (3):515-535.
    Among philosophers of science there seems to be a general consensus that understanding represents a species of knowledge, but virtually every major epistemologist who has thought seriously about understanding has come to deny this claim. Against this prevailing tide in epistemology, I argue that understanding is, in fact, a species of knowledge: just like knowledge, for example, understanding is not transparent and can be Gettiered. I then consider how the psychological act of "grasping" that seems to be characteristic of understanding (...)
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  49.  27
    Book Review: Stephen J. Pope, Human Evolution and Christian Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007). Xiii+ 359 Pp.£ 50/US $95 (Hb), ISBN 978-0-521-86340-7. [REVIEW]Stephen R. L. Clark - 2009 - Studies in Christian Ethics 22 (4):506-509.
  50.  31
    Kantian Causality and Quantum Quarks: The Compatibility Between Quantum Mechanics and Kant’s Phenomenal World.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2013 - Theoria 28 (2):283-302.
    Quantum indeterminism seems incompatible with Kant’s defense of causality in his Second Analogy. The Copenhagen interpretation also takes quantum theory as evidence for anti-realism. This first article of a two-part series argues that the law of causality, as transcendental, applies only to the world as observable, not to hypothetical objects such as quarks, detectable only by high energy accelerators. Taking Planck’s constant and the speed of light as the lower and upper bounds of observability provides a way of interpreting the (...)
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