As Plato’s Phaedrus 246c stipulates, every logos must be structured like a living being, i.e., the relation of all its parts to one another and to the whole must be appropriate. Thus, the present paper argues that Plato’s masterwork has been organized in accord with the ascent/descent movement as presented in the Allegory of the Cave: Book I represents eikasia, Books II–IV.434c exemplify pistis, Book IV.434d–444e illustrates dianoia and Books V–VII express noesis. Having reached the anabasis the philosopher turns to (...) the consideration of the deficient or unjust forms of the souls and the corresponding political regimes. Finally, the discussion comes back to eikasia through the renewed criticism of mimesis and the exposition of the Myth of Er. As is typical of Plato, this is not merely a formal matter, since the structure conveys that as the Good makes the Ideas intelligible, so the Sun, the Line and the Cave images also throw light on the whole dialogue. (shrink)
Areté cumple diez años. Es, por cierto, un aniversario modesto, pero que no deja de ofrecer una buena ocasión para pensar en una celebración académica. Fue con esa intención que decidimos, hace ya dos años, preparar un volumen especial que estuviese dedicado a esclarecer desde diferentes perspectivas la noción que da nombre a nuestra revista: la noción de areté. Invitamos a participar en él a nuestros colaboradores y amigos, pero también a otros filósofos que han dedicado parte de su obra (...) a estudiar los orígenes o las repercusiones de dicha noción en la historiade la filosofía. (shrink)
The controversy conceming the unity of Plato's Parmenides and the meaning of its first part is stillongoing. The A. proposes a solution, pointing out its structural coincidence with the Republic's simile of the line. This leads him to confine young Socrates in the segment that corresponds to óuivoux and old Parmenides in the vór¡olc; segment. As the one who "possesses insight" of truth based on his apprehension of the One-Good. Parmenides is the actual representative of the philosopher's arete.
The purpose of this paper is to show that Plato uses contradictions in the Republic as an impulse to think and to advance in the ascent to the Idea of the good. The procedure to dissolve the main contradictions in the text is that of aphairesis, complementary to that of prosthēsis. Also if they are explicitly named just at the beginning and at the end of the ascent, I will show that aphairesis and prosthēsis are consistently applied throughout the ascendant (...) argument of Republic I-VII. Starting with the separation of the opposites at the sensible level, the process will continue separating the rational and the irrational in the soul and culminate when explicitly naming the aphairesis of the One/Good at the intelligible level. As will be seen, the opposites in question are unity and indeterminate/indefinite multiplicity. But also if named, the culminating aphairēsis of the Idea of the Good will not be consistently developed in the Republic. Some important allusions to it will also be found in the Parmenides allowing us to solve the main unresolved contradictions in the Republic in consonance with the theory of principles of the agrapha dogmata. (shrink)
Patrizia Lombardo | : Stendhal et Musil sont les deux écrivains par excellence qui se sont interrogés sur le type de connaissance qui vient de la littérature. Avant Musil et comme Musil, Stendhal répond à cette question fondamentale en montrant que le roman offre une connaissance des émotions humaines et de leur lien avec les valeurs. Il s’agit à la fois de valeurs éthiques — les situations morales dans lesquelles se trouvent les personnages — et des valeurs esthétiques et (...) proprement littéraires — le tragique, le comique, le tragi-comique, le sublime, etc. Surtout, le roman n’est pas simple représentation du réel, mais aussi du possible. L’analyse de quelques phrases hypothétiques, conjectures et expériences de pensée dans Le Rouge et le Noir, confirme la thèse que la littérature propose une connaissance du possible à travers le travail de l’imagination. | : Stendhal and Musil are deeply concerned with the question of theknowledge value of literature. Like Musil and before him, Stendhalanswered this question by showing the potential of the novel :this literary form presents human emotions and their connection tovalues. The characters deal with various situations, therefore conveyethical values, while aesthetic values —such as the comic, thetragic, the tragic-comic, the sublime- emerge from the way in whichhuman actions and emotions are represented. All these values arebrought about by the style of Stendhal, which is both form and content,both ethical and aesthetic. The analysis of some hypotheticalsentences, conjectures and thought experiments in The Red and the Blackconfirms the thesis later endorsed by Musil, that literature allows forthe knowledge of the possible, thanks to the exercise of theimagination. (shrink)
Lombardo and Bell have translated this important early dialogue on virtue, wisdom, and the nature of Sophistic teaching into an idiom remarkable for its liveliness and subtlety. Michael Frede has provided a substantial introduction that illuminates the dialogue's perennial interest, its Athenian political background, and the particular difficulties and ironic nuances of its argument.
The objective of this study has been to establish the level of significance that Gustavo Gutierrez and Juan Luis Segundo attribute to politics in their contributions to liberation theology and to extract the relevant consequences for political theory. ;A systematic analysis of the theory of history in the works of these two authors indicates a higher level of integration between Christianity and politics that is usual in Christian political thought. Liberation is equated with salvation and political liberation is seen as (...) one of its components. This brings politics to a position of privilege. When at the service of justice it occupies, for our authors, a high rank among Christian concerns and when devoted to oppression it requires diligent response from every Christian. ;This understanding of politics is valuable in that it accentuates the political aspect of the Christian theory of history, an element frequently underestimated. Certain tensions remain, however, in the theory as a result of this emphasis: between the moral improvement expected from the involvement in political activities conducive to justice and the moral ambiguity of political structures emerging from such activity; and between the use of the concept of class struggle and notions of conversion and reconciliation. Finally, there is the danger of reducing the critical ability of Christians regarding a particular political project by identifying it with the concept of eschatology. (shrink)
Since its inception the ‘mindblindness’ theory of autism has greatly furthered our understanding of the core social-communication impairments in autism spectrum conditions . However, one of the more subtle issues within the theory that needs to be elaborated is the role of the ‘self’. In this article, we expand on mindblindness in ASC by addressing topics related to the self and its central role in the social world and then review recent research in ASC that has yielded important insights by (...) contrasting processes relating to both self and other. We suggest that new discoveries lie ahead in understanding how self and other are interrelated and/or distinct, and how understanding atypical self-referential and social-cognitive mechanisms may lead to novel ideas as to how to facilitate social-communicative abilities in ASC. (shrink)
Are verbal reports of disgust in moral situations specific indicators of the concept of disgust, or are they used metaphorically to refer to anger? In this experiment, participants read scenarios describing a violation of a norm either about the use of the body (bodily moral) or about harm and rights (socio-moral). They then expressed disgust and anger on verbal scales, and through facial expression endorsement measures. The use of disgust words in the socio-moral condition was largely predicted by anger words (...) and only secondarily by disgust faces, whereas in the bodily moral condition the use of disgust words was predicted to a similar extent by disgust faces and anger words. Angry faces, however, never predicted disgust words independently of anger words. These results support a middle-ground position in which disgust words concerning socio-moral violations are not entirely a metaphor for anger, but bear some relationship to other representations of disgust. In the case of socio-moral violations, however, the use of disgust language is more strongly related to anger language, and less strongly to facial representations of disgust than in the case of bodily moral violations. (shrink)
This book comprises 26 exciting chapters by internationally renowned scholars, addressing the central psychological proces separating humans from other animals: the ability to imagine the thoughts and feelings of othersm and to reflect on the contents of our own minds - a "theory of mind" (ToM).
We review and discuss A. H. Louie’s book “More than Life Itself: A Reflexion on Formal Systems and Biology” from an interdisciplinary viewpoint, involving both biology and mathematics, taking into account new developments and related theories.
A partir del análisis e interpretación de diversos textos fundacionales sobre el grupo de discusión y su concepción en el ámbito español y latinoamericano, se critica la idea reduccionista de entender esta técnica como una forma más abierta y menos directiva del genérico focusgroup anglosajón. Dicha confusión es analizada con el fin de establecer las relaciones existentes entre ambas técnicas y las posibles diferencias que las distingue y opone entre sí. El resultado del análisis lleva a concebir al grupo de (...) discusión cómo una técnica necesitada del focusgoup y, a la vez, establecer en dicha necesidad un motivo para indagar en la parte sustantiva de la dinámica grupal que caracteriza a esta técnica.This articleanalyses the tendency to understand the technique of discussiongroup asa less directivefocus group. This simplifying idea is confusing and is criticized with the objective to know the motives that hold together both techniques. The analysis established the dependent relationship between discussiongroup and focus group, as well as finding in this dependence the reason to understand the discussiongroup as a group dynamics totally different to the focus group. (shrink)
This paper offers a comparison between the aristocratic radicalism of Nietzsche and that of the Colombian philosopher, Nicolás Gómez Dávila, in order to point out their points of contact and their differences. This leads to the analysis of the uneven reception of their ideas, which at the same time ..
Dentro de toda la obra de Vico subyace -a pesar de su tensión con Descartes y de sus pretensiones jurídicas y filológicas- una vigorosa preocupación por lo humano. Esta preocupación recorre desde la tesis del conocer por causas de la ciencia hasta la afirmación de la comprensión como forma específica del conocimiento histórico.In the whole work of Vico can be found -despite his tension with Descartes and his juridical and philological intentions- a strong concern for humanity. This concern is visible (...) from the thesis of scientific knowledge by causes to the statement of comprehension as the specific method of historical knowledge. (shrink)
As Freud convincingly shows, civilised political life is a source of constant uneasiness. Desire propels the subject towards an end that remains unfulfilled and pleasure is reduced to a transition from one moment of displeasure to another. Freud conceives pleasure as suppression of an absence, as the result of a process. Marcuse in his turn showed that excessive pleasure works as a counterbalance for displeasure, the repression of sexual impulse and the hypertrophy of the genitalia producing intense pleasure. A post-Freudian (...) theory of pleasure would complement Marcuse’s materialist critique of psychoanalysis by learning to conceive pure pleasure (with Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics) in a non-metaphysical way, segregated from the notion of superfluity. (shrink)