Results for 'Radical economics'

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  1.  1
    The Odd Couple: Radical Economics and Liberal History.Clarence J. Karier - 1976 - Educational Studies 7 (2):185-193.
  2.  5
    Radical, Religious, and Violent: The New Economics of Terrorism.Eli Berman - 2009 - MIT Press.
    How do radical religious sects run such deadly terrorist organizations? Hezbollah, Hamas, Lashkar-e-Taiba, and the Taliban all began as religious groups dedicated to piety and charity. Yet once they turned to violence, they became horribly potent, executing campaigns of terrorism deadlier than those of their secular rivals. In [title], Eli Berman approaches the question using the economics of organizations. He first dispels some myths: radical religious terrorists are not generally motivated by the promise of rewards in the (...)
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  3.  17
    Transactional Economics: John Dewey's Ways of Knowing and the Radical Subjectivism of the Austrian School.Robert Mulligan - 2006 - Education and Culture 22 (2):61-82.
    The subjectivism of the Austrian school of economics is a special case of Dewey's transactional philosophy, also known as pragmatism or pragmatic epistemology. The Austrian economists Carl Friedrich Menger (1840-1921) and Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) adopted an Aristotelian deductive approach to economic issues such as social behavior and exchange. Like Menger and Mises, Friedrich A. Hayek (1899-1992) viewed scientific knowledge, even in the social sciences, as asserting and aiming for objective certainty. Hayek was particularly critical of attempts to apply (...)
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  4. Radical, Religious, and Violent: The New Economics of Terrorism.Eli Berman - 2011 - MIT Press.
    How do radical religious sects run such deadly terrorist organizations? Hezbollah, Hamas, Lashkar-e-Taiba, and the Taliban all began as religious groups dedicated to piety and charity. Yet once they turned to violence, they became horribly potent, executing campaigns of terrorism deadlier than those of their secular rivals. In [title], Eli Berman approaches the question using the economics of organizations. He first dispels some myths: radical religious terrorists are not generally motivated by the promise of rewards in the (...)
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  5. And Economics, with a Concentration in Globalization, at the University of Pennsylvania, and She Recently Studied English at King's College in London. She is Interested in Human Rights and Genocide Studies. She is the Associate Editor of “Critical Refusals,” the 2013 Double Special Issue of the Radical Phi.Francis Dupuis-Déri & Arnold L. Farr - 2013 - Radical Philosophy Review 16 (2):679-683.
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  6. Demo[C]Racy, Economics, and Radical Pluralism.Richard John Neuhaus - 1984 - In Adlai E. Stevenson & W. Lawson Taitte (eds.), The Citizen and His Government. the University of Texas Press.
     
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  7.  69
    Realism, Commonsensibles, and Economics:The Case of Contemporary Revealed Preference Theory.D. Wade Hands - 2012 - In Aki Lehtinen, Jaakko Kuorikoski & Petri Ylikoski (eds.), Economics for Real: Uskali Mäki and the Place of Truth in Economics. Routledge. pp. 156-178.
    This paper challenges Mäki's argument about commonsensibles by offering a case study from contemporary microeconomics – contemporary revealed preference theory (hereafter CRPT) – where terms like "preference," "utility," and to some extent "choice," are radical departures from the common sense meanings of these terms. Although the argument challenges the claim that economics is inhabited solely by commonsensibles, it is not inconsistent with such folk notions being common in economic theory.
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  8. Mentalism Versus Behaviourism in Economics: A Philosophy-of-Science Perspective.Christian List & Franz Dietrich - 2016 - Economics and Philosophy 32 (2):249-281.
    Behaviourism is the view that preferences, beliefs, and other mental states in social-scientific theories are nothing but constructs re-describing people's behaviour. Mentalism is the view that they capture real phenomena, on a par with the unobservables in science, such as electrons and electromagnetic fields. While behaviourism has gone out of fashion in psychology, it remains influential in economics, especially in ‘revealed preference’ theory. We defend mentalism in economics, construed as a positive science, and show that it fits best (...)
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  9.  41
    Regarding Nature: Industrialism and Deep Ecology.Andrew McLaughlin - 1993 - State University of New York Press.
    Regarding Nature: A conceptual introduction How should we regard nature? Until recently, this question was decisively answered by the practices of ...
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  10.  12
    External Validity and Libraries of Phenomena: A Critique of Guala's Methodology of Experimental Economics.Martin K. Jones - 2011 - Economics and Philosophy 27 (03):247-271.
    Francesco Guala has developed some novel and radical ideas on the problem of external validity, a topic that has not received much attention in the experimental economics literature. In this paper I argue that his views on external validity are not justified and the conclusions which he draws from these views, if widely adopted, could substantially undermine the experimental economics enterprise. In rejecting the justification of these views, the paper reaffirms the importance of experiments in economics.
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  11.  12
    Experimental Economics and the Artificiality of Alteration.Nicholas Bardsley - 2005 - Journal of Economic Methodology 12 (2):239-251.
    A neglected critique of social science laboratories alleges that they implement phenomena different to those supposedly under investigation. The critique purports to be conceptual and so invulnerable to a technical solution. I argue that it undermines some economics designs seeking to implement features of real societies, and counsels more modesty in experimental write?ups. It also constitutes a plausible argument that laboratory economics experiments are necessarily less demonstrative than natural scientific ones. More radical sceptical conclusions are unwarranted.
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  12.  26
    The Power of Speech Acts: Reflections on a Performative Concept of Ethical Oaths in Economics and Business.Vincent Blok - 2013 - Review of Social Economy 71 (2):187-208.
    Ethical oaths for bankers, economists and managers are increasingly seen as successful instruments to ensure more responsible behaviour. In this article, we reflect on the nature of ethical oaths. Based on John Austin's speech act theory and the work of Emmanuel Levinas, we introduce a performative concept of ethical oaths that is characterised by (1) the existential self-performative of the one I want to be, which is (2) demanded by the public context. Because ethical oaths are (3) structurally threatened by (...)
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  13.  5
    The Radical Conservatism of Frank H. Knight.Angus Burgin - 2009 - Modern Intellectual History 6 (3):513-538.
    This article examines the most prominent interwar economist at the University of Chicago, Frank Knight, through the lens of a controversial 1932 lecture in which he exhorted his audience to vote Communist. The fact that he did so poses a historical problem: why did the premier American exponent of conservative economic principles appear to advocate a vote for radical change? This article argues that the speech is representative of Knight's deliberately paradoxical approach, in which he refused to praise markets (...)
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  14.  70
    Radical Interactionism: Going Beyond Mead.Lonnie Athens - 2007 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (2):137–165.
    George Herbert Mead argues that human society is comprised of six basic institutions—language, family, economics, religion, polity, and science. I do not believe that he can be criticized for making institutions the cornerstones of a society, but he can definitely be criticized for his explanation of how our basic institutions originate, how these institutions operate in society after their inception, and how they later change, modifying society in the process. The problem with Mead's explanation of these three critical matters (...)
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  15. Property and Contract in Economics: The Case for Economic Democracy.David Ellerman - 1992 - Blackwell.
    From a pre-publication review by the late Austrian economist, Don Lavoie, of George Mason University: -/- "The book's radical re-interpretation of property and contract is, I think, among the most powerful critiques of mainstream economics ever developed. It undermines the neoclassical way of thinking about property by articulating a theory of inalienable rights, and constructs out of this perspective a "labor theory of property" which is as different from Marx's labor theory of value as it is from neoclassicism. (...)
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  16.  11
    The Development of Environmental Thinking in Economics.C. Spash - 1999 - Environmental Values 8 (4):413-435.
    There has always been a sub-group of established economists trying to convey an environmental critique of the mainstream. This paper traces their thinking into the late 20th century via the development of associations and journals in the USA and Europe. There is clearly a divergence between the conformity to neo-classical economics favoured by resource and environmental economists and the acceptance of more radical critiques apparent in ecological economics. Thus, the progressive elements of ecological economics are increasingly (...)
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  17.  6
    Higher Education, Collaboration and a New Economics.Amanda Fulford - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 50 (3):371-383.
    In this article I take as my starting point the economist, Jeremy Rifkin's, claims about the rise of what he calls the ‘collaborative commons’. For Rifkin, this is nothing less than the emergence of a new economic paradigm where traditional consumers exploit the possibilities of technology, and position themselves as ‘pro-sumers’. This emphasises their role in production rather than consumption alone, and shows how they aim to bypass a range of capitalist markets, from publishing to the music industry. In asking (...)
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  18. Home Economics for Gender Justice? A Case for Gender-Differentiated Caregiving Education.Behrends Jeff & Schouten Gina - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-15.
    Recent calls for reinstituting mandatory home economics education have emphasized its potential to advance gender egalitarian aims. The thought is that, because women’s disproportionate performance of caregiving and household labor is partially caused by gender socialization that better prepares women than men for such work, we can disrupt gender inegalitarian work distributions by preparing everyone for the sort of work in question. The curricula envisioned in these calls are gender-neutral, in the sense that they recommend identical educational interventions for (...)
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  19. Austrian Economics and the Social Doctrine of the Church: A Reflection Based on the Economic Writings of Mateo Liberatore and Oswald von Nell-Breuning.Alejandro A. Chafuen - 2003 - Journal des Economistes Et des Etudes Humaines 13 (2).
    In the field of economic policy, recommendations by members of the Austrian school of economics are opposed to the popular demands and statements made by most priests and other religious authorities. On the other hand, in the field of theory, the methodological individualism of the Austrians allows an easier dialogue with religious traditions respectful of free will. The influential writings of Mateo Liberatore, S.J. and Oswald von Nell-Breuning S.J, can help foster the dialogue between economists that promote market based (...)
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  20. Toward a Radical Critique of Utopianism: Dialectics and Dualism in the Works Offriedrich Hayek, Murray Rothbard and Karl Marx.Chris Matthew Sciabarra - 1988 - Dissertation, New York University
    This thesis develops a radical critique of utopian thinking by examining the dialectical and dualistic methodological elements in Hayekian, Rothbardian, and Marxian theory. Utopianism is defined as an abstract, dualistic, ahistorical form of social thought. Its central failure is its inability to resolve the polarity between its progressive intentions and the emergent, unintended consequences of human interaction. It grants to men an illusory degree of cognitive efficacy in its construction of a new society. Radicalism, however, recognizes socio-historical conditions in (...)
     
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  21. Nicholas Kaldor: The Economics and Politics of Capitalism as a Dynamic System.Ferdinando Targetti - 1992 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Nicholas Kaldor was one of this century's most original thinkers on economics, his influence on British economic policy second only to that of Keynes. This book traces the development of Kaldor's thought as it underwent a remarkable evolution from his membership of the Austrian neoclassical school to his embracing of radical Keynesianism. He was also extremely quick to grasp essential changes in economic reality and to forge analytical tools to explain them. Although he was innovative from 1938 onwards, (...)
     
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  22.  27
    Deep Contextualism and Radical Criticism: The Argument for a Division of Labour in Contemporary Political Theory.Mathias Thaler - 2012 - In José Maria Castro Caldas & Vítor Neves (eds.), Facts, Values and Objectivity in Economics. Routledge.
    This paper sheds light on the main issue of this book by affording a side look at a discipline other than economics, namely political theory. It is argued that the contemporary debate in political theory hinges on the question of 'realism'. Through a discussion of Raymond Geuss's work, the paper seeks to show that political theory remains caught between the conflicting requirements of deep contextual analysis and radically critical engagement with the world 'as it is'. Finally, the idea of (...)
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  23.  20
    Thinking and Acting Outside the Neo-Classical Economic Box: Reply to McMurtry.Bernard Hodgson - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 56 (3):289-303.
    This paper responds to Professor John McMurtry, primarily to his critique of my recent book, Economics as Moral Science. Although agreeing with my attribution of a "moral a priorism" to orthodox or neo-classical economics, McMurtry takes issue with my "conversion thesis", that an a priori, ethically committed theory can be transformed into a testable empirical science of actual behaviour through the application of institutional constraints to individual motivations. McMurtry views such a thesis as "logically possible but morally abhorrent". (...)
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  24.  21
    Radical Uncertainty: Beyond Probabilistic Models of Belief.Jan-Willem Romeijn & Olivier Roy - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (6):1221-1223.
    Over the past decades or so the probabilistic model of rational belief has enjoyed increasing interest from researchers in epistemology and the philosophy of science. Of course, such probabilistic models were used for much longer in economics, in game theory, and in other disciplines concerned with decision making. Moreover, Carnap and co-workers used probability theory to explicate philosophical notions of confirmation and induction, thereby targeting epistemic rather than decision-theoretic aspects of rationality. However, following Carnap’s early applications, philosophy has more (...)
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  25. Necro-Economics: Adam Smith and Death in the Life of the Universal.Warren Montag - 2005 - Radical Philosophy 134:7.
     
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  26.  13
    Formalism in Austrian‐School Welfare Economics: Another Pretense of Knowledge?David L. Prychitko - 1993 - Critical Review 7 (4):567-592.
    Contemporary Austrian?school economists reject neoclassical welfare theory for being founded on the benchmark of a perfectly competitive general equilibrium, and instead favor a formal theory deemed consistent with the notions of radical subjectivism and disequilibrium analysis. Roy Cordato advances a bold free?market benchmark by which to formally assess social welfare, economic efficiency, and externalities issues. Like all formalist, a priori theory, however, Cordato's reformulation cannot meet its own standards, being theoretically and empirically flawed, and perhaps ideologically suspect.
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  27.  5
    O Cristianismo diante dos Desafios da Globalização Econômica e Cultural (Christianity before the challenges of economic globalization and cultural) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2009v7n15p110. [REVIEW]Paulo Fernando Carneiro Andrade - 2009 - Horizonte 7 (15):110-121.
    O presente artigo objetiva refletir sobre os impactos da globalização econômica na cultura contemporânea. O processo acelerado de transformação da cultura e das relações sociais distingue-se de outros processos de mudança estrutural porque as mudanças no campo da economia desde a década de 1980 provocaram uma grave crise cultural. O que mais caracteriza os novos tempos é a expansão do mercado que se torna omniabrangente e omnipresente, transformando as relações humanas em relações de mercado. Globalização neoliberal e a expansão do (...)
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  28. “The Radical Stoics”.Jennifer Baker - 2015 - In Mark D. White (ed.), Economics and the Virtues: Building a New Moral Foundation, Oxford University Press, 2015. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
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  29. Dictating Research: Feminist Philosophy and the RAE; The Case of Economics.Christine Battersby, Frederick Lee & Sandra Harley - 1997 - Radical Philosophy 85.
     
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  30. Elizabeth Anderson, Value in Ethics and Economics.B. Brecher - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
     
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  31. Value in Ethics and Economics[REVIEW]Bob Brecher - 1995 - Radical Philosophy 71.
     
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  32. Conference Report: Political Studies Association Annual Conference, London School of Economics, 10–13 April 2000.Diana Coole - 2000 - Radical Philosophy 102.
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  33. Right, Wrong and Economics.Anthony de Jasay - 1995 - Journal des Economistes Et des Etudes Humaines 6 (4).
    George Stigler soutenait que l’économiste, quand il prêchait, ne pouvait faire plus que de recommander une éthique de la rationalité instrumentale, ou de la manière intelligente d’accorder les moyens aux fins. Les fins les plus importantes appartiendraient toutes à un maximande unique, la richesse, tempérée par un altruisme de proximité.L’agnosticisme moral radical de Stigler le conduisit à nier toute distinction entre les choix forcés et libres, les actes licites et illicites, le vol et le commerce dans la mesure où (...)
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  34. Living Within Limits: Ecology, Economics, and Population Taboos.Garrett Hardin - 1995 - Oup Usa.
    This book tackles the problem of overpopulation with an honesty and fearlessness that is unrivalled. Hardin suggests radical approaches to overpopulation and considers the consequences. This book is an intellectual feast that will enrage, disturb, and challenge the reader at every page.
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  35. Action, Entrepreneurship and Evolution.”.Elias L. Khalil - 2008 - In Weber (ed.), Handbook of Whiteheadian Process Thought. De Gruyter. pp. 145-160.
    This chapter offers a subtle but subversive thesis: There is no difference between everyday action and creativity and, consequently, evolution. This thesis is subversive. It goes against the dominant dogmas in economics (i.e., neoclassical theory) and evolutionary biology (i.e., neo-Darwinian theory). Both dogmas draw a radical divide between action and evolution. For neo-Darwinian theory, action is phenotype ultimately determined by genotype—while the genotype evolves according to another mechanism. For neoclassical economics, action is determined by rational calculation of (...)
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  36.  38
    The Genesis and Ethos of the Market, Luigino Bruni. Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, 240 Pages. [REVIEW]Adrian Pabst - 2013 - Economics and Philosophy 29 (3):430-437.
    Both modern political economy and capitalism rest on the separation of economics from ethics, which in turn can be traced to a number of shifts within philosophy and theology – notably the move away from practices of reciprocity and the common good towards the sole pursuit of individual freedom and self-interest. In his latest book, Luigino Bruni provides a compelling critique of capitalist markets and an alternative vision that fuses Aristotelian-Thomist virtue ethics with the Renaissance and Neapolitan Enlightenment tradition (...)
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  37.  97
    Pure Time Preference in Intertemporal Welfare Economics.J. Paul Kelleher - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    Several areas of welfare economics seek to evaluate states of affairs as a function of interpersonally comparable individual utilities. The aim is to map each state of affairs onto a vector of individual utilities, and then to produce an ordering of these vectors that can be represented by a mathematical function assigning a real number to each. When this approach is used in intertemporal contexts, a central theoretical question concerns the evaluative weight to be applied to utility coming at (...)
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  38.  83
    Progress in Economics: Lessons From the Spectrum Auctions.Anna Alexandrova & Robert Northcott - 2009 - In Harold Kincaid & Don Ross (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Economics. Oxford University Press. pp. 306--337.
    The 1994 US spectrum auction is now a paradigmatic case of the successful use of microeconomic theory for policy-making. We use a detailed analysis of it to review standard accounts in philosophy of science of how idealized models are connected to messy reality. We show that in order to understand what made the design of the spectrum auction successful, a new such account is required, and we present it here. Of especial interest is the light this sheds on the issue (...)
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  39.  86
    Eager for Fairness or for Revenge? Psychological Altruism in Economics.Christine Clavien & Rebekka A. Klein - 2010 - Economics and Philosophy 26 (3):267-290.
    To understand the human capacity for psychological altruism, one requires a proper understanding of how people actually think and feel. This paper addresses the possible relevance of recent findings in experimental economics and neuroeconomics to the philosophical controversy over altruism and egoism. After briefly sketching and contextualizing the controversy, we survey and discuss the results of various studies on behaviourally altruistic helping and punishing behaviour, which provide stimulating clues for the debate over psychological altruism. On closer analysis, these studies (...)
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  40. A Concept of Progress for Normative Economics.Philippe Mongin - 2006 - Economics and Philosophy 22 (1):19-54.
    The paper discusses the sense in which the changes undergone by normative economics in the twentieth century can be said to be progressive. A simple criterion is proposed to decide whether a sequence of normative theories is progressive. This criterion is put to use on the historical transition from the new welfare economics to social choice theory. The paper reconstructs this classic case, and eventually concludes that the latter theory was progressive compared with the former. It also briefly (...)
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  41.  82
    Mark Blaug on the Normativity of Welfare Economics.D. Wade Hands - 2013 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 6:1-25.
    Abstract: This paper examines Mark Blaug's position on the normative character of Paretian welfare economics: in general, and specifically with respect to his debate with Pieter Hennipman over this question during the 1990s. The paper also clarifies some of the confusions that emerged within the context of this debate, and closes by providing some additional arguments supporting Blaug's position that he himself did not provide.
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  42. The Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics for an Age of Commerce.Deirdre N. McCloskey - 2006 - University of Chicago Press.
    For a century and a half, the artists and intellectuals of Europe have scorned the bourgeoisie. And for a millennium and a half, the philosophers and theologians of Europe have scorned the marketplace. The bourgeois life, capitalism, Mencken’s “booboisie” and David Brooks’s “bobos”—all have been, and still are, framed as being responsible for everything from financial to moral poverty, world wars, and spiritual desuetude. Countering these centuries of assumptions and unexamined thinking is Deirdre McCloskey’s _The Bourgeois Virtues_, a magnum opus (...)
     
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  43.  21
    Less Radical Enlightenment: A Christian Wing of the French Enlightenment.Eric Palmer - 2017 - In Steffen Ducheyne (ed.), Reassessing the Radical Enlightenment. Routledge.
    Jonathan I. Israel claims that Christian ‘controversialists’ endeavoured first to obscure or efface Spinozism, materialism, and non-authoritarian free thought, and then, in the early eighteenth century, to fight these openly, and desperately. Israel appears to have adopted the view of enlightenment as a battle against what Voltaire has called ‘l’infâme’, and David Hume has labelled ‘stupidity, Christianity, and ignorance’. These authors’ barbs were launched later in the century, however, in the period of the high Enlightenment, following polarizing controversies of mid-century. (...)
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  44.  31
    How to Combine Rhetoric and Realism in the Methodology of Economics.Uskali Mäki - 1988 - Economics and Philosophy 4 (1):89.
    The tone of this paper is largely critical. Therefore, I would like to begin by praising Donald McCloskey and Arjo Klamer for their exciting and provocative initiative in the metatheory of economics. They have done us a great favor by opening our eyes to some hidden aspects in the intellectual practices of economists. They have shown that economics is rhetoric; it is persuasion, discourse, conversation, and negotiation, to use their favorite phrases. They have provided plausible arguments and illuminating (...)
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  45.  33
    Realism and Antirealism About Economics.Uskali Mäki - 2012 - In Handbook of the Philosophy of Economics. pp. 3--24.
    Economics is a controversial scientific discipline. One of the traditional issues that has kept economists and their critics busy is about whether economic theories and models are about anything real at all. The critics have argued that economic models are based on assumptions that are so utterly unrealistic that those models become purely fictional and have nothing informative to say about the real world. Many also claim that an antirealist instrumentalism (allegedly outlined by Milton Friedman in 1953) justifying such (...)
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  46.  6
    Some Non-Reasons for Non-Realism About Economics.Uskali Maki - 2002 - In Uskali Mäki (ed.), Fact and Fiction in Economics: Models, Realism and Social Construction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 90.
    Many participants in the debate over the current state and recent developments of economics make claims that are unrefined, simplistic, often exaggerated. This is understandable: the stakes are high, the issues trigger emotional responses, and few participants are motivated or equipped to seek more nuanced analyses. To assert, or to deny, that economics as a scientific discipline or a particular part of it (such as a model) is about reality – or refers to reality, represents it, is true (...)
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  47.  15
    Ethics in Economics: Lessons From Human Subjects Research.Megan Blomfield - 2012 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 5 (1):24-44.
    Many economists, it is said, “are inclined to deny that moral philosophy has anything to do with economics” . In this paper I challenge such inclinations bydrawing an analogy between economic interventions and humansubjects research. It is undeniable that investigators engaged in thelatter should adhere to specific ethical principles. I argue that analogousfeatures of economic interventions should lead us to recognise thatsimilar ethical concerns actually arise in both activities, and thusthat economic interventions should also be conducted in accordancewith ethical (...)
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  48.  27
    The Philosophy of Austrian Economics[REVIEW]Barry Smith - 1994 - Review of Austrian Economics 7:127–132.
    Review of David Gordon, The Philosophical Origins of Austrian Economics.
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  49.  50
    Toward a Feminist Philosophy of Economics.Drucilla K. Barker & Edith Kuiper (eds.) - 2003 - Routledge.
    Feminist economists have demonstrated that interrogating hierarchies based on gender, ethnicity, class and nation results in an economics that is biased and more faithful to empirical evidence than are mainstream accounts. This rigorous and comprehensive book examines many of the central philosophical questions and themes in feminist economics including: · History of economics · Feminist science studies · Identity and agency · Caring labor · Postcolonialism and postmodernism With contributions from such leading figures as Nancy Folbre, Julie (...)
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  50.  65
    Economics and Reality.Tony Lawson - 1997 - Routledge.
    There is an increasingly widespread belief, both within and outside the discipline, that modern economics is irrelevant to the understanding of the real world. Economics and Reality traces this irrelevance to the failure of economists to match their methods with their subject, showing that formal, mathematical models are unsuitable to the social realities economists purport to address. Tony Lawson examines the various ways in which mainstream economics is rooted in positivist philosophy and examines the problems this causes. (...)
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