Results for 'Rafał Witek'

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  1.  40
    Ethics and Patentability in Biotechnology.Rafał Witek - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (1):105-111.
    The systems of patent rights in force in Europe today, both at the level of national law and on the regional level, contain general clauses prohibiting the patenting of inventions whose publication and exploitation would be contrary to “ordre public” or morality. Recent years have brought frequent discussion about limiting the possibility of patent protection for biotechnological inventions for ethical reasons. This is undoubtedly a result of the dynamic development in this field in the last several years. Human genome sequencing, (...)
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  2.  29
    Rafał Urbaniak. Leśniewski’s Systems of Logic and Foundations of Mathematics.Rafał Urbaniak & Peter Simons - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica:nkw031.
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  3.  43
    An Interactional Account of Illocutionary Practice.Maciej Witek - 2015 - Language Sciences 47:43-55.
    The paper aims to develop an interactional account of illocutionary practice, which results from integrating elements of Millikan's biological model of language within the framework of Austin's theory of speech acts. The proposed account rests on the assumption that the force of an act depends on what counts as its interactional effect or, in other words, on the response that it conventionally invites or attempts to elicit. The discussion is divided into two parts. The first one reconsiders Austin's and Millikan's (...)
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  4.  64
    Non-Inferential Aspects of Ad Hominem and Ad Baculum.Katarzyna Budzynska & Maciej Witek - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (3):301-315.
    The aim of the paper is to explore the interrelation between persuasion tactics and properties of speech acts. We investigate two types of arguments ad: ad hominem and ad baculum. We show that with both of these tactics, the structures that play a key role are not inferential, but rather ethotic, i.e., related to the speaker’s character and trust. We use the concepts of illocutionary force and constitutive conditions related to the character or status of the speaker in order to (...)
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  5.  5
    The Expressive Dimension and Score-Changing Function of Speech Acts From the Evolutionist Point of View.Maciej Witek - 2019 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 96 (3):381-398.
    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, the author examines Mitchell Green’s account of the expressive power and score-changing function of speech acts; second, he develops an alternative, though also evolutionist approach to explaining these two hallmarks of verbal interaction. After discussing the central tenets of Green’s model, the author draws two distinctions – between externalist and internalist aspects of veracity, and between perlocutionary and illocutionary credibility – and argues that they constitute a natural refinement of Green’s original conceptual (...)
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  6.  6
    Illocution and Accommodation in the Functioning of Presumptions.Maciej Witek - forthcoming - Synthese:1-38.
    In this paper, I develop a speech-act based account of presumptions. Using a score-keeping model of illocutionary games, I argue that presumptions construed as speech acts can be grouped into three illocutionary act types defined by reference to how they affect the state of a conversation. The paper is organized into two parts. In the first one, I present the score-keeping model of speech act dynamics; in particular, I distinguish between two types of mechanisms—the direct mechanism of illocution and the (...)
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  7.  41
    Mechanisms of Illocutionary Games.Maciej Witek - 2015 - Language and Communication 42:11-22.
    The paper develops a score-keeping model of illocutionary games and uses it to account for mechanisms responsible for creating institutional facts construed as rights and commitments of participants in a dialogue. After introducing the idea of Austinian games—understood as abstract entities representing different levels of the functioning of discourse—the paper defines the main categories of the proposed model: interactional negotiation, illocutionary score, appropriateness rules and kinematics rules. Finally, it discusses the phenomenon of accommodation as it occurs in illocutionary games and (...)
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  8.  12
    The Physics of Optimal Decision Making: A Formal Analysis of Models of Performance in Two-Alternative Forced-Choice Tasks.Rafal Bogacz, Eric Brown, Jeff Moehlis, Philip Holmes & Jonathan D. Cohen - 2006 - Psychological Review 113 (4):700-765.
  9.  12
    Accommodation and Convention.Maciej Witek - 2016 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):99-115.
    The paper develops a non-Gricean account of accommodation: a contextadjusting process guided by the assumption that the speaker’s utterance constitutes an appropriate conversational move. The paper is organized into three parts. The first one reconstructs the basic tenets of Lepore and Stone's non-Gricean model of meaningmaking, which results from integrating direct intentionalism and extended semantics. The second part discusses the phenomenon of accommodation as it occurs in conversational practice. The third part uses the tenets of the non-Gricean model of meaning-making (...)
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  10.  40
    Linguistic Underdeterminacy: A View From Speech Act Theory.Maciej Witek - 2015 - Journal of Pragmatics 76:15-29.
    The aim of this paper is to reformulate the Linguistic Underdeterminacy Thesis by making use of Austin’s theory of speech acts. Viewed from the post-Gricean perspective, linguistic underdeterminacy consists in there being a gap between the encoded meaning of a sentence uttered by a speaker and the proposition that she communicates. According to the Austinian model offered in this paper, linguistic underdeterminacy should be analysed in terms of semantic and force potentials conventionally associated with the lexical and syntactic properties of (...)
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  11.  97
    How to Establish Authority with Words: Imperative Utterances and Presupposition Accommodation.Maciej Witek - 2013 - In Anna Brożek (ed.), Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science at Warsaw University, Warszawa 2013. pp. 145-157.
    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims at providing an account of an indirect mechanism responsible for establishing one's power to issue biding directive acts; second, it is intended as a case for an externalist account of illocutionary interaction. The mechanism in question is akin to what David Lewis calls presupposition accommodation: a rule-governed process whereby the context of an utterance is adjusted to make the utterance acceptable; the main idea behind the proposed account is that the (...)
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  12. Three Approaches to the Study of Speech Acts.Maciej Witek - 2013 - Dialogue and Universalism 23 (1):129-141.
    The paper reconstructs and discusses three different approaches to the study of speech acts: (i) the intentionalist approach, according to which most illocutionary acts are to be analysed as utterances made with the Gricean communicative intentions, (ii) the institutionalist approach, which is based on the idea of illocutions as institutional acts constituted by systems of collectively accepted rules, and (iii) the interactionalist approach the main tenet of which is to perform illocutionary acts by making conventional moves in accordance with patterns (...)
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  13.  40
    Optimal Decision-Making Theories: Linking Neurobiology with Behaviour.Rafal Bogacz - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (3):118-125.
  14.  9
    Melancholia I Katastrofa W Barokowym Dramacie Żałobnym.Rafał Michalski - 2018 - Ruch Filozoficzny 74 (2):45.
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  15.  27
    Scepticism About Reflexive Intentions Refuted.Maciej Witek - 2009 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 5 (1):69-83.
    The aim of this paper is to resist four arguments, originally developed by Mark Siebel, that seem to support scepticism about reflexive communicative intentions. I argue, first, that despite their complexity reflexive intentions are thinkable mental representations. To justify this claim, I offer an account of the cognitive mechanism that is capable of producing an intention whose content refers to the intention itself. Second, I claim that reflexive intentions can be individuated in terms of their contents. Third, I argue that (...)
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  16.  28
    Mereology Then and Now.Rafał Gruszczyński & Achille C. Varzi - 2015 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 24 (4):409.
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  17.  7
    Practical Employment of Granular Computing to Complex Application Layer Cyberattack Detection.Rafał Kozik, Marek Pawlicki, Michał Choraś & Witold Pedrycz - 2019 - Complexity 2019:1-9.
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  18. Space, Points and Mereology. On Foundations of Point-Free Euclidean Geometry.Rafał Gruszczyński & Andrzej Pietruszczak - 2009 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 18 (2):145-188.
    This article is devoted to the problem of ontological foundations of three-dimensional Euclidean geometry. Starting from Bertrand Russell’s intuitions concerning the sensual world we try to show that it is possible to build a foundation for pure geometry by means of the so called regions of space. It is not our intention to present mathematically developed theory, but rather demonstrate basic assumptions, tools and techniques that are used in construction of systems of point-free geometry and topology by means of mereology (...)
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  19.  40
    Narration in Judiciary Fact-Finding: A Probabilistic Explication.Rafal Urbaniak - 2018 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 26 (4):345-376.
    Legal probabilism is the view that juridical fact-finding should be modeled using Bayesian methods. One of the alternatives to it is the narration view, according to which instead we should conceptualize the process in terms of competing narrations of what happened. The goal of this paper is to develop a reconciliatory account, on which the narration view is construed from the Bayesian perspective within the framework of formal Bayesian epistemology.
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  20.  25
    Searle, Burge and Intentional Content.Maciej Witek - 2004 - In Johann Marek & Maria Reicher (eds.), Experience and Analysis: Papers of the 27th International Wittgenstein Symposium. Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society.
  21.  7
    A Study in Grzegorczyk Point-Free Topology Part I: Separation and Grzegorczyk Structures.Rafał Gruszczyński & Andrzej Pietruszczak - 2018 - Studia Logica 106 (6):1197-1238.
    This is the first, out of two papers, devoted to Andrzej Grzegorczyk’s point-free system of topology from Grzegorczyk :228–235, 1960. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00485101). His system was one of the very first fully fledged axiomatizations of topology based on the notions of region, parthood and separation. Its peculiar and interesting feature is the definition of point, whose intention is to grasp our geometrical intuitions of points as systems of shrinking regions of space. In this part we analyze separation structures and Grzegorczyk structures, and (...)
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  22.  46
    Lesniewski's Systems of Logic and Foundations of Mathematics.Rafal Urbaniak - 2013 - Springer.
    With material on his early philosophical views, his contributions to set theory and his work on nominalism and higher-order quantification, this book offers a uniquely expansive critical commentary on one of analytical philosophy’s great ...
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  23.  93
    Shifting Visual Attention Between Objects and Locations: Evidence From Normal and Parietal Lesion Subjects.R. Egly, J. Driver & R. D. Rafal - 1994 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 123 (2):161-177.
  24.  26
    Psychological Argumentation in Confucian Ethics as a Methodological Issue in Cross-Cultural Philosophy.Rafal Banka - 2016 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 15 (4):591-606.
    Graham Priest claims that Asian philosophy is going to constitute one of the most important aspects in 21st-century philosophical research. Assuming that this statement is true, it leads to a methodological question whether the dominant comparative and contrastive approaches will be supplanted by a more unifying methodology that works across different philosophical traditions. In this article, I concentrate on the use of empirical evidence from nonphilosophical disciplines, which enjoys popularity among many Western philosophers, and examine the application of this approach (...)
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  25. How to Define a Mereological (Collective) Set.Rafał Gruszczyński & Andrzej Pietruszczak - 2010 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 19 (4):309-328.
    As it is indicated in the title, this paper is devoted to the problem of defining mereological (collective) sets. Starting from basic properties of sets in mathematics and differences between them and so called conglomerates in Section 1, we go on to explicate informally in Section 2 what it means to join many objects into a single entity from point of view of mereology, the theory of part of (parthood) relation. In Section 3 we present and motivate basic axioms for (...)
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  26. Neologicist Nominalism.Rafal Urbaniak - 2010 - Studia Logica 96 (2):149-173.
    The goal is to sketch a nominalist approach to mathematics which just like neologicism employs abstraction principles, but unlike neologicism is not committed to the idea that mathematical objects exist and does not insist that abstraction principles establish the reference of abstract terms. It is well-known that neologicism runs into certain philosophical problems and faces the technical difficulty of finding appropriate acceptability criteria for abstraction principles. I will argue that a modal and iterative nominalist approach to abstraction principles circumvents those (...)
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  27.  22
    Selection for Action and Selection for Awareness: Evidence From Hemispatial Neglect.Robert Rafal, Robert Ward & Shai Danziger - 2006 - Brain Research. Special Issue 1080 (1):2-8.
  28.  12
    The theory of a theory meaning (teoria teorii znaczenia).Witek Maciej - 2009 - Filozofia Nauki 17 (2 (66)):92-112.
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  29.  40
    Full Development of Tarski's Geometry of Solids.Rafał Gruszczyński & Andrzej Pietruszczak - 2008 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 14 (4):481-540.
    In this paper we give probably an exhaustive analysis of the geometry of solids which was sketched by Tarski in his short paper [20, 21]. We show that in order to prove theorems stated in [20, 21] one must enrich Tarski's theory with a new postulate asserting that the universe of discourse of the geometry of solids coincides with arbitrary mereological sums of balls, i.e., with solids. We show that once having adopted such a solution Tarski's Postulate 4 can be (...)
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  30.  90
    Plural Quantifiers: A Modal Interpretation.Rafal Urbaniak - 2014 - Synthese 191 (7):1-22.
    One of the standard views on plural quantification is that its use commits one to the existence of abstract objects–sets. On this view claims like ‘some logicians admire only each other’ involve ineliminable quantification over subsets of a salient domain. The main motivation for this view is that plural quantification has to be given some sort of semantics, and among the two main candidates—substitutional and set-theoretic—only the latter can provide the language of plurals with the desired expressive power (given that (...)
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  31.  30
    Transcendental Elements in the Philosophy of Helmuth Plessner.Rafał Michalski - 2013 - Dialogue and Universalism 23 (2):7-24.
    The essay reviews references to Immanuel Kant’s transcendental philosophy in the work of Helmuth Plessner. First discussed is the Krisis der transzendentalen Wahrheit im Anfang, in which Plessner effects a critique of the transcendental method and shows that overcoming its crisis requires philosophy to rigorously restrict the applicability of theory to the experimental sphere and put it up for judgment by the tribunal of practical reason. Next under scrutiny is Plessner’s programmatic text in philosophical anthropology, in which he strives to (...)
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  32. Distributed Knowability and Fitch’s Paradox.Rafał Palczewski - 2007 - Studia Logica 86 (3):455-478.
    Recently predominant forms of anti-realism claim that all truths are knowable. We argue that in a logical explanation of the notion of knowability more attention should be paid to its epistemic part. Especially very useful in such explanation are notions of group knowledge. In this paper we examine mainly the notion of distributed knowability and show its effectiveness in the case of Fitch's paradox. Proposed approach raised some philosophical questions to which we try to find responses. We also show how (...)
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  33.  45
    Methods of Cheating and Deterrents to Classroom Cheating: An International Study.Richard A. Bernardi, Ania V. Baca, Kristen S. Landers & Michael B. Witek - 2008 - Ethics and Behavior 18 (4):373 – 391.
    This study examines the methods students use to cheat on class examinations and suggests ways of deterring using an international sample from Australia, China, Ireland, and the United States. We also examine the level of cheating and reasons for cheating that prior research has highlighted as a method of demonstrating that our sample is equivalent to those in prior studies. Our results confirm the results of prior research that primarily employs students from the United States. The data indicate that actions (...)
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  34.  66
    The Polish School of Argumentation: A Manifesto.Katarzyna Budzynska, Michal Araszkiewicz, Barbara Bogołȩbska, Piotr Cap, Tadeusz Ciecierski, Kamila Debowska-Kozlowska, Barbara Dunin-Kȩplicz, Marcin Dziubiński, Michał Federowicz, Anna Gomolińska, Andrzej Grabowski, Teresa Hołówka, Łukasz Jochemczyk, Magdalena Kacprzak, Paweł Kawalec, Maciej Kielar, Andrzej Kisielewicz, Marcin Koszowy, Robert Kublikowski, Piotr Kulicki, Anna Kuzio, Piotr Lewiński, Jakub Z. Lichański, Jacek Malinowski, Witold Marciszewski, Edward Nieznański, Janina Pietrzak, Jerzy Pogonowski, Tomasz A. Puczyłowski, Jolanta Rytel, Anna Sawicka, Marcin Selinger, Andrzej Skowron, Joanna Skulska, Marek Smolak, Małgorzata Sokół, Agnieszka Sowińska, Piotr Stalmaszczyk, Tomasz Stawecki, Jarosław Stepaniuk, Alina Strachocka, Wojciech Suchoń, Krzysztof Szymanek, Justyna Tomczyk, Robert Trypuz, Kazimierz Trzȩsicki, Mariusz Urbański, Ewa Wasilewska-Kamińska, Krzysztof A. Wieczorek, Maciej Witek, Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska, Olena Yaskorska, Maria Załȩska, Konrad Zdanowski & Żure - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (3):267-282.
    Building on our diverse research traditions in the study of reasoning, language and communication, the Polish School of Argumentation integrates various disciplines and institutions across Poland in which scholars are dedicated to understanding the phenomenon of the force of argument. Our primary goal is to craft a methodological programme and establish organisational infrastructure: this is the first key step in facilitating and fostering our research movement, which joins people with a common research focus, complementary skills and an enthusiasm to work (...)
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  35.  21
    Many-Valued Logic of Informal Provability: A Non-Deterministic Strategy.Pawel Pawlowski & Rafal Urbaniak - 2018 - Review of Symbolic Logic 11 (2):207-223.
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  36. “Platonic” Thought Experiments: How on Earth?Rafal Urbaniak - 2012 - Synthese 187 (2):731-752.
    Brown (The laboratory of the mind. Thought experiments in the natural science, 1991a , 1991b ; Contemporary debates in philosophy of science, 2004 ; Thought experiments, 2008 ) argues that thought experiments (TE) in science cannot be arguments and cannot even be represented by arguments. He rest his case on examples of TEs which proceed through a contradiction to reach a positive resolution (Brown calls such TEs “platonic”). This, supposedly, makes it impossible to represent them as arguments for logical reasons: (...)
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  37.  13
    Case Study of R-1234yf Refrigerant: Implications for the Framework for Responsible Innovation.Rafał Wodzisz - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (6):1413-1433.
    Safety and care for the natural environment are two of the most important values that drive scientific enterprise in twentieth century. Researchers and innovators often develop new technologies aimed at pollution reduction, and therefore satisfy the strive for fulfilment of these values. This work is often incentivized by policy makers. According to EU directive 2006/40/EC on mobile air conditioning since 2013 all newly approved vehicles have to be filled with refrigerant with low global warming potential. Extensive and expensive research financed (...)
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  38.  89
    Gödelizing the Yablo Sequence.Cezary Cieśliński & Rafal Urbaniak - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (5):679-695.
    We investigate what happens when ‘truth’ is replaced with ‘provability’ in Yablo’s paradox. By diagonalization, appropriate sequences of sentences can be constructed. Such sequences contain no sentence decided by the background consistent and sufficiently strong arithmetical theory. If the provability predicate satisfies the derivability conditions, each such sentence is provably equivalent to the consistency statement and to the Gödel sentence. Thus each two such sentences are provably equivalent to each other. The same holds for the arithmetization of the existential Yablo (...)
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  39.  45
    Busting a Myth About Leśniewski and Definitions.Rafal Urbaniak & K. Severi Hämäri - 2012 - History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (2):159 - 189.
    A theory of definitions which places the eliminability and conservativeness requirements on definitions is usually called the standard theory. We examine a persistent myth which credits this theory to Le?niewski, a Polish logician. After a brief survey of its origins, we show that the myth is highly dubious. First, no place in Le?niewski's published or unpublished work is known where the standard conditions are discussed. Second, Le?niewski's own logical theories allow for creative definitions. Third, Le?niewski's celebrated ?rules of definition? lay (...)
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  40. Lesniewski's Systems of Logic and Mereology; History and Re-Evaluation.Rafal Urbaniak - 2008 - Dissertation, University of Calgary
  41.  31
    Conference Report.Rafal Ablamowicz, Pertti Lounesto & Johannes Maks - 1991 - Foundations of Physics 21 (6):735-748.
  42.  50
    Capturing Dynamic Conceptual Frames.Rafal Urbaniak - 2010 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 18 (3):430-455.
    The main focus of this paper is to develop an adaptive formal apparatus capable of capturing (certain types of) reasoning conducted within the framework of the so-called dynamic conceptual frames. I first explain one of the most recent theories of concepts developed by cognitivists, in which a crucial part is played by the notion of a dynamic frame. Next, I describe how a dynamic frame may be captured by a finite set of first-order formulas and how a formalized adaptive framework (...)
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  43.  4
    Competition Between Endogenous and Exogenous Orienting of Visual Attention.Andrea Berger, Avishai Henik & Robert Rafal - 2005 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 134 (2):207-221.
  44.  86
    Lesniewski and Russell's Paradox: Some Problems.Rafal Urbaniak - 2008 - History and Philosophy of Logic 29 (2):115-146.
    Sobocinski in his paper on Leśniewski's solution to Russell's paradox (1949b) argued that Leśniewski has succeeded in explaining it away. The general strategy of this alleged explanation is presented. The key element of this attempt is the distinction between the collective (mereological) and the distributive (set-theoretic) understanding of the set. The mereological part of the solution, although correct, is likely to fall short of providing foundations of mathematics. I argue that the remaining part of the solution which suggests a specific (...)
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  45.  36
    Noosphere, Gaia, and the Science of the Biosphere.Rafal Serafin - 1988 - Environmental Ethics 10 (2):121-137.
    Advances in analytical understanding of the biosphere’s biogeochemical cycles have spawned concepts of Gaia and noosphere. Earlier in this century, in concert with the Jesuit paleontologist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, the natural scientist Vladimir Vernadsky developed the notion of noosphere-an evolving collective human consciousness on Earth exerting an ever increasing intluence on biogeochemical processes. More recently, the chemist James Lovelock postulated the Earth to be a self-regulating system made up of biota and their environment with the capacity to maintain a (...)
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  46.  16
    A Note on Identity and Higher Order Quantification.Rafal Urbaniak - 2009 - Australasian Journal of Logic 7:48--55.
    It is a commonplace remark that the identity relation, even though not expressible in a first-order language without identity with classical set-theoretic semantics, can be defined in a language without identity, as soon as we admit second-order, set-theoretically interpreted quantifiers binding predicate variables that range over all subsets of the domain. However, there are fairly simple and intuitive higher-order languages with set-theoretic semantics in which the identity relation is not definable. The point is that the definability of identity in higher-order (...)
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  47.  57
    Numbers and Propositions Versus Nominalists: Yellow Cards for Salmon & Soames. [REVIEW]Rafal Urbaniak - 2012 - Erkenntnis 77 (3):381-397.
    Salmon and Soames argue against nominalism about numbers and sentence types. They employ (respectively) higher-order and first-order logic to model certain natural language inferences and claim that the natural language conclusions carry commitment to abstract objects, partially because their renderings in those formal systems seem to do that. I argue that this strategy fails because the nominalist can accept those natural language consequences, provide them with plausible and non-committing truth conditions and account for the inferences made without committing themselves to (...)
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  48. Swinburne’s Modal Argument for the Existence of a Soul.Rafal Urbaniak & Agnieszka Rostalska - 2009 - Philo 12 (1):73-88.
    Richard Swinburne (Swinburne and Shoemaker 1984; Swinburne 1986) argues that human beings currently alive have non{bodily immaterial parts called souls. In his main argument in support of this conclusion (modal argument), roughly speaking, from the assumption that it is logically possible that a human being survives the destruction of their body and a few additional premises, he infers the actual existence of souls. After a brief presentation of the argument we describe the main known objection to it, called the substitution (...)
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  49. A Contextualist Account of the Linguistic Reality.Maciej Witek - 2008 - In Joanna Odrowąż-Sypniewska (ed.), Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science at Warsaw University 4. Semper.
    In this paper I consider the idea of external language and examine the role it plays in our understanding of human linguistic practice. Following Michael Devitt, I assume that the subject matter of a linguistic theory is not a psychologically real computational module, but a semiotic system of physical entities equipped with linguistic properties. 2 What are the physical items that count as linguistic tokens and in virtue of what do they possess phonetic, syntactic and semantic properties? According to Devitt, (...)
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  50.  31
    Contextual Facilitation of Colour Recognition: Penetrating Beliefs or Colour-Shape Associations?Maciej Witek - manuscript
    My aim in this paper is to defend the view that the processes underlying early vision are informationally encapsulated. Following Marr (1982) and Pylyshyn (1999) I take early vision to be a cognitive process that takes sensory information as its input and produces the so-called primal sketches or shallow visual outputs: informational states that represent visual objects in terms of their shape, location, size, colour and luminosity. Recently, some researchers (Schirillo 1999, Macpherson 2012) have attempted to undermine the idea of (...)
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