Una consideración de las relaciones y mutuas influencias entre cultura y lenguaje en la concepción de Vico, a la luz de tres intérpretes suyos: J. Joyce, I. Berlin y C. Fuentes.A consideration of the relationships and mutual influences between culture and language in Vico's thought, in the light of three of his interpreters: J. Joyce, I. Berlin and C. Fuentes.
With Rawls project of a theory of justice summarized in two basic principles and the priority of freedom, moral philosophy reemerged as a subject matter worthy of rigorous reflection and able to contribute to the public debate. Rawls presented a rational defence of normative principle of justic..
María Zambrano aproached to the problem of identity in an intenseway in the context of the spanish civil war, the exile and, even more, thecrisis of occidental reason. This problem is enunciated, first, as a debatebetween present and past, meaning, between the way of recover and assumethe tradition;..
There are two concepbions approacking the contemporary view of war: psychobgical (represented by Sigmund Freud) and ethicad (represented by Bertrand Russell). 30th are worried about the "human element" in war, that is, their most intimate conscious and unconscious motivations.
El jesuita morisco P. Ignacio de las Casas colaboró en la traducción de algunos de los libros plúmbeos encontrados en Granada a fines del siglo XVI. Inicialmente se manifestó partidario de su autenticidad, pero pronto se convenció de que eran una falsificación. Desarrolló entonces una activa lucha para conseguir que la Iglesia evitara su divulgación. En el artículo se pasa revista a su intervención como traductor y a los argumentos que utilizó para criticar la doctrina de los libros plúmbeos. El (...) P. Las Casas, además de señalar la presencia de elementos islámicos, ve en ellos claras muestras de antiguas herejías antitrinitarias. Aunque no los considera obra de moriscos, señala el atractivo que el mesianismo y milenarismo contenidos en la doctrina de los libros plúmbeos tenía para los moriscos. (shrink)
El concepto de «transposición», tomado de la obra del psicólogo alemán Karl Bühler, le servirá a Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio para analizar el importante papel que desempeña la metáfora en el desarrollo del lenguaje humano. Este artículo ofrece una lectura comparada y complementaria de los diversos sentidos que adopta el término de «transposición» en ambos autores, así como sus implicaciones filosóficas de fondo.
La obra más popular de Francisco Sánchez, Quod nihil scitur (1581), transmite un pensamiento completamente escéptico. No obstante, otros escritos como Carmen de Corneta anni MDLXXVII (1578), nos ofrecen diversas ideas de cómo consideraba Sánchez que era posible el conocimiento científico como, por ejemplo, su pensamiento sobre las relaciones causales entre objetos naturales.
To see nationalism as a cultural artifact is to argue against attempts at essentializing it. Anderson claims that nationalism can be better understood as obliquely analogous to such categories as religion and kinship. Membership in a nation draws on the vocabulary of filiation whereby one comes to understand oneself in relation to ancestors long gone and generations yet to be born. In addressing pasts and futures, nationalism resituates identity with reference to death, one’s own as well as others’. Herein lies (...) nationalism’s affective appeal, that which makes it possible to sacrifice oneself for the “motherland.” It lends to the accident of birth the sense of continuity and converts mortality into something that is meant for as much as it is realized by one. By placing one in a certain relationship to death and generativity, nationalist discourse therefore frames the arbitrariness of existence. “It is the magic of nationalism to turn chance into destiny”.However, while nationalism tends to mine the idioms of kinship and religion, the historical conditions of its emergence undermine the logic and stability of these inherited categories. Thus Anderson defines nations as “imagined communities.” Built on the rubble of traditional polities, the nation invokes a radically secular subjectivity that sets it apart from its predecessors. Dynastic states presumed power and privilege as functions of the purity of bloodlines guaranteed by a divine order. Colonial states as dynastic states in drag replicate the obsession with hierarchy by reorganizing social and epistemological categories according to a metaphysics of race and progress. By contrast, the nation envisions a more egalitarian community. “Regardless of the actual inequality and exploitation that may prevail in each, the nation is always conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship”. It thus reveals the mutability of all sorts of hierarchies. Rather than take power for granted as natural and inherited, nationalism asks about “rights” and thereby opens up the problem of representation: who has the right to speak for whom and under what circumstances? Vincente L. Rafael is assistant professor in the department of communication, University of California, San Diego. He is the author of Contracting Colonialism: Translation and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society under Early Spanish Rule. (shrink)
Se analizan los textos de Rafael Gutiérrez-Girardot sobre F. Nietzsche en torno a la tragedia y el pesimismo. Esta aproximación se elabora a partir de tres temas: estilo, nihilismo y estética. Se argumenta que la interpretación de Gutiérrez-Girardot sobre Nietzsche impide que este sea visto solo como un crítico literario. Asimismo, este trabajo brinda el tono a la escritura de Rafael Gutiérrez Girardot y, de este modo, configura su estilo personal.
RESUMEN Se analizan los textos de Rafael Gutiérrez-Girardot sobre F. Nietzsche en torno a la tragedia y el pesimismo. Esta aproximación se elabora a partir de tres temas: estilo, nihilismo y estética. Se argumenta que la interpretación de Gutiérrez-Girardot sobre Nietzsche impide que este sea visto solo como un crítico literario. Asimismo, este trabajo brinda el tono a la escritura de Rafael Gutiérrez Girardot y, de este modo, configura su estilo personal. ABSTRACT The article analyzes Rafael Gutiérrez-Girardot's (...) texts on F. Nietzsche's reflections regarding tragedy and pessimism, on the basis of three topics: style, nihilism, and aesthetics. It argues that Gutiérrez-Girardot's interpretation of Nietzsche proves that the former is not merely a literary critic, and that those texts shape the tone and personal style of Gutiérrez Girardot's writing. (shrink)
El artículo se propone examinar la tensión entre la lengua castellana y la gramática en la novela El cuervo blanco, escrita por el controvertido escritor colombiano Fernando Vallejo, hoy radicado en México. Se trata de un texto híbrido que explora el pensamiento y la biografía del célebre filólogo Rufino José Cuervo. El libro indaga en sus papeles, cartas y libros; documentos en donde recoge sus conversaciones filosófico-filológicas con lingüistas europeos a propósito de las modalidades y formas idiomáticas que adquiere el (...) castellano en Colombia y Latinoamérica. La característica de este libro es su forma de narración, ya que más que darle primacía a los acontecimientos se preocupa de los tropos, giros, citas y efectos gramaticales que construyen la lógica de los documentos relacionados con la lengua de Estado. A nivel metafórico, Rufino José Cuervo es presentado como un “pájaro negro de alma blanca que tiene el don de la palabra”, es decir un “Cuervo blanco”, cuyo color es un índice de su excepcionalidad, nombre con el que lo identifica en una de sus cartas el lingüista alemán August Friedrich Pott, pero que el narrador convierte en el título de este curioso libro. (shrink)
La noción de interpretación desarrollada en el racionalismo crítico de Karl R. Popper muestra atributos específicos que la distinguen de modo sustancial de la interpretación constitutiva de la experiencia que tanto N. R. Hanson como Th. Kuhn defienden en sus respectivas propuestas. Se muestra que la interpretación del modelo popperiano queda atrapada en una epistemología de corte empirista que la separa de modo radical de toda hermenéutica filosófica. The notion of interpretation developed in the critical rationalism of Karl R. Popper (...) displays specific attributes that substantially distinguish it from the constituent interpretation of experience defended in both N. R. Hanson and T. Kuhn proposals. The article shows that the interpretation of Popper's model is trapped in an empiricist epistemology that radically separates it from all hermeneutic philosophy. (shrink)
This study investigates the effects on organization’s financial performances of, first, the extent to which the organizations are involved in controversial business activities, and second, their level of social performance. These companies can be considered non-socially responsible given the harmful nature of the activities they are involved in. Managers of these companies may still have incentives to pursue socially responsible actions if they believe that engaging on those actions will help them to achieve legitimacy and improve investors’ perception about them. (...) We develop a comprehensive methodology to investigate these corporate social performance (CSP)-related effects in a complex but specific setting. To this end, we analyze a sample of 202 US firms for the period 2005–2008 using a novel method in this area: partial least squares. Our results indicate that, contrary to the general findings in prior literature, companies involved in controversial business activities which engage in CSP do not directly reduce the negative perception that stakeholders have about them. Instead, we found evidence of a positive mediation effect of CSP on financial market-based performance through innovation. (shrink)
Peer review is a widely accepted instrument for raising the quality of science. Peer review limits the enormous unstructured influx of information and the sheer amount of dubious data, which in its absence would plunge science into chaos. In particular, peer review offers the benefit of eliminating papers that suffer from poor craftsmanship or methodological shortcomings, especially in the experimental sciences. However, we believe that peer review is not always appropriate for the evaluation of controversial hypothetical science. We argue that (...) the process of peer review can be prone to bias towards ideas that affirm the prior convictions of reviewers and against innovation and radical new ideas. Innovative hypotheses are thus highly vulnerable to being “filtered out” or made to accord with conventional wisdom by the peer review process. Consequently, having introduced peer review, the Elsevier journal Medical Hypotheses may be unable to continue its tradition as a radical journal allowing discussion of improbable or unconventional ideas. Hence we conclude by asking the publisher to consider re-introducing the system of editorial review to Medical Hypotheses. (shrink)
We examine the "Theaetetus" in the light of its juxtaposition of philosophical, mathematical and sophistical approaches to knowledge, which we show to be a prominent feature of the drama. We suggest that clarifying the nature of philosophy supersedes the question of knowledge as the main ambition of the "Theaetetus". Socrates shows Theaetetus that philosophy is not a demonstrative science, like geometry, but it is also not mere word-play, like sophistry. The nature of philosophy is revealed in Socrates' activity of examination (...) and his refusal to deny his ignorance about knowledge. (shrink)
In Republic VI 508e-9b Plato has Socrates claim that the Good is the cause (αίτίαν) of truth and knowledge as well as the very being of the Forms. Consequently, as causes must be distinct from and superior to their effects, the Good is neither truth nor knowledge nor even being, but exceeds them all in beauty (509a), as well as in honour and power (509b). No other passage in Plato has had a more intoxicating effect on its readers. To take (...) just one example, James Adam was moved to quote St. Paul when he remarked about this passage that, 'it is highly characteristic of Plato's whole attitude that he finds the true keystone of the Universe — the ultimate fountain from which both Knowledge and Existence flow — in no cold and colourless ontological abstraction, like Being, but in that for which "all creation groans and labours". (shrink)
The greatest rhetorical display (έπιδείξις) of Plato's Protagoras is apparently not Protagoras's famous myth cum démonstration1 about the teachability of excellence (αρετή),2 but rather the dia logue as a whole. The Protagoras exposes key différences between the methods and presuppositions of Socrates and those of the Sophists - thus defending Socrates against the charge of being a Sophist himself - and in so doing clarifies the conditions and princi ples of ethical argumentation.3 The display of the Protagoras oc curs on (...) two levels. In the drama, Socrates puts the Sophists on exhibit for the benefit of Hippocrates, an Athenian boy who as pires to a sophistic éducation. In reading the dialogue, however, we become spectators to Plato's display. The pervading irony is that Piato uses the Protagoras to critieize the techniques of display and debate - and to contrast them with dialogue. But the Socratic/ Platonic display in the Protagoras is literally a showing forth, a manifestation of what a Sophist is and does, whereas a sophistical display is a showing off, that is not intrinsically related to his beliefs and aims. In order to see thèse thèmes at work in the Protagoras , however, it must first be examined from a rhetorical point of view. (shrink)
This article presents evidence over which we stumbled while investigating a completely different part of the Platonic Corpus. While examining the ordinary working vocabulary of the doubtful dialogues and of those undisputed dialogues most readily compared with them, it seemed essential to have a representative sample of Plato's allegedly 'middle' and 'late' dialogues also. The real surprise came when the Critias was included, showing some frequencies not previously observed in Platonic dialogues. This prompted treatment of the Timaeus also, some of (...) which showed comparable peculiarities. The most distinctive feature was the increase in the rate of the definite article from around 8% of total vocabulary in dialogues assumed to be early, or around 10% in Laws, to some 14% in sizeable parts of the Timaeus-Critias, where Plato seemed no less interested in the literary credentials of his creations than elsewhere. Tests intended for application to our original set of problems were yielding results that appeared to bear on a number of problems central to the interpretation of the Timaeus-Critias. (shrink)
JL his paper calls into question a conventional way of reading the passage concerning knowledge and belief at the end of book 5 of Plato's Republic. On the conventional reading, Plato is committed to arguing on grounds that his philosophical opponents would accept, but this view fails to appreciate the rhetorical context in which the passage is situated. Indeed, it is not usually recognized or considered important that the passage has a rhetorical context at all. Philoso phers typically reduce the (...) questions asked by Socrates and the an swers given by Glaucon in the presence of a large audience, to one continuous argument of Plato's. Unfortunately, this way of reading book 5 ignores two points that are crucial to its interpretation: (1) the Socrates-Glaucon dialectic is directed to hostile (not merely intel lectually opposed) interlocutors, and (2) the relation between Socra tes and his audience (Glaucon excepted) is one of antagonism.1 I shall argue that scholars have for a long time been trying to find more philosophical fruit in the passage than it has to bear, largely because they have misconstrued its role in the argument of the Re public. (shrink)
Se presenta un esquema ontológico en el que el par relacional/atómico desempeña un papel central. La noción basica, la que se define en terminos positivos, es la de “relacionalidad”. La atomicidad es definida negativamente, como no-relacionalidad. En realidad, se distinguen diversas nociones positivas, emparentadas entre sí, que pueden verse como diferentes formas de relacionalidad a las que corresponden diferentes formas de atomicidad (o no-relacionalidad). A continuación, ese instrumental ontológico se aplica al planteamiento de dos cuestiones semánticas: se trata brevemente la (...) cuestión deI individualismo y, más en detalle, la cuestión deI holismo semántico.An ontological framework is presented in which the relational/atomic pair plays a central role. The basic notion, which is defined in positive terms, is that of “relationality”. “Atomicity” is negatively defined as non-relationality. More exactly, we distinguish between several related positive notions that can be seen as different kinds of relationality. Correspondingly, we distinguish between several kinds of atomicity (or nonrelationality). Then, the ontological tools are applied to two semantic issues: we briefly deal with the individualism issue and in more detail with the issue of semantic holism. (shrink)
Deliberation is the intellectual activity of rational agents in their capacity as rational agents, and good deliberation is the mark of those who have practical wisdom. That is Aristotle's general view,2 one we may safely attribute to Plato as well. Some philosophers, however, have tried to specifiy Plato's view in ways that accentuate the differences between him and Aristotle. They align Plato's views about deliberation and virtue closely with views the fifth-century sophists, and suppose that Plato borrows from the sophists (...) certain suppositions that Aristotle would reject. In the Protagoras, for example, when Protagoras asserts that he teaches virtue, he claims to teach it as the expertise. (shrink)
En esta nota crítica (i) se hace una breve descripción de cada uno de los artículos que componen Orayen: de la forma lógica al significado, (ii) se señalan algunas cuestiones que no están claras en ellos o en las réplicas de Orayen y, (iii) en la medida de lo posible, se indica si los autores desarrollan ulteriormente los problemas abordados en sus artículos. The aim of this critical note is threefold: (i) it briefly describes and comments on each of the (...) articles of Orayen: de la forma lógica al significado; (ii) identifies some issues that may not be clear enough or not fully developed whether in the articles or even in Orayen's replies; (iii) as far as possible, it refers to further studies made by the authors themselves on the same, or quite related, subjects addressed by them in their papers. (shrink)
This paper addresses the work of the Council of Europe in the fight against corruption. It presents briefly the Council of Europe’s organisation, activities and priorities and goes on to introduce its work in the fight against corruption. Activities in this field are carried out by the Multidisciplinary Group on Corruption (GMC) which is made up of governmental representatives of the forty Member States of the Organisation and in accordance with a Plan of Action against Corruption. Following work by the (...) GMC, the Committee of Ministers, the decision-making body of the Council of Europe, adopted in 1997 ‘The 20 Guiding principles for the Fight against Corruption’ and in 1998 ‘The Agreement establishing the Group of States against Corruption-GRECO’ which will be called upon to monitor States’ compliance with their international commitments in the fight against corruption. Three international legal instruments are currently under preparation by the GMC, namely: a convention on corruption (dealing with the criminal aspects of the problem), a convention on civil remedies resulting from corruption and a European model code of conduct for Public Officials. Work on these instruments is well advanced and it is expected that they will be adopted before the end of 1998. (shrink)