Results for 'Raghav Ramachandran'

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Raghav Ramachandran
University of New South Wales
  1.  46
    Three Approaches to Iterated Belief Contraction.Raghav Ramachandran, Abhaya C. Nayak & Mehmet A. Orgun - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (1):115-142.
    In this paper we investigate three approaches to iterated contraction, namely: the Moderate (or Priority) contraction, the Natural (or Conservative) contraction, and the Lexicographic contraction. We characterise these three contraction functions using certain, arguably plausible, properties of an iterated contraction function. While we provide the characterisation of the first two contraction operations using rationality postulates of the standard variety for iterated contraction, we found doing the same for the Lexicographic contraction more challenging. We provide its characterisation using a variation of (...)
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  2.  49
    Probabilistic Belief Contraction.Raghav Ramachandran, Arthur Ramer & Abhaya C. Nayak - 2012 - Minds and Machines 22 (4):325-351.
    Probabilistic belief contraction has been a much neglected topic in the field of probabilistic reasoning. This is due to the difficulty in establishing a reasonable reversal of the effect of Bayesian conditionalization on a probabilistic distribution. We show that indifferent contraction, a solution proposed by Ramer to this problem through a judicious use of the principle of maximum entropy, is a probabilistic version of a full meet contraction. We then propose variations of indifferent contraction, using both the Shannon entropy measure (...)
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  3. By Vilayanur S. Ramachandran and Lindsay M. Oberman.V. S. Ramachandran - unknown
    A t first glance you might not noorder, which afflicts about 0.5 percent of tice anything odd on meeting a American children. Neither researcher young boy with autism. But if had any knowledge of the other’s work, you try to talk to him, it will and yet by an uncanny coincidence each quickly become obvious that gave the syndrome the same name: autism, something is seriously wrong. He may not which derives from the Greek word autos, make eye contact with (...)
     
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  4. The Science of Art: A Neurological Theory of Aesthetic Experience.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein - 1999 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (6-7):15-41.
    We present a theory of human artistic experience and the neural mechanisms that mediate it. Any theory of art has to ideally have three components. The logic of art: whether there are universal rules or principles; The evolutionary rationale: why did these rules evolve and why do they have the form that they do; What is the brain circuitry involved? Our paper begins with a quest for artistic universals and proposes a list of ‘Eight laws of artistic experience’ -- a (...)
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  5. Synaesthesia: A Window Into Perception, Thought and Language.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard - 2001 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (12):3-34.
    (1) The induced colours led to perceptual grouping and pop-out, (2) a grapheme rendered invisible through ‘crowding’ or lateral masking induced synaesthetic colours — a form of blindsight — and (3) peripherally presented graphemes did not induce colours even when they were clearly visible. Taken collectively, these and other experiments prove conclusively that synaesthesia is a genuine percep- tual phenomenon, not an effect based on memory associations from childhood or on vague metaphorical speech. We identify different subtypes of number–colour synaesthesia (...)
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  6. The Perception of Phantom Limbs: The D. O. Hebb Lecture.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein - 1998 - Brain 121:1603-1630.
  7.  58
    Projecting Sensations to External Objects: Evidence From Skin Conductance Response.V. S. Ramachandran - unknown
    Subjects perceived touch sensations as arising from a table (or a rubber hand) when both the table (or the rubber hand) and their own real hand were repeatedly tapped and stroked in synchrony with the real hand hidden from view. If the table or rubber hand was then ‘injured’, subjects displayed a strong skin conductance response (SCR) even though nothing was done to the real hand. Sensations could even be projected to anatomically impossible locations. The illusion was much less vivid, (...)
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  8. The Phenomenology of Synaesthesia.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard - 2003 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (8):49-57.
    This article supplements our earlier paper on synaesthesia published in JCS (Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001a). We discuss the phenomenology of synaesthesia in greater detail, raise several new questions that have emerged from recent studies, and suggest some tentative answers to these questions.
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  9. Synaesthesia in Phantom Limbs Induced with Mirrors.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Diane Rogers-Ramachandran - 1996 - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 263:377-386.
  10. The Simulating Social Mind: The Role of the Mirror Neuron System and Simulation in the Social and Communicative Deficits of Autism Spectrum Disorders.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran - unknown
    The mechanism by which humans perceive others differs greatly from how humans perceive inanimate objects. Unlike inanimate objects, humans have the distinct property of being “like me” in the eyes of the observer. This allows us to use the same systems that process knowledge about self-performed actions, self-conceived thoughts, and self-experienced emotions to understand actions, thoughts, and emotions in others. The authors propose that internal simulation mechanisms, such as the mirror neuron system, are necessary for normal development of recognition, imitation, (...)
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  11. Psychophysical Investigations Into the Neural Basis of Synaesthesia.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard - 2001 - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 268:979-983.
    We studied two otherwise normal, synaesthetic subjects who `saw' a speci¢c colour every time they saw a speci¢c number or letter. We conducted four experiments in order to show that this was a genuine perceptual experience rather than merely a memory association. (i)The synaesthetically induced colours could lead to perceptual grouping, even though the inducing numerals or letters did not. (ii)Synaesthetically induced colours were not experienced if the graphemes were presented peripherally. (iii)Roman numerals were ine¡ective: the actual number grapheme was (...)
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  12. Anti-Luminosity: Four Unsuccessful Strategies.Murali Ramachandran - 2009 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (4):659-673.
    In Knowledge and Its Limits Timothy Williamson argues against the luminosity of phenomenal states in general by way of arguing against the luminosity of feeling cold, that is, against the view that if one feels cold, one is at least in a position to know that one does. In this paper I consider four strategies that emerge from his discussion, and argue that none succeeds.
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  13. Three Laws of Qualia: What Neurology Tells Us About the Biological Functions of Consciousness.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein - 1997 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 4 (5-6):429-457.
    Neurological syndromes in which consciousness seems to malfunction, such as temporal lobe epilepsy, visual scotomas, Charles Bonnet syndrome, and synesthesia offer valuable clues about the normal functions of consciousness and ‘qualia’. An investigation into these syndromes reveals, we argue, that qualia are different from other brain states in that they possess three functional characteristics, which we state in the form of ‘three laws of qualia’. First, they are irrevocable: I cannot simply decide to start seeing the sunset as green, or (...)
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  14. Anosognosia in Parietal Lobe Syndrome.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran - 1995 - Consciousness and Cognition 4 (1):22-51.
    Patients with right parietal lesions often deny their paralysis , but do they have "tacit" knowledge of their paralysis? I devised three novel tests to explore this. First, the patients were given a choice between a bimanual task vs a unimanual one . They chose the former on 17 of 18 trials and, surprisingly, showed no frustration or learning despite repeated failed attempts. I conclude that they have no tacit knowledge of paralysis . Second, I used a "virtual reality box" (...)
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  15. A Counterfactual Analysis of Causation.Murali Ramachandran - 1997 - Mind 106 (422):263-277.
    On David Lewis's original analysis of causation, c causes e only if c is linked to e by a chain of distinct events such that each event in the chain (counter-factually) depends on the former one. But this requirement precludes the possibility of late pre-emptive causation, of causation by fragile events, and of indeterministic causation. Lewis proposes three different strategies for accommodating these three kinds of cases, but none of these turn out to be satisfactory. I offer a single analysis (...)
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  16. A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness: From Impostor Poodles to Purple Numbers.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran - 2004 - Pearson Professional.
  17.  86
    An Alternative Translation Scheme for Counterpart Theory.Murali Ramachandran - 1989 - Analysis 49 (3):131 - 141.
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  18.  76
    Can Vestibular Caloric Stimulation Be Used to Treat Apotemnophilia?V. S. Ramachandran & Paul McGeoch - unknown
    Summary Apotemnophilia, or body integrity image disorder (BIID), is characterised by a feeling of mismatch between the internal feeling of how one’s body should be and the physical reality of how it actually is. Patients with this condition have an often overwhelming desire for an amputation- of a specific limb at a specific level. Such patients are not psychotic or delusional, however, they do express an inexplicable emotional abhorrence to the limb they wish removed. It is also known that such (...)
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  19. Perceptual Filling in of Artificially Induced Scotomas in Human Vision.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Richard L. Gregory - 1991 - Nature 350:699-702.
  20. Hearing Colors, Tasting Shapes.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard - 2003 - Scientific American (May):52-59.
    Jones and Coleman are among a handful of otherwise normal as a child and the number 5 was red and 6 was green. This the- people who have synesthesia. They experience the ordinary ory does not answer why only some people retain such vivid world in extraordinary ways and seem to inhabit a mysterious sensory memories, however. You might _think _of cold when you no-man’s-land between fantasy and reality. For them the sens- look at a picture of an ice cube, (...)
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  21. Perceptual Correlates of Massive Cortical Reorganization.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, Diane Rogers-Ramachandran & Marni Stewart - 1992 - Science 258:1159-1160.
  22. A Critique of Pure Vision.Patricia S. Churchland, V. S. Ramachandran & Terrence J. Sejnowski - 1993 - In Christof Koch & Joel L. David (eds.), Large-scale neuronal theories of the brain. MIT Press. pp. 23.
    Anydomainofscientificresearchhasitssustainingorthodoxy. Thatis, research on a problem, whether in astronomy, physics, or biology, is con- ducted against a backdrop of broadly shared assumptions. It is these as- sumptionsthatguideinquiryandprovidethecanonofwhatisreasonable-- of what "makes sense." And it is these shared assumptions that constitute a framework for the interpretation of research results. Research on the problem of how we see is likewise sustained by broadly shared assump- tions, where the current orthodoxy embraces the very general idea that the business of the visual system is to (...)
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  23.  58
    Behavioral and Magnetoencephalographic Correlates of Plasticity in the Adult Human Brain.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran - 1993 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Usa 90:10413-10420.
  24. Sharpening Up «the Science of Art».V. S. Ramachandran - 2001 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (1):9-29.
    An interview with Anthony Freeman, in which one of the original authors of ‘The Science of Art’ [JCS, 6, No. 6/7, 1999] responds to to ongoing commentary.
     
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  25. Knowledge-to-Fact Arguments (Bootstrapping, Closure, Paradox and KK).Murali Ramachandran - 2016 - Analysis 76 (2):142-149.
    The leading idea of this article is that one cannot acquire knowledge of any non-epistemic fact by virtue of knowing that one that knows something. The lines of reasoning involved in the surprise exam paradox and in Williamson’s _reductio_ of the KK-principle, which demand that one can, are thereby undermined, and new type of counter-example to epistemic closure emerges.
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  26. A Neglected Response to the Paradoxes of Confirmation.Murali Ramachandran - 2017 - South African Journal of Philosophy 36 (2):179-85.
    Hempel‘s paradox of the ravens, and his take on it, are meant to be understood as being restricted to situations where we have no additional background information. According to him, in the absence of any such information, observations of FGs confirm the hypothesis that all Fs are G. In this paper I argue against this principle by way of considering two other paradoxes of confirmation, Goodman‘s 'grue‘ paradox and the 'tacking‘ (or 'irrelevant conjunct‘) paradox. What these paradoxes reveal, I argue, (...)
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  27. A Counterfactual Analysis of Indeterministic Causation.Murali Ramachandran - 2004 - In J. Collins, E. J. Hall & L. A. Paul (eds.), Causation and Counterfactuals. MIT Press.
  28. Apotemnophilia: A Neurological Disorder.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran - unknown
    Apotemnophilia, a disorder that blurs the distinction between neurology and psychiatry, is characterized by the intense and longstanding desire for amputation of a speci¢c limb. Here we present evidence from two individuals suggestive that this condition, long thought to be entirely psychological in origin, actually has a neurological basis. We found heightened skin conductance response..
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  29.  28
    Visual Attention Modulates Metacontrast Masking.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Steve Cobb - 1995 - Nature 373:66-68.
  30.  3
    A Close Encounter with Ghost-Writers: An Initial Exploration Study on Background, Strategies and Attitudes of Independent Essay Providers.Sharavan Ramachandran, Kalliopi Kostelidou & Shiva Sivasubramaniam - 2016 - International Journal for Educational Integrity 12 (1).
    Academic dishonesty presents in different forms, including fabrication of data, falsifying references, multiple submissions, collusion, and sabotage, with two forms haunting academia, namely plagiarism and contract cheating or ghost writing. These latter forms have received considerable attention and have been subjects for research. This interview-based study provides some further insight into the problem of ghost writing through presenting the attitudes, justifications and networking practices of some hired ‘ghost-writers’ from a developing country and discusses the depth of this emerging threat to (...)
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  31.  58
    A Simple Method to Stand Outside Oneself.V. S. Ramachandran - manuscript
    Here we outline a simple method of using two mirrors which allows one to stand outside oneself. This method demonstrates that registration of vision with touch and proprioception is crucial for the perception of the corporeal self. Our method may also allow the disassociation of taste from touch, proprioception, and movement.
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  32. Capgras Syndrome: A Novel Probe for Understanding the Neural Representation of the Identity and Familiarity of Persons.William Hirstein & V. S. Ramachandran - 1997 - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 264:437-444.
  33. Contingent Identity in Counterpart Theory.Murali Ramachandran - 1990 - Analysis 50 (3):163-166.
    A slight modification to the translation scheme for David Lewis's counterpart theory I put forward in 'An Alternative Translation Scheme for Counterpart Theory' (Analysis 49.3 (1989)) is proposed. The motivation for this change is that it makes for a more plausible account of contingent identity. In particular, contingent identity is accommodated without admitting the contingency of self-identity.
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  34.  36
    The Ambiguity Thesis Versus Kripke's Defence of Russell.Murali Ramachandran - 1996 - Mind and Language 11 (4):371-387.
    In his influential paper 'Speaker's Reference and Semantic Reference', Kripke defends Russell's theory of descriptions against the charge that the existence of referential and attributive uses of descriptions reflects a semantic ambiguity. He presents a purely defensive argument to show that Russell's theory is not refuted by the referential usage and a number of methodological considerations which apparently tell in favour of Russell's unitary theory over an ambiguity theory. In this paper, I put forward a case for the ambiguity theory (...)
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  35. The KK-Principle, Margins for Error, and Safety.Murali Ramachandran - 2012 - Erkenntnis 76 (1):121-136.
    This paper considers, and rejects, three strategies aimed at showing that the KK-principle fails even in most favourable circumstances (all emerging from Williamson’s Knowledge and its Limits ). The case against the final strategy provides positive grounds for thinking that the principle should hold good in such situations.
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  36. The M-Set Analysis of Causation: Objections and Responses.Murali Ramachandran - 1998 - Mind 107 (426):465-471.
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  37.  24
    The Evolutionary Psychology of Envy and Jealousy.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Baland Jalal - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  38.  30
    Ramachandran's Four Counterexamples.Paul Noordhof - 2000 - Mind 109 (434):315-324.
    Murali Ramachandran has kindly provided me with four (alleged) counterexamples to the theory of causation which I recently put forward in Mind (Ramachandran 2000; Noordhof 1999). Space is limited for a response. Since this note will be published Ramachandran's paper, I will not set out the cases he gives. I refer the reader to the appropriate descriptions. I will also presume knowledge of the framework of my paper and just give page references in case this is helpful. (...)
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  39.  17
    Three Laws of Qualia.V. S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein - 1999 - In Jonathan Shear & Shaun Gallagher (eds.), Models of the Self. Imprint Academic. pp. 83.
    Neurological syndromes in which consciousness seems to malfunction, such as temporal lobe epilepsy, visual scotomas, Charles Bonnet syndrome, and synesthesia offer valuable clues about the normal functions of consciousness and ‘qualia’. An investigation into these syndromes reveals, we argue, that qualia are different from other brain states in that they possess three functional characteristics, which we state in the form of ‘three laws of qualia ’ based on a loose analogy with Newton’s three laws of classical mechanics. First, they are (...)
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  40. The Emergence of the Human Mind: Some Clues From Synesthesia.V. S. Ramachandran & E. M. Hubbard - 2005 - In Robertson, C. L. & N. Sagiv (eds.), Synesthesia: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. pp. 147--190.
  41.  60
    Unsuccessful Revisions of CCT.Murali Ramachandran - 1990 - Analysis 50 (3):173 - 177.
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  42.  33
    Filling in Gaps in Logic: Some Comments on Dennett.V. S. Ramachandran - 1993 - Consciousness and Cognition 2 (2):165-168.
  43. Occurrence of Phantom Genitalia After Gender Reassignment Surgery.V. S. Ramachandran & Paul D. McGeoch - unknown
    Summary Transsexuals are individuals who identify as a member of the gender opposite to that which they are born. Many transsexuals report that they have always had a feeling of a mismatch between their inner gender-based ‘‘body image’’ and that of their body’s actual physical form. Often transsexuals undergo gender reassignment surgery to convert their bodies to the sex they feel they should have been born. The vivid sensation of still having a limb although it has been amputated, a phantom (...)
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  44.  26
    A Puzzle About Conditionals.Murali Ramachandran - 2016 - South African Journal of Philosophy 35 (1):28-36.
    This paper examines a neglected puzzle about conditionals: namely, the fact that each of a pair of conditionals with incompatible consequents, [A > C] and [B > C*], may be properly affirmable in circumstances when one does not believe, and is not entitled to infer, the denial of the conjunction of the antecedents, i.e. ~(A & B). The puzzle is why this should be so, since the conditionals entail the conjunction on the popular accounts of conditionals. I present a pragmatic (...)
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  45.  17
    Handling Worker and Third-Party Exposures to Nanotherapeutics During Clinical Trials.Gurumurthy Ramachandran, John Howard, Andrew Maynard & Martin Philbert - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):856-864.
    Nanomedicine is a rapidly growing field in the academic as well as commercial arena. While some had predicted nanomedicine sales to reach $20.1 billion in 2011, the actual growth was much more rapid, with the global nanomedicine market being valued at $53 billion in 2009, and forecast to increase at an annual growth rate of 13.5% to reach more than $100 billion in 2014. In 2006, more than 130 nanotechnology-based drugs and delivery systems had entered preclinical, clinical, or commercial development. (...)
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  46.  54
    Knowing by Way of Tracking and Epistemic Closure.Murali Ramachandran - 2015 - Analysis 75 (2):217-223.
    Tracking accounts of knowledge were originally motivated by putative counter-examples to epistemic closure. But, as is now well known, these early accounts have many highly counterintuitive consequences. In this note, I motivate a tracking-based account which respects closure but which resolves many of the familiar problems for earlier tracking account along the way.
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  47. Kripkean Counterpart Theory.Murali Ramachandran - 2008 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):89-106.
    David Lewis’s counterpart-theoretic semantics for quantified modal logic is motivated originally by worries about identifying objects across possible worlds; the counterpart relation is grounded more cautiously on comparative similarity. The possibility of contingent identity is an unsought -- and in some eyes, unwelcome -- consequence of this approach. In this paper I motivate a Kripkean counterpart theory by way of defending the prior, pre-theoretical, coherence of contingent directness. Contingent identity follows for free. The theory is Kripkean in that the counterpart (...)
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  48.  18
    Handling Worker and Third-Party Exposures to Nanotherapeutics During Clinical Trials.Gurumurthy Ramachandran, John Howard, Andrew Maynard & Martin Philbert - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):856-864.
    The article focuses on issues relating to occupational exposures of researchers and lab workers, and exposures of bystanders such as health care workers and family members during HSR using nanomaterials. Such third-party exposures give rise to unique challenges relating to oversight as well as exposures to worker groups not previously studied. Given the current state of knowledge regarding health risks from such exposures, a more precautionary approach to oversight seems advisable.
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  49. Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Synesthesia.Edward M. Hubbard & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran - 2005 - Neuron 48 (3):509-520.
  50.  13
    Mirroring the Boss: Ethical Leadership, Emulation Intentions, and Salesperson Performance.Vishag Badrinarayanan, Indu Ramachandran & Sreedhar Madhavaram - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (3):897-912.
    Although a number of studies have demonstrated that perceived ethical leadership engenders beneficial follower outcomes, there is a dearth of research on ethical leadership in the sales context. This is surprising given that salespersons constantly face ethical challenges in their work environment and ethical leadership could provide them with appropriate guidelines for navigating such challenges successfully. Focusing on the salesperson’s perspective and responding to calls for investigating underlying processes responsible for the effects of ethical leadership, this study proposes that sales (...)
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