In this article, I present in a systematic way Aristotle’s understanding of movement (kinêsis) as efficient cause in the Generation of Animals. This aspect of movement is not disclosed in the approach to movement as an incomplete activity in contrast to energeia, which has been extensively discussed in the literature. I explain in which sense movement is the efficient cause of generation and how this movement is related to the other factors, in particular the source of movement, the seminal fluid, (...) pneuma, and the vital heat, as well as to the form and the soul. The role of movement as efficient cause of generation shows how, for Aristotle, form and soul are inseparable from matter and movement in nature. Explaining the role of movement as efficient cause of generation also helps to make sense of the multiplicity of factors involved in the efficient causality of generation. The key to articulating these factors with one another is the identity of form of the generative movement, which is specifically the same in the source, in the tools, and in the substance that is coming into being. (shrink)
There are two different notions of seed at work in the Generation of Animals: seed as the spermatic residue, which concerns only the male and the female generative contributions, and seed as the kuêma and first mixture of the two generative contributions. The latter is a notion of seed common to plants and animals. The passage in GA I.18, 724b12–22 where Aristotle distinguishes between these two notions of seed has been mistakenly discredited as inauthentic or simply as irrelevant for understanding (...) the seeds of animals. On the other hand, recent studies have rather focused on the seed as spermatic residue, paying little attention to the notion of seed as kuêma. In this paper I defend the authenticity and relevance of this passage and show how understanding the notion of seed as kuêma is essential to have a complete picture of Aristotle’s account of seed. This common notion of seed makes sense of Aristotle’s otherwise puzzling use of the word “sperma” to designate the seeds of plants, the kuêma, the fertilized eggs, and the first mixture of the two generative contributions. It also proves helpful in determining what the word ‘sperma’ stands for in key passages, such as Metaph. IX.7. (shrink)
This paper is a continuation of , where we provide the background and the basic tools for studying the structural properties of classes of models over languages without equality. In the context of such languages, it is natural to make distinction between two kinds of classes, the so-called abstract classes, which correspond to those closed under isomorphic copies in the presence of equality, and the reduced classes, i.e., those obtained by factoring structures by their largest congruences. The generic problem described (...) in  is to investigate under what conditions this reduction process does not alter the metatheory of a class. Here we focus our attention on a concrete aspect of this generic problem that we import from universal algebra, namely the existence and description of free models. As in , we can find here again the basic notion of protoalgebraicity, which was originally introduced in  as the weakest condition to guarantee that the reduction process behaves reasonably well from an algebraic point of view. Our concern, however, takes us to handle a further notion, that of semialgebraicity, which corresponds to the notion of equivalential logic of ; semialgebraicity turns out to be the property which ensures that freeness is fully preserved by the reduction process. (shrink)
In this paper we address our efforts to extend the well-known connection in equational logic between equational theories and fully invariant congruences to other–possibly infinitary–logics. In the special case of algebras, this problem has been formerly treated by H. J. Hoehnke  and R. W. Quackenbush . Here we show that the connection extends at least up to the universal fragment of logic. Namely, we establish that the concept of universal theory matches the abstract notion of fully invariant system. We (...) also prove that, inside this wide group of theories, the ones which are strict universal Horn correspond to fully invariant closure systems, whereas those which are universal atomic can be characterized as principal fully invariant systems. (shrink)
Raimon Panikkar is one of the most sophisticated and most profound among contemporary pluralists of religion. His pluralism is radical because it is rooted in the very nature of things, in the pluralism of being itself, beyond all perspectivalism and indeed beyond truth and falsity taken as intellectual categories. I discuss several issues regarding his position. Is he indeed a pluralist or a monist in disguise? Does he do justice to the uniqueness of each religion? Is he not prematurely (...) introducing the eschatological ideal of the harmony of opposites into the historical world where opposites often produce bloody conflicts? (shrink)
This year we celebrate Raimon Panikkar’s centenary; one of the most important Spanish thinkers and, undoubtedly, one of those who had the widest international repercussion, together with the other three big philosophers of the 20th century: Unamuno, Ortega and Zubiri. The present work explores the relationship between his thinking and Xabier Zubiri’s, a well-known thinker in the History of Spanish Philosophy, and that of Amor Ruibal, a Galician thinker not so wellknown outside specialized circles. This connection among the three (...) thinkers lies particularly in a conception of reality marked by the relation, reaching its culmination in the Catalan-Hindu thinker: The cosmotheandric perspective of Raimon Panikkar, Zubiri’s respectivity and radical relativity, and the ontological relativity or universal correlationism of Amor Ruibal. (shrink)
Esta aula inaugural, proferida por Raimon Panikkar no Institut Superior de Ciènces Religioses de Vic, em 2002, analisa o problema da irrelevância a que está condenada a teologia nos dias atuais, a marginalização do teólogo e das faculdades de teologia. O texto procura investigar as causas desta lamentável situação e se pergunta pela possibilidade de mudança deste quadro. Organizada a reflexão nestes três pontos, o escrito diagnostica um desvio da rota evangélica como uma das possíveis causas da perda de (...) relevância da teologia. Investigando a interna relação entre filosofia e teologia, o presente texto desvela os distintos aspectos deste matrimônio. Por um lado, chama-se atenção para a confusão entre os domínios de cada disciplina, por outro, reafirma-se a necessidade de um urgente reenlace entre alma e corpo, filosofia e teologia, respectivamente. Além de abandonar o divórcio com a filosofia, para ressuscitar, a teologia cristã, como expressão da religião da Palavra, deve fazer-se cada vez mais ouvinte do Mistério, abrir-se ao símbolo, evitando converter a fé em uma ideologia. Palavras-chave:Teologia; Filosofia; Cristianismo. ABSTRACT The Aula Magna delivered by Raimon Panikkar in the Superior Institute of Religious Science in Vic, in 2002, analyses the problem of irrelevance to which the theology of the present times, the marginalization of the theologian and the faculties of theology are condemned. The text tries to investigate the causes of this lamentable situation and asks about the possibility of changing this state of affairs. Organized as a reflection on these three points, the text diagnoses the straying from the evangelical pathway as one of the possible causes of this loss of relevance of theology. Investigating the internal relationship between philosophy and theology, the present text reveals the distinct aspects of this union. On one side, it calls attention to the confusion of the dominion of each discipline and on the other; it reaffirms the necessity of an urgent reuniting of the body and the soul, philosophy and theology respectively. Besides abandoning the divorce from philosophy, in order to resurrect Christian theology as an expression of the religion of the Word, it must also become increasingly the listener to the Mystery, opening itself to the symbol, avoiding the conversion of faith into ideology. Key words: Theology; Philosophy; Christianity. (shrink)
According to Aristotle’s homonymy principle, when we use a common name to refer to wholes and parts that lack the capacity to carry out the function signified by the name, we are using the name in a homonymous way. For example, pictures and statues of a man, or a dead eye, are called “man” and “eye” only homonymously because they cannot carry out their proper function, i.e., to live and to see. This principle serves well Aristotle’s purposes in natural philosophy, (...) for it avoids a reduction of the essence of living bodies and their parts to their material composition and shape. This principle, however, leaves unexplained why we still use those names in common language, despite their homonymy. Using Aristotle’s own comments on homonymy, I will examine the role played by external figure, for it explains why such homonyms are not accidental. In fact, they are correct forms of linguistic usage in non-philosophical contexts. (shrink)
En el presenteartículo revisamos las formas de interacción de los cuerpos con los discursos y la praxis pedagógica. Para ello revisamos, desde la pedagogía hermenéutica las formas de ocultación y emancipación de los cuerpos educandos. Partiendo de la idea original que habitualmente se ha objetivizado a los cuerpos educandos a través de la mirada hermenéutica es posible hablar de corporalidad o subjetividad de los cuerpos.
Con motivo del centenario de su nacimiento, nos adentraremos en la compleja vida y pensamiento del filósofo catalán Raimon Panikkar, una de las principales figuras en el ámbito del diálogo interreligoso. Analizaremos su relación, a veces ambigua, con las diversas tradiciones religiosas que adoptó, examinando su cristología y comparando su ontología de inspiración budista con la del budismo Theravāda. Para concluir, nos gustaría sugerir la posibilidad de una aproximación _homeomórfica _al acto de crear filosofía.
Este artículo se dirige a contrastar las metafísicas de Raimon Panikkar y Fernando Inciarte. Al examinar, en las dos primeras partes, sus formas de contestar a la pregunta metafísica fundamental por_ lo que es_, encontramos las respuestas aparentemente contrapuestas de una _metafísica_ de la _sustancia_ y una metafísica del sistema basada en la _intuición cosmoteándrica_ que tiene como categoría clave la _relación_. En la tercera parte se relacionan ambos planteamientos para indagar qué papel juega la noción de sistema en (...) ellos y determinar finalmente que el pensamiento de la sustancia no está tan lejos del pensamiento de sistema como puede parecer. (shrink)
BackgroundThe Catalan Institute of Health is the largest health services public provider in Catalonia. “CIH Code of Ethics Virtual Forum”, was created within the Intranet of the CIH to facilitate participation among their employees. The current study aims to: a) Analyse the CIH workers’ assessment of their own, their colleagues’ and the organization’s observance of ethical values; b) Identify the opinions, attitudes, experiences and practices related to the ethical values from the discourse of the workers that contributed voluntarily to the (...) CEVF.MethodsMixed methods study with convergent parallel design:1.Cross sectional study by means of a self-administered, ad hoc, anonymous questionnaire to assess the observance of the ethical values of the CIH according to the participants. A total of 712 workers responded to the questionnaire. A descriptive, bivariate analysis of the results was carried out. 2.Qualitative study to determine the meaning for the workers of the ethical values put forward by the organization. Their individual opinions and experiences were explored by means of a thematic contents analysis of 225 comments posted in the CEVF. The study was conducted between May and December 2008.ResultsThe average score for observance of the CE by the respondents themselves was high, between 3.5-4/5 for the observance by their colleagues and close to 3/5 for the CIH management. These results do not change when we compare by gender, age group and professional discipline. The comments on the values are information-rich, they mirror the ethical environment of the institution and show various ethical dilemmas and suggestions.ConclusionsResults show that it is feasible for a publicly funded health care organization to develop a CE with the participation of employees and the support of the management. Results underscore the relevance of this strategy for the implementation, improvement and update of the CE as a responsibility shared by all workers. Practices consistent with ethical values are rewarded by social approval, enhance employee’s confidence and coherence in decision-making and improve public engagement and institutional policies. (shrink)