Results for 'Raina Kirchhoff'

132 found
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  1. William of Sherwood: Syncategoremata.Christoph Kann & Raina Kirchhoff (eds.) - 2012 - F. Meiner, Phb 628.
    Synkategorematische Sprachzeichen bilden ein zentrales Thema der Logik, Sprachphilosophie, Linguistik und Grammatik von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Im Mittelalter verstand man unter "syncategoremata "Ausdrücke, denen eine besondere Bedeutung für die logische Analyse von Aussagen und Schlüssen zukommt. Zu den Synkategoremata zählte eine relativ eng begrenzte Gruppe von Wörtern wie etwa die distributiven Zeichen ("jeder", "kein"), die Exklusiva ("allein", "nur"), Konjunktionen wie "und", "oder" und "wenn", die Kopula "ist", aber auch einzelne Verben wie "anfangen" und "aufhören". Synkategoremata haben anders als (...)
     
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  2.  6
    Die Syncategoremata des Wilhem von Sherwood: Kommentierung Und Historische Einordnung.Raina Kirchhoff - 2008 - Brill.
    Modern linguistics usually differentiates between content or syncategorematic words and function or categorematic words.
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  3.  5
    Raina Kirchhoff, Die “Syncategoremata” des Wilhelm von Sherwood: Kommentierung Und Historische Einordnung.(Studien Und Texte Zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters, 98.) Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2008. Pp. Xix, 765; Black-and-White Figures and Tables. [REVIEW]E. P. Bos - 2011 - Speculum 86 (3):773-775.
  4. Where There is Life There is Mind: In Support of a Strong Life-Mind Continuity Thesis.Michael David Kirchhoff & Tom Froese - 2017 - Entropy 19.
    This paper considers questions about continuity and discontinuity between life and mind. It begins by examining such questions from the perspective of the free energy principle (FEP). The FEP is becoming increasingly influential in neuroscience and cognitive science. It says that organisms act to maintain themselves in their expected biological and cognitive states, and that they can do so only by minimizing their free energy given that the long-term average of free energy is entropy. The paper then argues that there (...)
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  5. A Multi-Scale View of the Emergent Complexity of Life: A Free-Energy Proposal.Casper Hesp, Maxwell Ramstead, Axel Constant, Paul Badcock, Michael David Kirchhoff & Karl Friston - forthcoming - In Michael Price & John Campbell (eds.), Evolution, Development, and Complexity: Multiscale Models in Complex Adaptive Systems.
    We review some of the main implications of the free-energy principle (FEP) for the study of the self-organization of living systems – and how the FEP can help us to understand (and model) biotic self-organization across the many temporal and spatial scales over which life exists. In order to maintain its integrity as a bounded system, any biological system - from single cells to complex organisms and societies - has to limit the disorder or dispersion (i.e., the long-run entropy) of (...)
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  6. Extended Cognition & the Causal‐Constitutive Fallacy: In Search for a Diachronic and Dynamical Conception of Constitution.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 90 (2):320-360.
    Philosophical accounts of the constitution relation have been explicated in terms of synchronic relations between higher‐ and lower‐level entities. Such accounts, I argue, are temporally austere or impoverished, and are consequently unable to make sense of the diachronic and dynamic character of constitution in dynamical systems generally and dynamically extended cognitive processes in particular. In this paper, my target domain is extended cognition based on insights from nonlinear dynamics. Contrariwise to the mainstream literature in both analytical metaphysics and extended cognition, (...)
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  7.  99
    The Markov Blankets of Life: Autonomy, Active Inference and the Free Energy Principle.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2018 - Journal of the Royal Society Interface 15 (138).
    This work addresses the autonomous organization of biological systems. It does so by considering the boundaries of biological systems, from individual cells to Home sapiens, in terms of the presence of Markov blankets under the active inference scheme—a corollary of the free energy principle. A Markov blanket defines the boundaries of a system in a statistical sense. Here we consider how a collective of Markov blankets can self-assemble into a global system that itself has a Markov blanket; thereby providing an (...)
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  8.  30
    Enactivism and Predictive Processing: A Non-Representational View.Michael David Kirchhoff & Ian Robertson - 2018 - Philosophical Explorations 21 (2):264-281.
    This paper starts by considering an argument for thinking that predictive processing (PP) is representational. This argument suggests that the Kullback–Leibler (KL)-divergence provides an accessible measure of misrepresentation, and therefore, a measure of representational content in hierarchical Bayesian inference. The paper then argues that while the KL-divergence is a measure of information, it does not establish a sufficient measure of representational content. We argue that this follows from the fact that the KL-divergence is a measure of relative entropy, which can (...)
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  9.  71
    Predictive Processing, Perceiving and Imagining: Is to Perceive to Imagine, or Something Close to It?Michael D. Kirchhoff - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (3):751-767.
    This paper examines the relationship between perceiving and imagining on the basis of predictive processing models in neuroscience. Contrary to the received view in philosophy of mind, which holds that perceiving and imagining are essentially distinct, these models depict perceiving and imagining as deeply unified and overlapping. It is argued that there are two mutually exclusive implications of taking perception and imagination to be fundamentally unified. The view defended is what I dub the ecological–enactive view given that it does not (...)
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  10.  69
    Autopoiesis, Free Energy, and the Life–Mind Continuity Thesis.Michael Kirchhoff - 2018 - Synthese 195 (6):2519-2540.
    The life–mind continuity thesis is difficult to study, especially because the relation between life and mind is not yet fully understood, and given that there is still no consensus view neither on what qualifies as life nor on what defines mind. Rather than taking up the much more difficult task of addressing the many different ways of explaining how life relates to mind, and vice versa, this paper considers two influential accounts addressing how best to understand the life–mind continuity thesis: (...)
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  11. Hierarchical Markov Blankets and Adaptive Active Inference. [REVIEW]Michael David Kirchhoff - 2018 - Physics of Life Reviews 24.
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  12. Extended Cognition and Fixed Properties: Steps to a Third-Wave Version of Extended Cognition. [REVIEW]Michael David Kirchhoff - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (2):287-308.
    This paper explores several paths a distinctive third wave of extended cognition might take. In so doing, I address a couple of shortcomings of first- and second-wave extended cognition associated with a tendency to conceive of the properties of internal and external processes as fixed and non-interchangeable. First, in the domain of cognitive transformation, I argue that a problematic tendency of the complementarity model is that it presupposes that socio-cultural resources augment but do not significantly transform the brain’s representational capacities (...)
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  13. A New, Better BET: Rescuing and Revising Basic Emotion Theory.Michael David Kirchhoff, Daniel D. Hutto & Ian Robertson - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:1-12.
    Basic Emotion Theory, or BET, has dominated the affective sciences for decades (Ekman, 1972, 1992, 1999; Ekman and Davidson, 1994; Griffiths, 2013; Scarantino and Griffiths, 2011). It has been highly influential, driving a number of empirical lines of research (e.g., in the context of facial expression detection, neuroimaging studies and evolutionary psychology). Nevertheless, BET has been criticized by philosophers, leading to calls for it to be jettisoned entirely (Colombetti, 2014; Hufendiek, 2016). This paper defuses those criticisms. In addition, it shows (...)
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  14.  15
    Multiscale Integration: Beyond Internalism and Externalism.Maxwell J. D. Ramstead, Michael D. Kirchhoff, Axel Constant & Karl J. Friston - forthcoming - Synthese:1-30.
    We present a multiscale integrationist interpretation of the boundaries of cognitive systems, using the Markov blanket formalism of the variational free energy principle. This interpretation is intended as a corrective for the philosophical debate over internalist and externalist interpretations of cognitive boundaries; we stake out a compromise position. We first survey key principles of new radical views of cognition. We then describe an internalist interpretation premised on the Markov blanket formalism. Having reviewed these accounts, we develop our positive multiscale account. (...)
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  15.  79
    Experiential Fantasies, Prediction, and Enactive Minds.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (3-4):68-92.
    A recent surge of work on prediction-driven processing models--based on Bayesian inference and representation-heavy models--suggests that the material basis of conscious experience is inferentially secluded and neurocentrically brain bound. This paper develops an alternative account based on the free energy principle. It is argued that the free energy principle provides the right basic tools for understanding the anticipatory dynamics of the brain within a larger brain-body-environment dynamic, viewing the material basis of some conscious experiences as extensive--relational and thoroughly world-involving.
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  16.  55
    Extensive Enactivism: Why Keep It All In?Daniel D. Hutto, Michael D. Kirchhoff & Erik Myin - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
    Radical enactive and embodied approaches to cognitive science oppose the received view in the sciences of the mind in denying that cognition fundamentally involves contentful mental representation. This paper argues that the fate of representationalism in cognitive science matters significantly to how best to understand the extent of cognition. It seeks to establish that any move away from representationalism toward pure, empirical functionalism fails to provide a substantive “mark of the cognitive” and is bereft of other adequate means for individuating (...)
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  17.  30
    From Mutual Manipulation to Cognitive Extension: Challenges and Implications.Michael Kirchhoff - 2017 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 16 (5):863–878.
    This paper examines the application of the mutual manipulability criterion as a way to demarcate constituents of cognitive systems from resources having a mere causal influence on cognitive systems. In particular, it is argued that on at least one interpretation of the mutual manipulability criterion, the criterion is inadequate because the criterion is conceptualized as identifying synchronic dependence between higher and lower ‘levels’ in mechanisms. It is argued that there is a second articulation of the mutual manipulability criterion available, and (...)
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  18.  30
    Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise.Richard Menary & Michael Kirchhoff - 2014 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (6):1-14.
    Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.
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  19.  5
    Extended Cognition and Fixed Properties: Steps to a Third-Wave Version of Extended Cognition.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (2):287–308.
    This paper explores several paths a distinctive third wave of extended cognition might take. In so doing, I address a couple of shortcomings of first- and second-wave extended cognition associated with a tendency to conceive of the properties of internal and external processes as fixed and non-interchangeable. First, in the domain of cognitive transformation, I argue that a problematic tendency of the complementarity model is that it presupposes that socio-cultural resources augment but do not significantly transform the brain’s representational capacities (...)
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  20.  29
    Species of Realization and the Free Energy Principle.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2015 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (4):706-723.
    This paper examines, for the first time, the relationship between realization relations and the free energy principle in cognitive neuroscience. I argue, firstly, that the free energy principle has ramifications for the wide versus narrow realization distinction: if the free energy principle is correct, then organismic realizers are insufficient for realizing free energy minimization. I argue, secondly, that the free energy principle has implications for synchronic realization relations, because free energy minimization is realized in dynamical agent-environment couplings embedded at multiple (...)
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  21.  18
    Predictive Brains and Embodied, Enactive Cognition: An Introduction to the Special Issue.Michael Kirchhoff - 2018 - Synthese 195 (6):2355-2366.
  22.  65
    Distributed Cognitive Agency in Virtue Epistemology.Michael David Kirchhoff & Will Newsome - 2012 - Philosophical Explorations 15 (2):165-180.
    We examine some of the ramifications of extended cognition for virtue epistemology by exploring the idea within extended cognition that it is possible to decentralize cognitive agency such that cognitive agency includes socio-cultural practices. In doing so, we first explore the (seemingly unquestioned) assumption in both virtue epistemology and extended cognition that cognitive agency is an individualistic phenomenon. A distributed notion of cognitive agency alters the landscape of knowledge attribution in virtue epistemology. We conclude by offering a pragmatic notion of (...)
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  23.  85
    Extended Cognition & Constitution: Re-Evaluating the Constitutive Claim of Extended Cognition.Michael Kirchhoff - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology 27 (2):258-283.
    This paper explores several paths by which the extended cognition thesis may overcome the coupling-constitution fallacy. In so doing, I address a couple of shortcomings in the contemporary literature. First, on the dimension of first-wave EC, I argue that constitutive arguments based on functional parity suffer from either a threat of cognitive bloat or an impasse with respect to determining the correct level of grain in the attribution of causal-functional roles. Second, on the dimension of second-wave EC, I argue that (...)
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  24.  7
    The Enactive Roots of STEM: Rethinking Educational Design in Mathematics.Michael David Kirchhoff, Daniel D. Hutto & Dor Abrahamson - 2015 - Educational Psychology Review 27 (3):371–389.
    New and radically reformative thinking about the enactive and embodied basis of cognition holds out the promise of moving forward age-old debates about whether we learn and how we learn. The radical enactive, embodied view of cognition (REC) poses a direct, and unmitigated, challenge to the trademark assumptions of traditional cognitivist theories of mind—those that characterize cognition as always and everywhere grounded in the manipulation of contentful representations of some kind. REC has had some success in understanding how sports skills (...)
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  25.  38
    Composition and Transactive Memory Systems.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2016 - Philosophical Explorations 19 (1):59-77.
    A recurrent theme in research on socially distributed cognition is to establish the claim that the cognitive phenomenon of transactive memory is grounded in a specific mode of organization: mechanistic compositional organization. My topic is the confluence of transactive remembering or transactive memory systems (TMSs) and mechanistic compositional organization. In relation to this confluence, the paper scrutinizes the claim that the kind of organization grounding TMSs and/or tokens of transactive remembering takes the specific form of mechanistic compositional organization – at (...)
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  26.  14
    The Body in Action: Predictive Processing and the Embodiment Thesis.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2018 - In Albert Newen, Leon De Bruin & Shaun Gallagher (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of 4E Cognition. London, UK:
    This chapter considers the possible convergence of predictive processing and embodied cognition. It is argued that the embodied view of cognition comprises a subset (if not all) of the following theses: (1) the constitutive thesis, (2) the nonrepresentational thesis, (3) the cognitive-affective inseparability thesis, and (iv) the metaplasticity thesis. It is then argued that predictive processing is prima facie at odds with some (if not all) of these embodied cognition theses. The reason is that predictive processing is often understood in (...)
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  27.  67
    Never Mind the Gap: Neurophenomenology, Radical Enactivism, and the Hard Problem of Consciousness.Michael David Kirchhoff & Daniel D. Hutto - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):346–353.
    Context: Neurophenomenology, as formulated by Varela, offers an approach to the science of consciousness that seeks to get beyond the hard problem of consciousness. There is much to admire in the practical approach to the science of consciousness that neurophenomenology advocates. Problem: Even so, this article argues, the metaphysical commitments of the enterprise require a firmer foundation. The root problem is that neurophenomenology, as classically formulated by Varela, endorses a form of non-reductionism that, despite its ambitions, assumes rather than dissolves (...)
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  28. Breaking Explanatory Boundaries: Flexible Borders and Plastic Minds.Michael David Kirchhoff & Russell Meyer - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-20.
    In this paper, we offer reasons to justify the explanatory credentials of dynamical modeling in the context of the metaplasticity thesis, located within a larger grouping of views known as 4E Cognition. Our focus is on showing that dynamicism is consistent with interventionism, and therefore with a difference-making account at the scale of system topologies that makes sui generis explanatory differences to the overall behavior of a cognitive system. In so doing, we provide a general overview of the interventionist approach. (...)
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  29.  14
    How to Determine the Boundaries of the Mind: A Markov Blanket Proposal.Michael D. Kirchhoff & Julian Kiverstein - forthcoming - Synthese.
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  30.  7
    Looking Beyond the Brain: Social Neuroscience Meets Narrative Practice.Michael David Kirchhoff & Daniel D. Hutto - 2015 - Cognitive Systems Research 35:5-17.
    Folk psychological practices are arguably the basis for our articulate ability to understand why people act as they do. This paper considers how social neuroscience could contribute to an explanation of the neural basis of folk psychology by understanding its relevant neural firing and wiring as a product of enculturation. Such a view is motivated by the hypothesis that folk psychological competence is established through engagement with narrative practices that form a familiar part of the human niche. Our major aim (...)
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  31.  27
    Enactive Social Cognition: Diachronic Constitution & Coupled Anticipation.Alan Jurgens & Michael D. Kirchhoff - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 70:1-10.
  32.  40
    Cognitive Assembly: Towards a Diachronic Conception of Composition.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (1):33–53.
    In this paper, I focus on a recent debate in extended cognition known as “cognitive assembly” and how cognitive assembly shares a certain kinship with the special composition question advanced in analytical metaphysics. Both the debate about cognitive assembly and the special composition question ask about the circumstances under which entities (broadly construed) compose or assemble another entity. The paper argues for two points. The first point is that insofar as the metaphysics of composition presupposes that composition is a synchronic (...)
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  33.  54
    Material Agency.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2009 - Techne 13 (3):206-220.
    This article attempts to articulate a theoretical framework, the target of which is to systematically unearth the conditions validating the ascription of agency to material culture. A wide range of studies, located within the interdisciplinary field known as material culture studies, testify to and aim at (re)uniting the materials of material culture with the notion of agency. In this article the argument is advanced that material entities have agency only if two necessary conditions are met: an ontological condition (agency is (...)
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  34.  5
    Anti-Representationalism: Not a Well-Founded Theory of Cognition.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2011 - Res Cogitans 8 (2).
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  35.  64
    In Search of Ontological Emergence: Diachronic, But Non-Supervenient.Michael Kirchhoff - 2014 - Axiomathes 24 (1):89-116.
    Most philosophical accounts of emergence are based on supervenience, with supervenience being an ontologically synchronic relation of determination. This conception of emergence as a relation of supervenience, I will argue, is unable to make sense of the kinds of emergence that are widespread in self-organizing and nonlinear dynamical systems, including distributed cognitive systems. In these dynamical systems, an emergent property is ontological and diachronic.
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  36.  14
    Material Agency: A Theoretical Framework for Ascribing Agency to Material Culture.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2009 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 13 (3):206-220.
    This article attempts to articulate a theoretical framework, the target of which is to systematically unearth the conditions validating the ascription of agency to material culture. A wide range of studies, located within the interdisciplinary field known as material culture studies, testify to and aim at uniting the materials of material culture with the notion of agency. In this article the argument is advanced that material entities have agency only if two necessary conditions are met: an ontological condition and an (...)
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  37.  43
    Evolving Perspectives on Science and History: A Chronicle of Modern India's Scientific Enchantment and Disenchantment (1850-1980).Dhruv Raina - 1997 - Social Epistemology 11 (1):3 – 24.
    This paper chronicles the cycles of scientism and romanticism that structure the discourse on science and technology in India since 1850. However, it does not promise a detailed review of this enormous archive. On the contrary, it aspires to identify the principle concerns, the important interlocutors, the prevalent frameworks and contextualizes them socio-politically, in both their local and global embodiments. In historical time, as has been suggested elsewhere, the scientism-romanticism dialectic acquires diversified formulations. This review suggests that in post-colonial India (...)
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  38.  7
    Revolutionary Creativity, East and West: A Critique From Indigenous Psychology.Louise Sundararajan & Maharaj K. Raina - 2015 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 35 (1):3-19.
  39.  18
    A Historical and Systematic Survey of European Perceptions of Wilderness.Thomas Kirchhoff & Vera Vicenzotti - 2014 - Environmental Values 23 (4):443-464.
    This paper develops a historical and systematic typology of perceptions of wilderness that exist in contemporary western European cultures. After describing notions of wilderness associated with worldviews that emerged during the Enlightenment period and as a critical response to it, we outline four recent transformations of these traditional notions of wilderness: wilderness as an ecological object, as a place of nature's self-reassertion, as a place of thrill and as a sphere of amorality and meaninglessness. In our conclusion, we suggest what (...)
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  40.  5
    „Seltenheitswert in der Zeit“: Vergänglichkeit und Nachträglichkeit in der Psychoanalyse.Christine Kirchhoff - 2019 - Paragrana: Internationale Zeitschrift für Historische Anthropologie 27 (2):37-50.
    Freuds Arbeit über Vergänglichkeit wird in den Kontext der Auseinandersetzung mit Endlichkeit und Sterblichkeit gestellt, wie sie in Literatur und bildender Kunst bis in die Gegenwart hinein geführt wird. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die Spannung zwischen carpe diem und memento mori in Freuds Text als Spannung zwischen manischer Verleugnung und depressiver Reaktion – also in der Sprache der Psychoanalyse – wieder auftaucht. Es wird gefragt, inwiefern der leicht manische Einschlag, den Freuds Verteidigung des Genusses des Schönen angesichts der Vergänglichkeit annimmt, (...)
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  41.  66
    The Adaptation of Foreign Religious Influences in Pre-Spanish Mexico.P. Kirchhoff - 1964 - Diogenes 12 (47):13-28.
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  42.  22
    Free Vs Hate Speech on Social Media: The Indian Perspective.Iftikhar Alam, Roshan Lal Raina & Faizia Siddiqui - 2016 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 14 (4):350-363.
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  43.  12
    The Introduction of Scientific Rationality Into India: A Study of Master Ramchandra—Urdu Journalist, Mathematician and Educationalist.S. Irfan Habib & Dhruv Raina - 1989 - Annals of Science 46 (6):597-610.
    This is a study of Master Ramchandra, a nineteenth-century Indian mathematician, social commentator and Urdu journalist. The contradictions manifest in his projects, it is contended, were actually the products of the contradictions manifest in the political and ideological thinking of the period. One encounters in his writings a dominant critique of the prevalent religious, social and educational systems and also a call for social transformation, wherein scientific rationality and realism came to play an important role. Ramchandra's understanding is quite close (...)
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  44.  25
    Reconfiguring the Centre: The Structure of Scientific Exchanges Between Colonial India and Europe.Dhruv Raina - 1996 - Minerva 34 (2):161-176.
    The “centre-periphery” relationship historically structured scientific exchanges between metropolis and province, between the fount of empire and its outposts. But the exchange, if regarded merely as a one-way flow of scientific information, ignores both the politics of knowledge and the nature of its appropriation. Arguably, imperial structures do not entirely determine scientific practices and the exchange of knowledge. Several factors neutralise the over-determining influence of politics—and possibly also the normative values of science—on scientific practice.In examining these four examples of Indian (...)
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  45.  4
    Critical Notice: James O. Young, Art and Knowledge. London: Routledge 2001. Pp. 180.Carl Matheson & Evan Kirchhoff - 2003 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 33 (4):575-598.
    In his Art and Knowledge, the distinguished Canadian philosopher of art, James O. Young, takes on the daunting task of defending his opening claim that ‘every item properly classified as a work of art can contribute to human knowledge’. His assertion is a general one, intended to apply to any and every prospective artwork, not merely to sub-genres like the moral novel or the ‘Shock-Headed Peter’ school of didactic bedtime terror-fest. Thus, according to Young, works such as The Well-Tempered Clavier (...)
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  46. Memorias de carnavales santafesinos:¿ Cómo ser protagonistas de historias alegres?Andrea Raina & Argentina La Plata - 2013 - Aletheia: Anuario de Filosofía 3 (6).
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  47.  51
    Situating the History of Science: Dialogues with Joseph Needham.Joseph Needham, Dhruv Raina & S. Irfan Habib (eds.) - 1999 - Oxford University Press.
    The essays in this volume place the history of science in context, especially the genre of history of science informed by Joseph Needham's ecumenical vision of science. The book presents a number of questions that relate to contemporary concerns of the history of sciences and multiculturalism.
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  48.  56
    Enaction: Toward a New Paradigm for Cognitive Science.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (1):163-167.
    Philosophical Psychology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-5, Ahead of Print.
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  49.  8
    Emotions On the Playing Field.Michael David Kirchhoff, Daniel D. Hutto & Ian Renshaw - 2018 - In Massimiliano L. Cappuccio (ed.), Handbook of Embodied Cognition and Sport Psychology. Cambridge, MA, USA:
    There is more to skillful performance in sport than technical proficiency. How an athlete feels – whether he or she is confident, elated, nervous or fearful – also matters to how they perform in certain situations. Taking stock of this, some sports psychologists have begun to develop techniques for ensuring more robust, reliable performances by focusing on how athletes respond emotionally to situations while, at the same time, training their action-oriented skills. This chapter adds theoretical insight to those efforts, offering (...)
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  50.  11
    Epigenetic Regulation of the Maize Spm Transposon.Nina Fedoroff, Michael Schläppi & Ramesh Raina - 1995 - Bioessays 17 (4):291-297.
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