Results for 'Randomization'

158 found
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  1.  26
    R. A. Fisher and His Advocacy of Randomization.Nancy S. Hall - 2007 - Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):295-325.
    The requirement of randomization in experimental design was first stated by R. A. Fisher, statistician and geneticist, in 1925 in his book Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Earlier designs were systematic and involved the judgment of the experimenter; this led to possible bias and inaccurate interpretation of the data. Fisher's dictum was that randomization eliminates bias and permits a valid test of significance. Randomization in experimenting had been used by Charles Sanders Peirce in 1885 but the practice (...)
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  2.  15
    Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials: How Trial Documents Justify the Use of Randomisation and Placebo.Tapani Keränen, Arja Halkoaho, Emmi Itkonen & Anna-Maija Pietilä - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):2.
    Randomised clinical trials involve procedures such as randomisation, blinding, and placebo use, which are not part of standard medical care. Patients asked to participate in RCTs often experience difficulties in understanding the meaning of these and their justification.
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  3.  31
    To Evaluate the Effectiveness of Health Care Ethics Consultation Based on the Goals of Health Care Ethics Consultation: A Prospective Cohort Study with Randomization.Yen-Yuan Chen, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Yu-Hui Kao, Pi-Ru Tsai, Tien-Shang Huang & Wen-Je Ko - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):1.
    The growing prevalence of health care ethics consultation (HCEC) services in the U.S. has been accompanied by an increase in calls for accountability and quality assurance, and for the debates surrounding why and how HCEC is evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of HCEC as indicated by several novel outcome measurements in East Asian medical encounters.
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  4.  30
    Randomization and Rules for Causal Inferences in Biology: When the Biological Emperor (Significance Testing) Has No Clothes.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (2):154-161.
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  5.  5
    A Comparison of Two Methods of Event Randomization in Probability Learning.Mari R. Jones & Jerome L. Myers - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (6):909.
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  6.  47
    The Virtues of Randomization.David Papineau - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (2):437-450.
    Peter Urbach has argued, on Bayesian grounds, that experimental randomization serves no useful purpose in testing causal hypothesis. I maintain that he fails to distinguish general issues of statistical inference from specific problems involved in identifying causes. I concede the general Bayesian thesis that random sampling is inessential to sound statistical inference. But experimental randomization is a different matter, and often plays an essential role in our route to causal conclusions.
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  7.  23
    Must Research Participants Understand Randomization?David Wendler - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (2):3 – 8.
    In standard medical care, physicians select treatments for patients based on clinical judgment, considering which treatment is best for the individual patient, given the patient's history and circumstances. In contrast, investigators conducting randomized clinical trials select treatments for participants based on a random selection process. Because this process represents a significant departure from the norms of standard medical care, it is widely assumed that potential research participants must understand randomization to give valid informed consent. This assumption, together with data (...)
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  8.  10
    Learning Health Systems, Clinical Equipoise and the Ethics of Response Adaptive Randomisation.Alex John London - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (6):409-415.
    To give substance to the rhetoric of ‘learning health systems’, a variety of novel trial designs are being explored to more seamlessly integrate research with medical practice, reduce study duration and reduce the number of participants allocated to ineffective interventions. Many of these designs rely on response adaptive randomisation. However, critics charge that RAR is unethical on the grounds that it violates the principle of equipoise. In this paper, I reconstruct critiques of RAR as holding that it is inconsistent with (...)
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  9.  90
    Randomization and the Design of Experiments.Peter Urbach - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (2):256-273.
    In clinical and agricultural trials, there is the danger that an experimental outcome appears to arise from the causal process or treatment one is interested in when, in reality, it was produced by some extraneous variation in the experimental conditions. The remedy prescribed by classical statisticians involves the procedure of randomization, whose effectiveness and appropriateness is criticized. An alternative, Bayesian analysis of experimental design, is shown, on the other hand, to provide a coherent and intuitively satisfactory solution to the (...)
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  10.  8
    Randomisation in Trials: Do Potential Trial Participants Understand It and Find It Acceptable?C. Kerr - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (1):80-84.
    Objective: To examine lay persons’ ability to identify methods of random allocation and their acceptability of using methods of random allocation in a clinical trial context.Design: Leaflets containing hypothetical medical, non-medical, and clinical trial scenarios involving random allocation, using material from guidelines for trial information leaflets.Setting and participants: Adults attending further education colleges , covering a wide range of ages, occupations, and levels of education.Main measures: Judgements of whether each of five methods of allocation to two groups was random in (...)
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  11.  49
    Research Ethics: Participants’ Perceptions of Motivation, Randomisation and Withdrawal in a Randomised Controlled Trial of Interventions for Prevention of Depression.J. B. Grant, A. J. Mackinnon, H. Christensen & J. Walker - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (12):768-733.
    Aims and background: Little is known about how participants perceive prevention trials, particularly trials designed to prevent mental illness. This study examined participants’ motives for participating in a trial and their views of randomisation and the ability to withdraw from a randomised controlled trial for prevention of depression. Methods: Participants were older adults reporting elevated depression symptoms living in urban and regional locations in Australia who had consented to participate in an RCT of interventions to prevent depression. Participants rated their (...)
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  12. Comments on "Randomization and the Design of Experiments" by P. Urbach.O. Mayo - 1987 - Philosophy of Science 54 (4):592-596.
    Urbach (1985) has concluded that the use of randomization in the design of clinical and agricultural trials is both inappropriate and ineffective. It is argued here that it is appropriate, as it eliminates the dependence of inference on the unknown precise physical model that underlies a set of observations, and effective, in that it is relatively simple to apply in practice compared with any competing method. Furthermore, it has been proven in practice.
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  13. A Reply to Mayo's Criticisms of Urbach's "Randomization and the Design of Experiments".Peter Urbach - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (1):125-128.
    Mayo (1987) sought to discredit Urbach's (1985) arguments against randomization as a universal requirement in clinical and agricultural trials. The present reply rebuts Mayo's criticisms.
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  14.  5
    Randomization Tests That Condition on Non-Categorical Covariate Balance.Zach Branson & Luke W. Miratrix - 2019 - Journal of Causal Inference 7 (1).
    A benefit of randomized experiments is that covariate distributions of treatment and control groups are balanced on average, resulting in simple unbiased estimators for treatment effects. However, it is possible that a particular randomization yields covariate imbalances that researchers want to address in the analysis stage through adjustment or other methods. Here we present a randomization test that conditions on covariate balance by only considering treatment assignments that are similar to the observed one in terms of covariate balance. (...)
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  15.  3
    Outcome-Adaptive Randomization in Clinical Trials: Issues of Participant Welfare and Autonomy.Julius Sim - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (2):83-101.
    Outcome-adaptive randomization has been proposed as a corrective to certain ethical difficulties inherent in the traditional randomized clinical trial using fixed-ratio randomization. In particular, it has been suggested that OAR redresses the balance between individual and collective ethics in favour of the former. In this paper, I examine issues of welfare and autonomy arising in relation to OAR. A central issue in discussions of welfare in OAR is equipoise, and the moral status of OAR is crucially influenced by (...)
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  16.  46
    Post-Modern Meditations on Punishment: On the Limits of Reason and the Virtues of Randomization (a Polemic and Manifesto for the Twenty-First Century).Bernard E. Harcourt - 2007 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 74 (2):307-346.
    Since the modern era, the discourse of punishment has cycled through three sets of questions. The first, born of the Enlightenment itself, asked: On what ground does the sovereign have the right to punish? Nietzsche most forcefully, but others as well, argued that the question itself begged its own answer. The right to punish, they suggested, is what defines sovereignty, and as such, can never serve to limit sovereign power. With the birth of the social sciences, this skepticism gave rise (...)
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  17.  6
    The Role of Randomization in Bayesian and Frequentist Design of Clinical Trial.Paola Berchialla, Dario Gregori & Ileana Baldi - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):469-475.
    A key role in inference is played by randomization, which has been extensively used in clinical trials designs. Randomization is primarily intended to prevent the source of bias in treatment allocation by producing comparable groups. In the frequentist framework of inference, randomization allows also for the use of probability theory to express the likelihood of chance as a source for the difference of end outcome. In the Bayesian framework, its role is more nuanced. The Bayesian analysis of (...)
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  18.  8
    In Praise of Randomisation : The Importance of Causality in Medicine and its Subversion by Philosophers of Science.David Colquhoun - 2011 - In Philip Dawid, William Twining & Mimi Vasilaki (eds.), Evidence, Inference and Enquiry. Oup/British Academy.
    The job of scientists is to try to distinguish what is true from what is false by means of observation and experiment. That job has been made difficult by some philosophers of science who appear to give academic respectability to relativist, and even postmodernist, postures. This chapter suggests that the contributions of philosophers to causal understanding have been unhelpful. It puts the case for randomised studies as the safest guarantee of the reliability of scientific evidence. It uses the case of (...)
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  19.  20
    Direct Inference and Randomization.Isaac Levi - 1982 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:447 - 463.
    There are two uses of randomization in efforts to control systematic bias in experimental design: (a) Alchemical uses seek to convert unavoidable systematic errors into random errors. (b) Hygienic uses seek to reduce the prospect of the experimenter's involvement with the implementation of the experiment contributing to bias. A few remarks are made at the end of the paper about the hygienic use of randomization as a preventative against sticky fingers. The bulk of the discussion addresses the alchemical (...)
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  20.  19
    Both Sides of the Coin: Randomization From the Perspectives of Physician-Investigators and Patient-Subjects.Eric D. Kodish, Kathleen A. Kassimatis & Tsiao Yi Yap - 2010 - Ethics and Behavior 20 (5):380-386.
    Randomization is the “gold standard” design for clinical research trials and is accepted as the best way to reduce bias. Although some controversy remains over this matter, we believe equipoise is the fundamental ethical requirement for conducting a randomized clinical trial. Despite much attention to the ethics of randomization, the moral psychology of this study design has not been explored. This article analyzes the ethical tensions that arise from conducting these studies and examines the moral psychology of this (...)
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  21.  12
    Cluster Randomization and Political Philosophy.Eric Chwang - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (9):476-484.
    In this paper, I will argue that, while the ethical issues raised by cluster randomization can be challenging, they are not new. My thesis divides neatly into two parts. In the first, easier part I argue that many of the ethical challenges posed by cluster randomized human subjects research are clearly present in other types of human subjects research, and so are not novel. In the second, more difficult part I discuss the thorniest ethical challenge for cluster randomized research (...)
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  22.  11
    A Bayesian Argument in Favor of Randomization.Zeno G. Swijtink - 1982 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:159-168.
    Randomization is a generally accepted principle of sound experimental design and common practice among working scientists. But Bayesian statisticians reject it, most often because of decision theoretic argument against randomization. I trace it back to Abraham Wald's Theory of Inductive Behavior and argue that Bayesians should concur with Ronald Fisher 's criticism of Wald's analysis of randomization. The paper ends with a Bayesian argument in favor of randomization: randomization can lead to an increase in expected (...)
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  23.  10
    Probabilistic Causality, Randomization and Mixtures.Jan von Plato - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:432-437.
    A formulation of probabilistic causality is given in terms of the theory of abstract dynamical systems. Causal factors are identified as invariants of motion of a system. Repetition of an experiment leads to the notion of stationarity, and causal factors yield a decomposition of the stationary probability law of the experiment into ergodic components. In these, statistical behaviour is uniform. Control of identified causal factors leads to a corresponding statistical law for the events, which is offered as a notion of (...)
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  24.  19
    Telepathy: Origins of Randomization in Experimental Design.Ian Hacking - 1988 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 79:427-451.
  25.  3
    Vaccine Testing for Emerging Infections: The Case for Individual Randomisation.Nir Eyal & Marc Lipsitch - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (9):625-631.
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  26.  12
    Telepathy: Origins of Randomization in Experimental Design.Ian Hacking - 1988 - Isis 79 (3):427-451.
  27.  6
    Randomization in Individual Choice Behavior.Amnon Rapoport & David V. Budescu - 1997 - Psychological Review 104 (3):603-617.
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  28. Philosophical Controversies in the Evaluation of Medical Treatments : With a Focus on the Evidential Roles of Randomization and Mechanisms in Evidence-Based Medicine.Alexander Mebius - 2015 - Dissertation, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
    This thesis examines philosophical controversies surrounding the evaluation of medical treatments, with a focus on the evidential roles of randomised trials and mechanisms in Evidence-Based Medicine. Current 'best practice' usually involves excluding non-randomised trial evidence from systematic reviews in cases where randomised trials are available for inclusion in the reviews. The first paper challenges this practice and evaluates whether adding of evidence from non-randomised trials might improve the quality and precision of some systematic reviews. The second paper compares the alleged (...)
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  29.  28
    When Ethics Precludes Randomization: Put Prospective, Matched-Pair Observational Studies to Work.Charles Joseph Kowalski - 2013 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (2):184-197.
    In a recent paper in this journal, John Worrall (2008) used the example of a series of trials involving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a technology for the treatment of respiratory failure in newborns, to illustrate the relationship between ethics and epistemology in medical research. One of the issues considered was whether or not it was ethical to perform a particular clinical trial at all, and he showed clearly that the answer was intimately related to epistemological judgments about the weight to (...)
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  30.  22
    Poor Reporting Quality of Key Randomization and Allocation Concealment Details is Still Prevalent Among Published RCTs in 2011: A Review.Laura Clark, Ulrike Schmidt, Puvan Tharmanathan, Joy Adamson, Catherine Hewitt & David Torgerson - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):703-707.
  31. If Children Understand Drawing Straws and Flipping Coins, Research Participants Can Understand Randomization.Jeremy Howick - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (2):19 – 20.
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  32.  32
    Randomization, Persuasiveness and Rigor in Proofs.Catherine Womach & Matrin Farach - 2003 - Synthese 134 (1):71-84.
  33.  9
    Understanding Randomization: Helpful Strategies.Howard Brody & Andrew M. Childress - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (2):14 – 15.
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  34.  4
    Equipoise and Randomization.Steven Joffe & R. Truog - 2008 - In Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.), The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 245--60.
  35.  93
    Rule-Utilitarianism and Randomization.David P. Gauthier - 1965 - Analysis 25 (3):68 - 69.
  36.  11
    Sequence Redundancy Under Conditions of Randomization and Spontaneous Activity.Stefan Slak, Joseph I. Shaffer & Nancy C. Barone - 1982 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 19 (5):256-258.
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  37.  18
    Mendelian Randomisation: Why Epidemiology Needs a Formal Language for Causality.Vanessa Didelez & Nuala A. Sheehan - 2007 - In Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality and Probability in the Sciences. pp. 5--263.
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  38.  35
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Must Research Participants Understand Randomization?”.David Wendler - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (2):W1 – W2.
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  39.  8
    Randomization Inference in the Regression Discontinuity Design: An Application to Party Advantages in the U.S. Senate.Matias D. Cattaneo, Brigham R. Frandsen & Rocío Titiunik - 2015 - Journal of Causal Inference 3 (1):1-24.
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  40.  5
    A Simple Model Allowing Modification of the Effect of a Randomized Intervention by Post-Randomization Variables.Jennifer A. Faerber, Marshall M. Joffe, Dylan S. Small, Rongmei Zhang, Gregory K. Brown & Thomas R. Ten Have - 2017 - Journal of Causal Inference 5 (2).
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  41.  16
    Randomisation and Resource Allocation: A Missed Opportunity for Evaluating Health Care and Social Interventions.T. Toroyan - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (5):319-322.
    Equipoise is widely regarded to be an essential prerequisite for the ethical conduct of a randomised controlled trial. There are some circumstances however, under which it is acceptable to conduct a randomised controlled trial in the absence of equipoise. Limited access to the preferred intervention is one such circumstance. In this paper we present an example of a randomised trial in which access to the preferred intervention, preschool education, was severely limited by resource constraints. The ethical issues that arise when (...)
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  42.  5
    A Conditional Randomization Test to Account for Covariate Imbalance in Randomized Experiments.Jonathan Hennessy, Tirthankar Dasgupta, Luke Miratrix, Cassandra Pattanayak & Pradipta Sarkar - 2016 - Journal of Causal Inference.
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  43.  8
    Use and Reporting of Restricted Randomization: A Review.Ruchi Higham, Puvan Tharmanathan & Yvonne Birks - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (6):1205-1211.
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  44.  3
    Erratum To: A Conditional Randomization Test for Covariate Imbalance.Jonathan Hennessy, Tirthankar Dasgupta, Luke Miratrix, Cassandra Pattanayak & and Pradipta Sarkar - 2017 - Journal of Causal Inference 5 (2).
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  45.  7
    Contribution of Treatment Acceptability to Acceptance of Randomization: An Exploration.Souraya Sidani, Mary Fox & Dana R. Epstein - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (1):14-20.
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  46.  9
    Equipoise and Randomization.Steven Joffe Robert D. Truog - 2008 - In Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.), The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics. Oxford University Press.
  47.  11
    Randomization and the Transactional Framework for Informed Consent.Don Reynolds & David A. Fleming - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (2):16 – 17.
  48.  8
    Randomization Should Be Disclosed to Potential Research Subjects.Ariella Binik & Mark Sheehan - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (12):35-37.
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  49.  4
    Randomization and the Shape Function Model of Learning: A Reply to Wiesen.D. M. Warburton - 1971 - Psychological Review 78 (6):552-552.
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  50.  4
    A Brief Note Regarding Randomization.Stephen Senn - 2013 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (3):452-453.
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