Results for 'Randomness'

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  1.  6
    Random Justice: On Lotteries and Legal Decision-Making.Neil Duxbury - 1999 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Chance inevitably plays a role in law but it is not often that we consciously try to import an element of randomness into a legal process. Random Justice: On Lotteries and Legal Decision-Making explores the potential for the use of lotteries in social, and particularly legal, decision-making contexts. Utilizing a variety of disciplines and materials, Neil Duxbury considers in detail the history, advantages, and drawbacks of deciding issues of social significance by lot and argues that the value of the (...)
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  2.  2
    Computability and Randomness.André Nies - 2008 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press UK.
    The interplay between computability and randomness has been an active area of research in recent years, reflected by ample funding in the USA, numerous workshops, and publications on the subject. The complexity and the randomness aspect of a set of natural numbers are closely related. Traditionally, computability theory is concerned with the complexity aspect. However, computability theoretic tools can also be used to introduce mathematical counterparts for the intuitive notion of randomness of a set. Recent research shows (...)
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  3. Are Random Drift and Natural Selection Conceptually Distinct?Roberta L. Millstein - 2002 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):33-53.
    The latter half of the twentieth century has been marked by debates in evolutionary biology over the relative significance of natural selection and random drift: the so-called “neutralist/selectionist” debates. Yet John Beatty has argued that it is difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish the concept of random drift from the concept of natural selection, a claim that has been accepted by many philosophers of biology. If this claim is correct, then the neutralist/selectionist debates seem at best futile, and at worst, (...)
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  4.  72
    Conditional Random Quantities and Compounds of Conditionals.Angelo Gilio & Giuseppe Sanfilippo - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (4):709-729.
    In this paper we consider conditional random quantities (c.r.q.’s) in the setting of coherence. Based on betting scheme, a c.r.q. X|H is not looked at as a restriction but, in a more extended way, as \({XH + \mathbb{P}(X|H)H^c}\) ; in particular (the indicator of) a conditional event E|H is looked at as EH + P(E|H)H c . This extended notion of c.r.q. allows algebraic developments among c.r.q.’s even if the conditioning events are different; then, for instance, we can give a (...)
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  5. Randomness Is Unpredictability.Antony Eagle - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):749-790.
    The concept of randomness has been unjustly neglected in recent philosophical literature, and when philosophers have thought about it, they have usually acquiesced in views about the concept that are fundamentally flawed. After indicating the ways in which these accounts are flawed, I propose that randomness is to be understood as a special case of the epistemic concept of the unpredictability of a process. This proposal arguably captures the intuitive desiderata for the concept of randomness; at least (...)
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  6. Randomness, Statistics and Emergence.Philip Mcshane - 1970 - University of Notre Dame Press.
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  7. Randomness and the Justification of Induction.Scott Campbell & James Franklin - 2004 - Synthese 138 (1):79 - 99.
    In 1947 Donald Cary Williams claimed in The Ground of Induction to have solved the Humean problem of induction, by means of an adaptation of reasoning first advanced by Bernoulli in 1713. Later on David Stove defended and improved upon Williams’ argument in The Rational- ity of Induction (1986). We call this proposed solution of induction the ‘Williams-Stove sampling thesis’. There has been no lack of objections raised to the sampling thesis, and it has not been widely accepted. In our (...)
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  8. Random Justice: On Lotteries and Legal Decision-Making.Neil Duxbury - 2002 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This controversial book explores the potential for the use of lotteries in social, and particularly legal, decision-making contexts. Utilizing a variety of disciplines and materials, the author considers in detail the history, advantages, and drawbacks of deciding issues of social significance by lot and argues that the value of the lottery as a legal decision-making device has generally been underestimated. The final chapter of the book considers how lotteries might be combined with other decision-mechanisms and suggests that it may sometimes (...)
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  9. The Strange Logic of Random Graphs.Joel Spencer - 2001 - Springer Verlag.
    The study of random graphs was begun in the 1960s and now has a comprehensive literature. This excellent book by one of the top researchers in the field now joins the study of random graphs with mathematical logic. The methodologies involve probability, discrete structures and logic, with an emphasis on discrete structures.
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  10.  31
    Von Mises' Definition of Random Sequences Reconsidered.Michiel van Lambalgen - 1987 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 52 (3):725-755.
    We review briefly the attempts to define random sequences. These attempts suggest two theorems: one concerning the number of subsequence selection procedures that transform a random sequence into a random sequence; the other concerning the relationship between definitions of randomness based on subsequence selection and those based on statistical tests.
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  11.  67
    Calibrating Randomness.Rod Downey, Denis R. Hirschfeldt, André Nies & Sebastiaan A. Terwijn - 2006 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 12 (3):411-491.
    We report on some recent work centered on attempts to understand when one set is more random than another. We look at various methods of calibration by initial segment complexity, such as those introduced by Solovay [125], Downey, Hirschfeldt, and Nies [39], Downey, Hirschfeldt, and LaForte [36], and Downey [31]; as well as other methods such as lowness notions of Kučera and Terwijn [71], Terwijn and Zambella [133], Nies [101, 100], and Downey, Griffiths, and Reid [34]; higher level randomness (...)
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  12.  20
    Randomness? What Randomness?Klaas Landsman - 2020 - Foundations of Physics 50 (2):61-104.
    This is a review of the issue of randomness in quantum mechanics, with special emphasis on its ambiguity; for example, randomness has different antipodal relationships to determinism, computability, and compressibility. Following a philosophical discussion of randomness in general, I argue that deterministic interpretations of quantum mechanics are strictly speaking incompatible with the Born rule. I also stress the role of outliers, i.e. measurement outcomes that are not 1-random. Although these occur with low probability, their very existence implies (...)
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  13.  42
    Is Random Selection a Cure for the Ills of Electoral Representation?Dimitri Landa & Ryan Pevnick - 2021 - Journal of Political Philosophy 29 (1):46-72.
    Journal of Political Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  14.  27
    Quantum Randomness and Underdetermination.Jeffrey A. Barrett & Simon M. Huttegger - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (3):391-408.
    We consider the nature of quantum randomness and how one might have empirical evidence for it. We will see why, depending on one’s computational resources, it may be impossible to determine whether...
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  15. Random Drift and the Omniscient Viewpoint.Roberta L. Millstein - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (3):S10-S18.
    Alexander Rosenberg (1994) claims that the omniscient viewpoint of the evolutionary process would have no need for the concept of random drift. However, his argument fails to take into account all of the processes which are considered to be instances of random drift. A consideration of these processes shows that random drift is not eliminable even given a position of omniscience. Furthermore, Rosenberg must take these processes into account in order to support his claims that evolution is deterministic and that (...)
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  16.  40
    Collective Responsibilities of Random Collections: Plural Self-Awareness Among Strangers.Hans Bernhard Schmid - 2018 - Journal of Social Philosophy 49 (1):91-105.
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  17.  31
    Relative Randomness and Cardinality.George Barmpalias - 2010 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 51 (2):195-205.
    A set $B\subseteq\mathbb{N}$ is called low for Martin-Löf random if every Martin-Löf random set is also Martin-Löf random relative to B . We show that a $\Delta^0_2$ set B is low for Martin-Löf random if and only if the class of oracles which compress less efficiently than B , namely, the class $\mathcal{C}^B=\{A\ |\ \forall n\ K^B(n)\leq^+ K^A(n)\}$ is countable (where K denotes the prefix-free complexity and $\leq^+$ denotes inequality modulo a constant. It follows that $\Delta^0_2$ is the largest arithmetical (...)
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  18.  33
    Algorithmic Randomness in Empirical Data.James W. McAllister - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (3):633-646.
    According to a traditional view, scientific laws and theories constitute algorithmic compressions of empirical data sets collected from observations and measurements. This article defends the thesis that, to the contrary, empirical data sets are algorithmically incompressible. The reason is that individual data points are determined partly by perturbations, or causal factors that cannot be reduced to any pattern. If empirical data sets are incompressible, then they exhibit maximal algorithmic complexity, maximal entropy and zero redundancy. They are therefore maximally efficient carriers (...)
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  19.  84
    Computational Randomness and Lowness.Sebastiaan A. Terwijn & Domenico Zambella - 2001 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 66 (3):1199-1205.
    We prove that there are uncountably many sets that are low for the class of Schnorr random reals. We give a purely recursion theoretic characterization of these sets and show that they all have Turing degree incomparable to 0'. This contrasts with a result of Kučera and Terwijn [5] on sets that are low for the class of Martin-Löf random reals.
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  20. Independence, Randomness and the Axiom of Choice.Michiel van Lambalgen - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (4):1274-1304.
    We investigate various ways of introducing axioms for randomness in set theory. The results show that these axioms, when added to ZF, imply the failure of AC. But the axiom of extensionality plays an essential role in the derivation, and a deeper analysis may ultimately show that randomness is incompatible with extensionality.
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  21.  21
    Schnorr Randomness.Rodney G. Downey & Evan J. Griffiths - 2004 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 69 (2):533 - 554.
    Schnorr randomness is a notion of algorithmic randomness for real numbers closely related to Martin-Löf randomness. After its initial development in the 1970s the notion received considerably less attention than Martin-Löf randomness, but recently interest has increased in a range of randomness concepts. In this article, we explore the properties of Schnorr random reals, and in particular the c.e. Schnorr random reals. We show that there are c.e. reals that are Schnorr random but not Martin-Löf (...)
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  22.  29
    Non‐Random Mutation: The Evolution of Targeted Hypermutation and Hypomutation.Iñigo Martincorena & Nicholas M. Luscombe - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (2):123-130.
  23.  51
    Randomness and Probability in Dynamical Theories: On the Proposals of the Prigogine School.Robert W. Batterman - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (2):241-263.
    I discuss recent work in ergodic theory and statistical mechanics, regarding the compatibility and origin of random and chaotic behavior in deterministic dynamical systems. A detailed critique of some quite radical proposals of the Prigogine school is given. I argue that their conclusion regarding the conceptual bankruptcy of the classical conceptions of an exact microstate and unique phase space trajectory is not completely justified. The analogy they want to draw with quantum mechanics is not sufficiently close to support their most (...)
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  24. Mistaking Randomness for Free Will.Jeffrey P. Ebert & Daniel M. Wegner - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):965-971.
    Belief in free will is widespread. The present research considered one reason why people may believe that actions are freely chosen rather than determined: they attribute randomness in behavior to free will. Experiment 1 found that participants who were prompted to perform a random sequence of actions experienced their behavior as more freely chosen than those who were prompted to perform a deterministic sequence. Likewise, Experiment 2 found that, all else equal, the behavior of animated agents was perceived to (...)
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  25.  18
    Algorithmic Randomness, Reverse Mathematics, and the Dominated Convergence Theorem.Jeremy Avigad, Edward T. Dean & Jason Rute - 2012 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 163 (12):1854-1864.
    We analyze the pointwise convergence of a sequence of computable elements of L1 in terms of algorithmic randomness. We consider two ways of expressing the dominated convergence theorem and show that, over the base theory RCA0, each is equivalent to the assertion that every Gδ subset of Cantor space with positive measure has an element. This last statement is, in turn, equivalent to weak weak Königʼs lemma relativized to the Turing jump of any set. It is also equivalent to (...)
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  26.  90
    Assessing Randomness in Case Assignment: The Case Study of the Brazilian Supreme Court.Julio Michael Stern, Diego Marcondes & Claudia Peixoto - 2019 - Law, Probability and Risk 18 (2/3):97-114.
    Sortition, i.e. random appointment for public duty, has been employed by societies throughout the years as a firewall designated to prevent illegitimate interference between parties in a legal case and agents of the legal system. In judicial systems of modern western countries, random procedures are mainly employed to select the jury, the court and/or the judge in charge of judging a legal case. Therefore, these random procedures play an important role in the course of a case, and should comply with (...)
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  27.  47
    Randomness and Computability: Open Questions.Joseph S. Miller & André Nies - 2006 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 12 (3):390-410.
  28.  33
    Demuth Randomness and Computational Complexity.Antonín Kučera & André Nies - 2011 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 162 (7):504-513.
    Demuth tests generalize Martin-Löf tests in that one can exchange the m-th component a computably bounded number of times. A set fails a Demuth test if Z is in infinitely many final versions of the Gm. If we only allow Demuth tests such that GmGm+1 for each m, we have weak Demuth randomness.We show that a weakly Demuth random set can be high and , yet not superhigh. Next, any c.e. set Turing below a Demuth random set is strongly (...)
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  29.  20
    Randomness and Semimeasures.Laurent Bienvenu, Rupert Hölzl, Christopher P. Porter & Paul Shafer - 2017 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 58 (3):301-328.
    A semimeasure is a generalization of a probability measure obtained by relaxing the additivity requirement to superadditivity. We introduce and study several randomness notions for left-c.e. semimeasures, a natural class of effectively approximable semimeasures induced by Turing functionals. Among the randomness notions we consider, the generalization of weak 2-randomness to left-c.e. semimeasures is the most compelling, as it best reflects Martin-Löf randomness with respect to a computable measure. Additionally, we analyze a question of Shen, a positive (...)
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  30.  56
    Randomness and the Right Reference Class.Henry E. Kyburg - 1977 - Journal of Philosophy 74 (9):501-521.
  31. Why Be Random?Thomas Icard - 2021 - Mind 130 (517):fzz065.
    When does it make sense to act randomly? A persuasive argument from Bayesian decision theory legitimizes randomization essentially only in tie-breaking situations. Rational behaviour in humans, non-human animals, and artificial agents, however, often seems indeterminate, even random. Moreover, rationales for randomized acts have been offered in a number of disciplines, including game theory, experimental design, and machine learning. A common way of accommodating some of these observations is by appeal to a decision-maker’s bounded computational resources. Making this suggestion both precise (...)
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  32. Chance Versus Randomness.Antony Eagle - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This article explores the connection between objective chance and the randomness of a sequence of outcomes. Discussion is focussed around the claim that something happens by chance iff it is random. This claim is subject to many objections. Attempts to save it by providing alternative theories of chance and randomness, involving indeterminism, unpredictability, and reductionism about chance, are canvassed. The article is largely expository, with particular attention being paid to the details of algorithmic randomness, a topic relatively (...)
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  33.  86
    A Randomness‐Based Theodicy for Evolutionary Evils.Jordan Wessling & Joshua Rasmussen - 2017 - Zygon 52 (4):984-1004.
    We develop and knit together several theodicies in order to find a more complete picture of why certain forms of animal suffering might be permitted by a perfect being. We focus on an especially potent form of the problem of evil, which arises from considering why a perfectly good, wise, and powerful God might use evolutionary mechanisms that predictably result in so much animal suffering and loss of life. There are many existing theodicies on the market, and although they offer (...)
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  34.  16
    Randomness, Lowness and Degrees.George Barmpalias, Andrew E. M. Lewis & Mariya Soskova - 2008 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 73 (2):559 - 577.
    We say that A ≤LR B if every B-random number is A-random. Intuitively this means that if oracle A can identify some patterns on some real γ. In other words. B is at least as good as A for this purpose. We study the structure of the LR degrees globally and locally (i.e., restricted to the computably enumberable degrees) and their relationship with the Turing degrees. Among other results we show that whenever α in not GL₂ the LR degree of (...)
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  35. Probability and Randomness.Antony Eagle - 2016 - In Alan Hájek & Christopher Hitchcock (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Probability and Philosophy. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press. pp. 440-459.
    Early work on the frequency theory of probability made extensive use of the notion of randomness, conceived of as a property possessed by disorderly collections of outcomes. Growing out of this work, a rich mathematical literature on algorithmic randomness and Kolmogorov complexity developed through the twentieth century, but largely lost contact with the philosophical literature on physical probability. The present chapter begins with a clarification of the notions of randomness and probability, conceiving of the former as a (...)
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  36.  1
    Random Assemblies for Lawmaking? Prospects and Limits.James S. Fishkin - 2018 - Politics and Society 46 (3):359-379.
    A randomly selected microcosm of the people can usefully play an official role in the lawmaking process. However, there are serious issues to be confronted if such a random sample were to take on the role of a full-scale, full-time second chamber. Some skeptical considerations are detailed. There are also advantages to short convenings of such a sample to take on some of the roles of a second chamber. This article provides a response to the skeptical considerations. Precedents from ancient (...)
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  37.  11
    Random Walks on Semantic Networks Can Resemble Optimal Foraging.Joshua T. Abbott, Joseph L. Austerweil & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2015 - Psychological Review 122 (3):558-569.
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  38.  83
    Randomness and Perceived-Randomness in Evolutionary Biology.William C. Wimsatt - 1980 - Synthese 43 (2):287 - 329.
  39.  43
    Random Closed Sets Viewed as Random Recursions.R. Daniel Mauldin & Alexander P. McLinden - 2009 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 48 (3-4):257-263.
    It is known that the box dimension of any Martin-Löf random closed set of ${\{0,1\}^\mathbb{N}}$ is ${\log_2(\frac{4}{3})}$ . Barmpalias et al. [J Logic Comput 17(6):1041–1062, 2007] gave one method of producing such random closed sets and then computed the box dimension, and posed several questions regarding other methods of construction. We outline a method using random recursive constructions for computing the Hausdorff dimension of almost every random closed set of ${\{0,1\}^\mathbb{N}}$ , and propose a general method for random closed sets (...)
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  40.  87
    On Being a Random Sample.David Manley - manuscript
    It is well known that de se (or ‘self-locating’) propositions complicate the standard picture of how we should respond to evidence. This has given rise to a substantial literature centered around puzzles like Sleeping Beauty, Dr. Evil, and Doomsday—and it has also sparked controversy over a style of argument that has recently been adopted by theoretical cosmologists. These discussions often dwell on intuitions about a single kind of case, but it’s worth seeking a rule that can unify our treatment of (...)
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  41.  52
    Some Random Observations.E. T. Jaynes - 1985 - Synthese 63 (1):115 - 138.
    Of course, the rationale of PME is so different from what has been taught in “orthodox” statistics courses for fifty years, that it causes conceptual hangups for many with conventional training. But beginning students have no difficulty with it, for it is just a mathematical model of the natural, common sense way in which anybody does conduct his inferences in problems of everyday life.The difficulties that seem so prominent in the literature today are, therefore, only transient phenomena that will disappear (...)
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  42.  56
    Randomness in Classical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics.Igor V. Volovich - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (3):516-528.
    The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics assumes the existence of the classical deterministic Newtonian world. We argue that in fact the Newton determinism in classical world does not hold and in the classical mechanics there is fundamental and irreducible randomness. The classical Newtonian trajectory does not have a direct physical meaning since arbitrary real numbers are not observable. There are classical uncertainty relations: Δq>0 and Δp>0, i.e. the uncertainty (errors of observation) in the determination of coordinate and momentum is (...)
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  43.  26
    Random Reals, the Rainbow Ramsey Theorem, and Arithmetic Conservation.Chris J. Conidis & Theodore A. Slaman - 2013 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 78 (1):195-206.
    We investigate the question “To what extent can random reals be used as a tool to establish number theoretic facts?” Let $\text{2-\textit{RAN\/}}$ be the principle that for every real $X$ there is a real $R$ which is 2-random relative to $X$. In Section 2, we observe that the arguments of Csima and Mileti [3] can be implemented in the base theory $\text{\textit{RCA}}_0$ and so $\text{\textit{RCA}}_0+\text{2-\textit{RAN\/}}$ implies the Rainbow Ramsey Theorem. In Section 3, we show that the Rainbow Ramsey Theorem is (...)
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  44. Randomness Increases Order in Biological Evolution.Giuseppe Longo & Maël Montévil - 2012 - In M. Dinneen, B. Khoussainov & A. Nies (eds.), Computation, Physics and Beyond. Berlin Heidelberg: pp. 289-308.
    n this text, we revisit part of the analysis of anti-entropy in Bailly and Longo (2009} and develop further theoretical reflections. In particular, we analyze how randomness, an essential component of biological variability, is associated to the growth of biological organization, both in ontogenesis and in evolution. This approach, in particular, focuses on the role of global entropy production and provides a tool for a mathematical understanding of some fundamental observations by Gould on the increasing phenotypic complexity along evolution. (...)
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  45.  52
    Diversity, Not Randomness, Trumps Ability.Daniel J. Singer - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (1):178-191.
    A number of formal models, including a highly influential model from Hong and Page, purport to show that functionally diverse groups often beat groups of individually high-performing agents in solving problems. Thompson argues that in Hong and Page’s model, that the diverse groups are created by a random process explains their success, not the diversity. Here, I defend the diversity interpretation of the Hong and Page result. The failure of Thompson’s argument shows that to understand the value of functional diversity, (...)
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  46.  23
    On Schnorr and Computable Randomness, Martingales, and Machines.Rod Downey, Evan Griffiths & Geoffrey Laforte - 2004 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 50 (6):613-627.
    We examine the randomness and triviality of reals using notions arising from martingales and prefix-free machines.
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  47. The Ergodic Hierarchy, Randomness and Hamiltonian Chaos.Joseph Berkovitz, Roman Frigg & Fred Kronz - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 37 (4):661-691.
    Various processes are often classified as both deterministic and random or chaotic. The main difficulty in analysing the randomness of such processes is the apparent tension between the notions of randomness and determinism: what type of randomness could exist in a deterministic process? Ergodic theory seems to offer a particularly promising theoretical tool for tackling this problem by positing a hierarchy, the so-called ‘ergodic hierarchy’, which is commonly assumed to provide a hierarchy of increasing degrees of (...). However, that notion of randomness requires clarification. The mathematical definition of EH does not make explicit appeal to randomness; nor does the usual way of presenting EH involve a specification of the notion of randomness that is supposed to underlie the hierarchy. In this paper we argue that EH is best understood as a hierarchy of random behaviour if randomness is explicated in terms of unpredictability. We then show that, contrary to common wisdom, EH is useful in characterising the behaviour of Hamiltonian dynamical systems. (shrink)
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  48.  24
    Random Fluctuations of Diathermal and Adiabatic Pistons.Bruno Crosignani & Paolo Di Porto - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (12):1707-1715.
    A comparison between the standard adiabatic piston dynamics and that of a perfectly conducting (diathermal) piston helps to clarify their different behaviors and, in particular, the anomalously large random displacement of the adiabatic piston as compared to the diathermal one. It is shown to be associated with a situation where the presence of a single massive “particle” (the piston), acting as an internal constraint in a many-particle system, plays a somewhat unexpected relevant role. A significant physical insight accounting for the (...)
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  49.  48
    Reviving Randomness for Political Rationality: Elements of a Theory of Aleatory Democracy.Hubertus Buchstein - 2010 - Constellations 17 (3):435-454.
  50. Searching for Control: Priming Randomness Increases the Evaluation of Ritual Efficacy.Cristine H. Legare & André L. Souza - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (1):152-161.
    Reestablishing feelings of control after experiencing uncertainty has long been considered a fundamental motive for human behavior. We propose that rituals (i.e., socially stipulated, causally opaque practices) provide a means for coping with the aversive feelings associated with randomness due to the perception of a connection between ritual action and a desired outcome. Two experiments were conducted (one in Brazil [n = 40] and another in the United States [n = 94]) to evaluate how the perceived efficacy of rituals (...)
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