Results for 'Rational Decision-making'

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  1. A Model for Ethical Decision Making in Business: Reasoning, Intuition, and Rational Moral Principles. [REVIEW]Jaana Woiceshyn - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 104 (3):311-323.
    How do business leaders make ethical decisions? Given the significant and wide-spread impact of business people’s decisions on multiple constituents, how they make decisions matters. Unethical decisions harm the decision makers themselves as well as others, whereas ethical decisions have the opposite effect. Based on data from a study on strategic decision making by 16 effective chief executive officers, I propose a model for ethical decision making in business in which reasoning and intuition interact through forming, recalling, and applying moral (...)
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  2.  95
    Decision Making and Business Ethics: The Implications of Using Image Theory in Preference to Rational Choice. [REVIEW]Kevin Morrell - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 50 (3):239-252.
    The study of decision making has multiple implications for business ethics. This paper outlines some commonly used frameworks for understanding choice in business. It characterises the dominant model for business decision making as rational choice theory (RCT) and contrasts this with a more recent, naturalistic theory of decision-making, image theory. The implications of using RCT and image theory to model decision making are discussed with reference to three ethical systems. RCT is shown to be consistent with Utilitarian ethics, (...)
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  3. Leibniz on Rational Decision-Making.Markku Roinila - 2007 - Dissertation, University of Helsinki
    In this study I discuss G. W. Leibniz's (1646-1716) views on rational decision-making from the standpoint of both God and man. The Divine decision takes place within creation, as God freely chooses the best from an infinite number of possible worlds. While God's choice is based on absolutely certain knowledge, human decisions on practical matters are mostly based on uncertain knowledge. However, in many respects they could be regarded as analogous in more complicated situations. In addition to giving (...)
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  4.  58
    Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making.Peter C. Gøtzsche - 2007 - J. Wiley.
    Now in its fourth edition, Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision - Making is a unique book to look at evidence-based medicine and the difficulty of applying evidence from group studies to individual patients._ The book analyses the successive stages of the decision process and deals with topics such as the examination of the patient,_the reliability of clinical data, the logic of diagnosis, the fallacies of uncontrolled therapeutic experience and the need for randomised clinical trials and meta-analyses. It (...)
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  5.  10
    Thinking About Acting: Logical Foundations for Rational Decision Making - by John L. Pollock.Paul Weirich - 2007 - Philosophical Books 48 (3):283-285.
    This book review describes and evaluates John Pollock's view about rational decision-making.
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  6.  14
    On Nudging’s Supposed Threat to Rational Decision-Making.Timothy Houk - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (4):403-422.
    Nudging is a tool of libertarian paternalism. It involves making use of certain psychological tendencies in order to help people make better decisions without restricting their freedom. However, some have argued that nudging is objectionable because it interferes with, or undermines, the rational decision-making of the nudged agents. Opinions differ on why this is objectionable, but the underlying concerns appear to begin with nudging’s threat to rational decision-making. Those who discuss this issue do not make it (...)
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  7. Thinking About Acting: Logical Foundations for Rational Decision Making.John L. Pollock - 2006 - Oxford University Press USA.
    John Pollock aims to construct a theory of rational decision making for real agents--not ideal agents. Pollock argues that theories of ideal rationality are largely irrelevant to the decision making of real agents. Thinking about Acting aims to provide a theory of "real rationality.".
     
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  8.  59
    What Makes a Good Decision? Robust Satisficing as a Normative Standard of Rational Decision Making.Barry Schwartz, Yakov Ben-Haim & Cliff Dacso - 2011 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 41 (2):209-227.
    Most decisions in life involve ambiguity, where probabilities can not be meaningfully specified, as much as they involve probabilistic uncertainty. In such conditions, the aspiration to utility maximization may be self-deceptive. We propose “robust satisficing” as an alternative to utility maximizing as the normative standard for rational decision making in such circumstances. Instead of seeking to maximize the expected value, or utility, of a decision outcome, robust satisficing aims to maximize the robustness to uncertainty of a satisfactory outcome. That (...)
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  9. Rational Decision-Making in Resource-Bounded Agents.John Pollock - manuscript
    The objective of this paper is to construct an implementable theory of rational decision-making for cognitive agents subject to realistic resource constraints. It is argued that decision-making should select actions indirectly by selecting plans that prescribe them. It is also argued that although expected values provide the tool for evaluating plans, plans cannot be compared straightforwardly in terms of their expected values, and the objective of a realistic agent cannot be to find optimal plans. The theory of (...)
     
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  10.  30
    Locally Rational Decision-Making.Richard M. Shiffrin - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):175-175.
    Colman shows that normative theories of rational decision-making fail to produce rational decisions in simple interactive games. I suggest that well-formed theories are possible in local settings, keeping in mind that a good part of each game is the generation of a rational approach appropriate for that game. The key is rationality defined in terms of the game, not individual decisions.
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  11.  31
    Thinking About Acting: Logical Foundations for Rational Decision Making.John L. Pollock - 2006 - Oxford University Press, Usa.
    Pollock argues that theories of ideal rationality are largely irrelevant to the decision making of real agents. Thinking about Acting aims to provide a theory of "real rationality.".
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  12.  44
    Ethics of Resource Allocation: Instruments for Rational Decision Making in Support of a Sustainable Health Care.Claudia Wild - 2005 - Poiesis and Praxis 3 (4):296-309.
    In all western countries health care budgets are under considerable constraint and therefore a reflection process has started on how to gain the most health benefit for the population within limited resource boundaries. The field of ethics of resource allocation has evolved only recently in order to bring some objectivity and rationality in the discussion. In this article it is argued that priority setting is the prerequisite of ethical resource allocation and that for purposes of operationalization, instruments such as need (...)
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  13.  36
    Rational Decision Making: Balancing RUN and JUMP Modes of Analysis.Tilmann Betsch & Carsten Held - 2012 - Mind and Society 11 (1):69-80.
    Rationality in decision making is commonly assessed by comparing choice performance against normative standards. We argue that such a performance-centered approach blurs the distinction between rational choice and adaptive behavior. Instead, rational choice should be assessed with regard to the way individuals make analytic decisions. We suggest that analytic decisions can be made in two different modes in which control processes are directed at different levels. In a RUN mode, thought is directed at controlling the operation of a (...)
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  14. Rational Interaction for Moral Sensitivity: A Postmodern Approach to Moral Decision-Making in Business. [REVIEW]G. J. Rossouw - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (1):11 - 20.
    Moral dissensus is a distinct feature of our time. This is not only true of our post-modern culture in general, but also of business culture specifically. In this paper I start by explaining how modernist rationality has produced moral dissensus without offering any hope of bringing an end to it in the foreseeable future. Opting for a form of post-modernist rationality as the only viable way of dealing with moral dissensus, I then make an analysis of a number of ways (...)
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  15.  8
    Desirability Foundations of Robust Rational Decision Making.Marco Zaffalon & Enrique Miranda - forthcoming - Synthese:1-42.
    Recent work has formally linked the traditional axiomatisation of incomplete preferences à la Anscombe-Aumann with the theory of desirability developed in the context of imprecise probability, by showing in particular that they are the very same theory. The equivalence has been established under the constraint that the set of possible prizes is finite. In this paper, we relax such a constraint, thus de facto creating one of the most general theories of rationality and decision making available today. We provide the (...)
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  16. Leibniz's Models of Rational Decision.Markku Roinila - 2008 - In Marcelo Dascal (ed.), Leibniz: What Kind of Rationalist? Springer. pp. 357-370.
    Leibniz frequently argued that reasons are to be weighed against each other as in a pair of scales, as Professor Marcelo Dascal has shown in his article "The Balance of Reason." In this kind of weighing it is not necessary to reach demonstrative certainty – one need only judge whether the reasons weigh more on behalf of one or the other option However, a different kind of account about rational decision-making can be found in some of Leibniz's writings. (...)
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  17.  2
    Emotions and Ethical Decision Making at Work: Organizational Norms, Emotional Dogs, and the Rational Tales They Tell Themselves and Others.Joseph McManus - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-16.
    Organizations have become essential institutions that facilitate the vital coordination and cooperation necessary to create value across societies. Recent research within moral psychology and behavioral ethics indicates that emotions play a pivotal role in promoting ethical decision making. The theory developed here maintains that most organizations retain norms that disfavor the experience and expression of many strong emotions while at work. This dynamic inhibits individual’s ability to generate moral intuitions and reason about ethical issues they encounter. This occurs as individuals (...)
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  18.  16
    Ethics, Management, and Mythology: Rational Decision Making for Health Service Professionals.Michael Loughlin - 2002 - Radcliffe Medical Press.
    Chapter 1 Who this book is for and who it is not for1 There are already too many books offering solutions to the problems of the health service. ...
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  19.  20
    The Concept of Negotiation in Shared Decision Making.Lars Sandman - 2009 - Health Care Analysis 17 (3):236-243.
    In central definitions of shared decision-making within medical consultations we find the concept of negotiation used to describe the interaction between patient and professional in case of conflict. It has been noted that the concept of negotiation is far from clear in this context and in other contexts it is used both in terms of rational deliberation and bargaining. The articles explores whether rational deliberation or bargaining accurately describes the negotiation in shared decision-making and finds that (...)
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  20.  24
    Rational Decision Making in Medicine: Implications for Overuse and Underuse.Benjamin Djulbegovic, Shira Elqayam & William Dale - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (3):655-665.
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  21.  56
    Incommensurability, Proportionality, and Rational Legal Decision-Making.Paul-Erik N. Veel - 2010 - Law and Ethics of Human Rights 4 (2):178-228.
    Courts frequently engage in the weighing of competing values; perhaps most obviously, such balancing constitutes an integral aspect of proportionality analysis in many states’ constitutional law. However, such balancing raises a difficult theoretical question: What does it mean that one value “outweighs” another in any particular case? If the values at issue are incommensurable — as they often will be — such balancing may appear to break down. As Justice Scalia has stated, balancing in the presence of incommensurable values “is (...)
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  22.  21
    Individual Decision Making, Group Decision Making and Deliberation.Bojana Radovanovic - 2012 - Filozofija I Društvo 23 (2):147-167.
    Each of us makes a number of decisions, from the less important to those with far-reaching consequences. As members of different groups, we are also actors of group decision making. In order to make a rational decision, a choice-making procedure must satisfy a number of assumptions of rationality. In addition, when it comes to group decisions, those procedures should also be “fair.” However, it is not possible to define a procedure of choice-making that would transform individual orders of alternatives (...)
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  23.  58
    Rational Snacking: Young Children’s Decision-Making on the Marshmallow Task is Moderated by Beliefs About Environmental Reliability.Celeste Kidd, Holly Palmeri & Richard N. Aslin - 2013 - Cognition 126 (1):109-114.
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  24. Situating Rationality: Ecologically Rational Decision Making with Simple Heuristics.Henry Brighton & Peter M. Todd - 2009 - In Murat Aydede & P. Robbins (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 322--346.
     
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  25.  13
    Rational Decision-Making in Inhibitory Control.Pradeep Shenoy & Angela J. Yu - 2011 - Frontiers Human Neuroscience 5.
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  26.  7
    An Analysis of the Associations Among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making.Ana P. G. Jelihovschi, Ricardo L. Cardoso & Alexandre Linhares - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  27.  31
    Probability in Rational Decision-Making.Paul K. Moser & D. Hudson Mulder - 1994 - Philosophical Papers 23 (2):109-128.
  28. Review: John L. Pollock: Thinking About Acting: Logical Foundations for Rational Decision Making. [REVIEW]A. Morton - 2008 - Mind 117 (467):716-719.
    a review of John Pollock's *Thinking about Acting* with a focus on his aim of describing psychological mechanisms which are humanly feasible.
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  29.  8
    Ethics, Management and Mythology: Rational Decision‐Making for Health Service Professionals (Michael Loughlin, Radcliffe Medical Press, Oxford, £24.95, ISBN 1–85775–574–X). [REVIEW]G. Bruce - 2002 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):287-290.
  30.  29
    What is Awareness of Emotion and How Does It Aid Rational Decision Making?: Reply to Ellis☆.John A. Lambie - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):974-980.
  31. Essay Review of Ethics, Management and Mythology: Rational Decision-Making for Health Service Professionals.B. G. Charlton - 2002 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):287-290.
     
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  32.  28
    Some Remarks Concerning the Criterion of Rational Decision Making.Klemens Szaniawski - 1960 - Studia Logica 9 (1):221 - 239.
  33.  3
    Rational Decision Making With Regard to Taking Methylphenidate.Stephen Rice & David Trafimow - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (2):31-33.
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  34.  12
    Rational Choice and Moral Decision Making in Research.Anita M. Gordon - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (3):175-194.
    University psychology and sociology researchers rated the likelihood they would engage in misconduct as described in 9 research scenarios, while also making moral judgments and rating the likelihood of discovery and sanctions. Multiple regression revealed significant effects across various scenarios for moral judgment as well as shame and embarrassment on reducing misconduct. The effects on misconduct of the perceived probability of sanctions were conditioned on moral judgments in some scenarios. The results have implications for how universities address the prevention, detection, (...)
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  35.  10
    Human Decision-Making Beyond the Rational Decision Theory.Etienne Koechlin - 2020 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 24 (1):4-6.
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  36.  7
    Melioration as Rational Choice: Sequential Decision Making in Uncertain Environments.Chris R. Sims, Hansjörg Neth, Robert A. Jacobs & Wayne D. Gray - 2013 - Psychological Review 120 (1):139-154.
  37.  16
    Overrepresentation of Extreme Events in Decision Making Reflects Rational Use of Cognitive Resources.Lieder Falk, L. Griffiths Thomas & Hsu Ming - 2018 - Psychological Review 125 (1):1-32.
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  38.  39
    Consensus Through Respect: A Model of Rational Group Decision-Making.Carl Wagner - 1978 - Philosophical Studies 34 (4):335 - 349.
  39.  18
    As Economists, We Should Have Been Disturbed by My Friend's Comment Because There is No Place for Willpower in Economics or Rational Choice Theory. Economists and Others Who Embrace the Decision-Making Perspective See Behavior as a Matter of Simply.George Loewenstein - 2000 - Law and Philosophy 19 (1):51-76.
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  40.  42
    Discourse Failure and the (Ir)Rational Politics of Democratic Decision Making.Mark J. Cherry - 2009 - Journal of Value Inquiry 43 (1):119-127.
  41.  7
    Herbert A. Simon. The Logic of Rational Decision. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 16 No. 63 , Pp. 169–186. - Herbert A. Simon. The Logic of Heuristic Decision Making. The Logic of Decision and Action, Edited by Nicholas Rescher, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh1967, Pp. 1–20. - Robert Binkley. Comments on H. Simon's “The Logic of Heuristic Decision Making.”The Logic of Decision and Action, Edited by Nicholas Rescher, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh1967, Pp. 21–26. - Nuel D. Belnap Jr. Comments on H. Simon's “The Logic of Heuristic Decision Making.”The Logic of Decision and Action, Edited by Nicholas Rescher, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh1967, Pp. 27–31. - Herbert A. Simon. Reply to Comments. The Logic of Decision and Action, Edited by Nicholas Rescher, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh1967, Pp. 32–35. - Nicholas Rescher. Semantic Foundations for the Logic of Preference. The Logic of Decision and Action, Edited by Nichol. [REVIEW]Edward E. Dawson - 1973 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 38 (1):135-144.
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  42.  9
    Rational Choice? Rethinking Decision-Making on Breast Cancer Risk and Screening Mammography.Mandana Vahabi & Denise Gastaldo - 2003 - Nursing Inquiry 10 (4):245-256.
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  43.  4
    The Rational Choice Model in Family Decision Making at the End of Life.Alison Karasz, Galit Sacajiu, Misha Kogan & Liza Watkins - 2010 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 21 (3):189.
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  44.  77
    Hard Choices: Decision Making Under Unresolved Conflict.Isaac Levi - 1990 - Cambridge University Press.
    It is a commonplace that in making decisions agents often have to juggle competing values, and that no choice will maximise satisfaction of them all. However, the prevailing account of these cases assumes that there is always a single ranking of the agent's values, and therefore no unresolvable conflict between them. Isaac Levi denies this assumption, arguing that agents often must choose without having balanced their different values and that to be rational, an act does not have to be (...)
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  45.  65
    Shared Decision Making, Paternalism and Patient Choice.Lars Sandman & Christian Munthe - 2010 - Health Care Analysis 18 (1):60-84.
    In patient centred care, shared decision making is a central feature and widely referred to as a norm for patient centred medical consultation. However, it is far from clear how to distinguish SDM from standard models and ideals for medical decision making, such as paternalism and patient choice, and e.g., whether paternalism and patient choice can involve a greater degree of the sort of sharing involved in SDM and still retain their essential features. In the article, different versions of SDM (...)
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  46. Shared Decision-Making and Patient Autonomy.Lars Sandman & Christian Munthe - 2009 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (4):289-310.
    In patient-centred care, shared decision-making is advocated as the preferred form of medical decision-making. Shared decision-making is supported with reference to patient autonomy without abandoning the patient or giving up the possibility of influencing how the patient is benefited. It is, however, not transparent how shared decision-making is related to autonomy and, in effect, what support autonomy can give shared decision-making. In the article, different forms of shared decision-making are analysed in relation to five (...)
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  47. Transitivity, the Sorites Paradox, and Similarity-Based Decision-Making.Alex Voorhoeve & Ken Binmore - 2006 - Erkenntnis 64 (1):101-114.
    A persistent argument against the transitivity assumption of rational choice theory postulates a repeatable action that generates a significant benefit at the expense of a negligible cost. No matter how many times the action has been taken, it therefore seems reasonable for a decision-maker to take the action one more time. However, matters are so fixed that the costs of taking the action some large number of times outweigh the benefits. In taking the action some large number of times (...)
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  48. A Conceptual and Computational Model of Moral Decision Making in Human and Artificial Agents.Wendell Wallach, Stan Franklin & Colin Allen - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):454-485.
    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in general, comprehensive models of human cognition. Such models aim to explain higher-order cognitive faculties, such as deliberation and planning. Given a computational representation, the validity of these models can be tested in computer simulations such as software agents or embodied robots. The push to implement computational models of this kind has created the field of artificial general intelligence (AGI). Moral decision making is arguably one of the most challenging tasks for computational (...)
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  49.  70
    Ethical Case Deliberation and Decision Making.Diego Gracia - 2003 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (3):227-233.
    During the last thirty years different methods have been proposed in order to manage and resolve ethical quandaries, specially in the clinical setting. Some of these methodologies are based on the principles of Decision-making theory. Others looked to other philosophical traditions, like Principlism, Hermeneutics, Narrativism, Casuistry, Pragmatism, etc. This paper defends the view that deliberation is the cornerstone of any adequate methodology. This is due to the fact that moral decisions must take into account not only principles and ideas, (...)
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  50.  39
    Assumptions in Decision Making Scholarship: Implications for Business Ethics Research. [REVIEW]Kirsten Martin & Bidhan Parmar - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 105 (3):289-306.
    While decision making scholarship in management has specifically addressed the objectivist assumptions within the rational choice model, a similar move within business ethics has only begun to occur. Business ethics scholarship remains primarily based on rational choice assumptions. In this article, we examine the managerial decision making literature in order to illustrate equivocality within the rational choice model. We identify four key assumptions in the decision making literature and illustrate how these assumptions affect decision making theory, research, (...)
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