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  1.  70
    Are Animal Models Predictive for Humans?Niall Shanks, Ray Greek & Jean Greek - 2009 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 4:2.
    It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically (...)
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  2.  30
    Is the Use of Sentient Animals in Basic Research Justifiable?Ray Greek & Jean Greek - 2010 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 5:14.
    Animals can be used in many ways in science and scientific research. Given that society values sentient animals and that basic research is not goal oriented, the question is raised.
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  3.  32
    A Review of the Institute of Medicine’s Analysis of Using Chimpanzees in Biomedical Research. [REVIEW]Robert C. Jones & Ray Greek - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):481-504.
    We argue that the recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine’s 2011 report, Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research : Assessing the Necessity, are methodologically and ethically confused. We argue that a proper understanding of evolution and complexity theory in terms of the science and ethics of using chimpanzees in biomedical research would have had led the committee to recommend not merely limiting but eliminating the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research. Specifically, we argue that a proper understanding of the (...)
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  4.  18
    The History and Implications of Testing Thalidomide on Animals.Ray Greek, Niall Shanks & Mark J. Rice - 2011 - Journal of Philosophy, Science and Law 11:1-32.
    The current use of animals to test for potential teratogenic effects of drugs and other chemicals dates back to the thalidomide disaster of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Controversy surrounds the following questions: 1. What was known about placental transfer of drugs when thalidomide was developed? 2. Was thalidomide tested on animals for teratogenicity prior to its release? 3. Would more animal testing have prevented the thalidomide disaster? 4. What lessons should be learned from the thalidomide disaster regarding animal (...)
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  5.  69
    The Nuremberg Code Subverts Human Health and Safety by Requiring Animal Modeling.Ray Greek, Annalea Pippus & Lawrence A. Hansen - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):16.
    Background: The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations.DiscussionWe review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for (...)
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  6.  60
    Complex Systems, Evolution, and Animal Models.Ray Greek & Niall Shanks - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):542-544.
  7.  14
    The Development of Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders.Ray Greek - 2012 - Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics 3 (3).
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  8.  79
    Letter to the Editor.Ray Greek - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (5):389-394.
    Dear Editor,The April 2014 issue of Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics [1] presented eight essays regarding the use of nonhuman animals in biomedical research. While I appreciate the essays concerning contemporary research—which were well written and offered new thinking from the fields of ethics and ethology—I believe the journal, via the topics and the authors chosen, failed to communicate the most important fact regarding the current science pertinent to the use of nonhuman animals in research.The foundational reason for using chimpanzees and (...)
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  9.  15
    Human Stakeholders and the Use of Animals in Drug Development.Lisa A. Kramer & Ray Greek - 2018 - Business and Society Review 123 (1):3-58.
    Pharmaceutical firms seek to fulfill their responsibilities to stakeholders by developing drugs that treat diseases. We evaluate the social and financial costs of developing new drugs relative to the realized benefits and find the industry falls short of its potential. This is primarily due to legislation-mandated reliance on animal test results in early stages of the drug development process, leading to a mere 10 percent success rate for new drugs entering human clinical trials. We cite hundreds of biomedical studies from (...)
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  10.  17
    Animal Models of Human Disease in Light of Darwin and DNA.Ray Greek & Jean Greek - 2002 - Human Rights Review 4 (1):74-85.
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  11.  11
    An Analysis of the Bateson Review of Research Using Nonhuman Primates.Ray Greek, Lawrence A. Hansen & Andre Menache - 2011 - Medicolegal and Bioethics 1 (1):3-22.
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