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Raymond W. Gibbs [44]Raymond W. Gibbs Jr [7]
  1. Embodiment and Cognitive Science.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2005 - New York ;Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores how people's subjective, felt experiences of their bodies in action provide part of the fundamental grounding for human cognition and language. Cognition is what occurs when the body engages the physical and cultural world and must be studied in terms of the dynamical interactions between people and the environment. Human language and thought emerge from recurring patterns of embodied activity that constrain ongoing intelligent behavior. We must not assume cognition to be purely internal, symbolic, computational, and disembodied, (...)
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  2. Metaphor Wars: Conceptual Metaphors in Human Life.Raymond W. Gibbs Jr - 2017 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    The study of metaphor is now firmly established as a central topic within cognitive science and the humanities. We marvel at the creative dexterity of gifted speakers and writers for their special talents in both thinking about certain ideas in new ways, and communicating these thoughts in vivid, poetic forms. Yet metaphors may not only be special communicative devices, but a fundamental part of everyday cognition in the form of 'conceptual metaphors'. An enormous body of empirical evidence from cognitive linguistics (...)
     
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  3. Metaphor Interpretation as Embodied Simulation.Raymond W. Gibbs Jr - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (3):434–458.
    Cognitive theories of metaphor understanding are typically described in terms of the mappings between different kinds of abstract, schematic, disembodied knowledge. My claim in this paper is that part of our ability to make sense of metaphorical language, both individual utterances and extended narratives, resides in the automatic construction of a simulation whereby we imagine performing the bodily actions referred to in the language. Thus, understanding metaphorical expressions like ‘grasp a concept’ or ‘get over’ an emotion involve simulating what it (...)
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  4.  21
    Literal Meaning and Psychological Theory.Raymond W. Gibbs - 1984 - Cognitive Science 8 (3):275-304.
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  5.  29
    Real and Imagined Body Movement Primes Metaphor Comprehension.Nicole L. Wilson & Raymond W. Gibbs - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (4):721-731.
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  6. Cognitive Effort and Effects in Metaphor Comprehension: Relevance Theory and Psycholinguistics.Raymond W. Gibbs Jr & Markus Tendahl - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (3):379–403.
    This paper explores the trade-off between cognitive effort and cognitive effects during immediate metaphor comprehension. We specifically evaluate the fundamental claim of relevance theory that metaphor understanding, like all utterance interpretation, is constrained by the presumption of optimal relevance (Sperber and Wilson, 1995, p. 270): the ostensive stimulus is relevant enough for it to be worth the addressee's effort to process it, and the ostensive stimulus is the most relevant one compatible with the communicator's abilities and preferences. One important implication (...)
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  7.  55
    Metaphor Interpretation as Embodied Simulation.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2006 - Mind Language 21 (3):434-458.
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  8.  63
    On the Psycholinguistics of Sarcasm.Raymond W. Gibbs - 1986 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115 (1):3-15.
  9.  8
    Metaphor Interpretation as Embodied Simulation.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2006 - Mind Language 21 (3):434-458.
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  10.  74
    Idioms and Mental Imagery: The Metaphorical Motivation for Idiomatic Meaning.Raymond W. Gibbs & Jennifer E. O'Brien - 1990 - Cognition 36 (1):35-68.
  11.  15
    Cognitive Effort and Effects in Metaphor Comprehension: Relevance Theory and Psycholinguistics.Raymond W. Gibbs & Markus Tendahl - 2006 - Mind Language 21 (3):379-403.
  12.  32
    Pragmatics in Understanding What is Said.Raymond W. Gibbs Jr & Jessica F. Moise - 1997 - Cognition 62 (1):51-74.
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  13.  38
    Why Many Concepts Are Metaphorical.Raymond W. Gibbs - 1996 - Cognition 61 (3):309-319.
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  14.  4
    Embodied Simulation in Metaphor Interpretation.Raymond W. Gibbs Jr - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (3):434-458.
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  15.  92
    Pragmatic Choice in Conversation.Raymond W. Gibbs & Guy Van Orden - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (1):7-20.
    How do people decide what to say in context? Many theories of pragmatics assume that people have specialized knowledge that drives them to utter certain words in different situations. But these theories are mostly unable to explain both the regularity and variability in people’s speech behaviors. Our purpose in this article is to advance a view of pragmatics based on complexity theory, which specifically explains the pragmatic choices speakers make in conversations. The concept of self-organized criticality sheds light on how (...)
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  16.  41
    The Cognitive Psychological Reality of Image Schemas and Their Transformations.Raymond W. Gibbs & Herbert L. Colston - 1995 - Cognitive Linguistics 6 (4):347-378.
  17.  56
    Taking a Stand on the Meanings of Stand: Bodily Experience as Motivation for Polysemy.Raymond W. Gibbs, Dinara A. Beitel, Michael Harrington & Paul E. Sanders - 1994 - Journal of Semantics 11 (4):231-251.
    This paper reports four experiments designed to examine the role that recurring bodily experiences have in motivating people's understandings of different senses of the polysemous word stand. Different patterns of recurring bodily experiences, called image schemas, emerge throughout sensorimotor activity and from our perceptual understanding of actions and events in the real world. The present claim is that each use of stand is motivated by a complex pattern of different image schemas. Experiment 1 revealed five major image schemas that are (...)
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  18.  73
    Understanding and Literal Meaning.Raymond W. Gibbs - 1989 - Cognitive Science 13 (2):243-251.
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  19.  11
    Conceptual Knowledge in the Interpretation of Idioms.Nandini P. Nayak & Raymond W. Gibbs - 1990 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 119 (3):315-330.
  20.  15
    Categorization and Metaphor Understanding.Raymond W. Gibbs - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (3):572-577.
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  21.  53
    Language Understanding is Grounded in Experiential Simulations: A Response to Weiskopf.Raymond W. Gibbs & Marcus Perlman - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (3):305-308.
    Several disciplines within the cognitive sciences have advanced the idea that people comprehend the actions of others, including the linguistic meanings they communicate, through embodied simulations where they imaginatively recreate the actions they observe or hear about. This claim has important consequences for theories of mind and meaning, such as that people’s use and interpretation of language emerges as a kind of bodily activity that is an essential part of ordinary cognition. Daniel Weiskopf presents several arguments against the idea that (...)
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  22.  33
    Psycholinguistic Studies on the Conceptual Basis of Idiomaticity.Raymond W. Gibbs - 1990 - Cognitive Linguistics 1 (4):417-452.
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  23.  9
    The Relevance of Relevance for Psychological Theory.Raymond W. Gibbs - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (4):718.
  24.  19
    Striving for Optimal Relevance When Answering Questions.Raymond W. Gibbs & Gregory A. Bryant - 2008 - Cognition 106 (1):345-369.
    When people are asked “Do you have the time?” they can answer in a variety of ways, such as “It is almost 3”, “Yeah, it is quarter past two”, or more precisely as in “It is now 1:43”. We present the results of four experiments that examined people’s real-life answers to questions about the time. Our hypothesis, following previous research findings, was that people strive to make their answers optimally relevant for the addressee, which in many cases allows people to (...)
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  25.  35
    Embodied Metaphor in Perceptual Symbols.Raymond W. Gibbs & Eric A. Berg - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):617-618.
    We agree with Barsalou's claim about the importance of perceptual symbols in a theory of abstract concepts. Yet we maintain that the richness of many abstract concepts arises from the metaphorical mapping of recurring patterns of perceptual, embodied experience to provide essential structure to these abstract ideas.
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  26.  14
    Embodied Motivations for Metaphorical Meanings.Marlene Johansson Falck & Raymond W. Gibbs - 2012 - Cognitive Linguistics 23 (2):251–272.
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  27.  30
    Why Irony Sometimes Comes to Mind: Paradoxical Effects of Thought Suppression.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):229-251.
    Research on the pragmatics of irony focuses on verbal irony use or on people's ironic conceptualizations of external events. But people sometimes experience irony within themselves whenever conscious attempts to accomplish something lead to completely contrary results. These situations sometimes seem ironic and evoke strong emotional reactions precisely because people understand the incompatibility between what is desired and what has occurred, enough so that the idea of irony may pop into consciousness. Psychological research now reveals that the difficulty in suppressing (...)
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  28.  6
    Why Idioms Mean What They Do.Raymond W. Gibbs & Nandini P. Nayak - 1991 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120 (1):93-95.
  29.  52
    Syntactic Frozenness in Processing and Remembering Idioms.Raymond W. Gibbs & Gayle P. Gonzales - 1985 - Cognition 20 (3):243-259.
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  30.  11
    Journal of The Cognitive Science Society.Robert L. Goldstone, John R. Anderson, Nick Chater, Andy Clark, Shimon Edelman, Kenneth Forbus, Dedre Gentner, Raymond W. Gibbs Jr, James Greeno & Robert A. Jacobs - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (3).
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  31.  10
    Speakers' Intuitions and Pragmatic Theory.Raymond W. Gibbs - 1999 - Cognition 69 (3):355-359.
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  32.  47
    You Don't Say: Figurative Language and Thought.Gregory A. Bryant & Raymond W. Gibbs - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):678-679.
    Carruthers has proposed a novel and quite interesting hypothesis for the role of language in conceptual integration, but his treatment does not acknowledge work in cognitive science on metaphor and analogy that reveals how diverse knowledge structures are integrated. We claim that this body of research provides clear evidence that cross-domain conceptual connections cannot be driven by syntactic processes alone.
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  33.  25
    Artistic Understanding as Embodied Simulation.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):143 - 144.
    Bullot & Reber (B&R) correctly include historical perspectives into the scientific study of art appreciation. But artistic understanding always emerges from embodied simulation processes that incorporate the ongoing dynamics of brains, bodies, and world interactions. There may not be separate modes of artistic understanding, but a continuum of processes that provide imaginative simulations of the artworks we see or hear.
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  34.  4
    “Holy Cow, My Irony Detector Just Exploded!” Calling Out Irony During The Coronavirus Pandemic.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2021 - Metaphor and Symbol 36 (1):45-60.
    One of the compelling events during the 2020 spring coronavirus pandemic is the extent to which people call-out “irony” in regard to the speech and actions of other individuals, as well as, in some...
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  35. How Do You Know When You Have Understood? Psycholinguistic Criteria for Understanding Verbal Communication.Raymond W. Gibbs - 1988 - Communication and Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Journal 21 (2):201-225.
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  36.  12
    Metaphor as Dynamical–Ecological Performance.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2019 - Metaphor and Symbol 34 (1):33-44.
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  37.  18
    Marcelo Dascal, Interpretation and Understanding.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2005 - Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (2):405-413.
  38.  3
    My Great Life with “Metaphor and Symbol”.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2020 - Metaphor and Symbol 35 (1):1-1.
    It has been my great honor to serve as editor of “Metaphor and Symbol” for the last 19 years. Yet all good things must come to an end and with this issue I am stepping down from my duties as editor...
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  39.  2
    Metaphors in the Flesh: Metaphorical Pantomimes in Sports Celebrations.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2021 - Cognitive Linguistics 32 (1):67-96.
    When athletes make significant plays in sporting competitions, such as scoring a goal in soccer, a touchdown in American football, they often immediately express their joy by performing some bodily action for others to see and understand. Many sports celebrations are staged pantomimes that express metaphorical meanings as a part of athletes’ pretending to perform certain source-path-goal sequences of action from other competitive events.This article examines the possible metaphoricity in different sports celebrations and whether casual observers may understand these actions (...)
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  40.  36
    No Need for Instinct: Coordinated Communication as an Emergent Self Organized Process.Raymond W. Gibbs & Nathaniel Clark - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (2):241-262.
    Language serves many purposes in our individual lives and our varied interpersonal interactions. Daniel Everett's claim that language primarily emerges from an “interactional instinct“ and not a classic “language instinct“ gives proper weight to the importance of coordinated communication in meeting our adaptive needs. Yet the argument that language is a “cultural tool“, motivated by an underlying “instinct“, does not adequately explain the complex, yet complementary nature of both linguistic regularities and variations in everyday speech. Our alternative suggestion is that (...)
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  41.  10
    No Need for Instinct.Raymond W. Gibbs & Nathaniel Clark - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (2):241-262.
    Language serves many purposes in our individual lives and our varied interpersonal interactions. Daniel Everett’s claim that language primarily emerges from an “interactional instinct” and not a classic “language instinct” gives proper weight to the importance of coordinated communication in meeting our adaptive needs. Yet the argument that language is a “cultural tool”, motivated by an underlying “instinct”, does not adequately explain the complex, yet complementary nature of both linguistic regularities and variations in everyday speech. Our alternative suggestion is that (...)
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  42.  5
    Pragmatics Always Matters: An Expanded Vision of Experimental Pragmatics.Raymond W. Gibbs & Herbert L. Colston - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  43.  28
    Review of Matsui (2000): Bridging and Relevance. [REVIEW]Raymond W. Gibbs - 2003 - Pragmatics and Cognition 11 (1):191-196.
  44.  10
    Review of Pfeifer & Bongard (2007): How the Body Shapes the Way We Think: A New View of Intelligence. [REVIEW]Raymond W. Gibbs - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (3):610-614.
  45.  14
    Stability and Variability in Linguistic Pragmatics.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2010 - Pragmatics and Society 1 (1):32-49.
    The study of linguistic pragmatics is always caught in the wonderful tension between seeking broad human pragmatic abilities and showing the subtle ways that communication is dependent on specific people and social situations. These different foci on areas of stability and variability in linguistic and nonlinguistic behavior are often accompanied by very different theoretical accounts of how and why people act, speak, and understand in the ways they do. Within contemporary research in experimental pragmatics, there are always instances of some (...)
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  46. The Allegorical Impulse.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2011 - Metaphor and Symbol 26 (2):121-130.
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  47.  5
    The Emergence of Intentional Meaning: A Different Twist on Pragmatic Linguistic Action.Raymond W. Gibbs - 2012 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 8 (1):17-35.
    Recovering what speakers intend to communicate is widely recognized as the fundamental goal of linguistic understanding. Most scholars within linguistic pragmatics assume that intentions are private mental acts that operate prior to the performance of linguistic actions, and that listeners, once again, must somehow infer people’s inner intentions to understand what they mean in context. This article outlines some of the experimental evidence suggesting that intentions are critical in communication. However, my main goal is to suggest that intentional meaning is (...)
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  48.  54
    The Intentionalist Controversy and Cognitive Science.Raymond W. Gibbs - 1993 - Philosophical Psychology 6 (2):181-205.
    Abstract What role do speakers'/authors? communicative intentions play in language interpretation? Cognitive scientists generally assume that listeners'/readers? recognitions of speakers'/authors? intentions is a crucial aspect of utterance interpretation. Various philosophers, literary theorists and anthropologists criticize this intentional view and assert that speakers'/authors? intentions do not provide either the starting point for linguistic interpretation or constrain how texts should be understood. Until now, cognitive scientists have not seriously responded to the current challenges regarding intentions in communication. My purpose in this article (...)
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  49. Why Many Concepts Are Metaphorical (Cognition, Vol. 61, No. 3 (1996) 309–319).Raymond W. Gibbs Jr & Gregory L. Murphy - 1997 - Cognition 62 (1):99-108.
     
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  50.  88
    Cognitive Science Meets Metaphor and Metaphysics.Raymond W. Gibbs - 1998 - Minds and Machines 8 (3):433-436.
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