Results for 'Reasons'

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  1. Instrumental Reasons.Instrumental Reasons - unknown
    As Kant claimed in the Groundwork, and as the idea has been developed by Korsgaard 1997, Bratman 1987, and Broome 2002. This formulation is agnostic on whether reasons for ends derive from our desiring those ends, or from the relation of those ends to things of independent value. However, desire-based theorists may deny, against Hubin 1999, that their theory is a combination of a principle of instrumental transmission and the principle that reasons for ends are provided by desires. (...)
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  2.  57
    The Reasonableness of Christianity and its Vindications.Reasonableness Of Christianity - 2010 - In S. J. Savonius-Wroth Paul Schuurman & Jonathen Walmsley (eds.), The Continuum Companion to Locke. Continuum.
  3.  6
    Reasoning by Analogy in Mathematical Practice.Francesco Nappo & Nicolò Cangiotti - unknown
  4. Title:• To Explain the Expressive Role That Distinguishes Specifically Normative Vocabulary. That is, to Say What It is the Job of Such Vocabulary to Make Explicit. Doing This is Saying What'ought'means.• To Introduce a Non-Humean Way of Thinking About Practical Reasoning. [REVIEW]Practical Reasoning - 1998 - Philosophical Perspectives 12:127.
     
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  5.  18
    Section I Phenomenology of Life in the Critique of Reason.Of Reason - 2011 - Analecta Husserliana: Phenomenology/Ontopoiesis Retrieving Geo-Cosmic Horizons of Antiquity: Logos and Life 110:14.
  6. Reason, Faith, and Purpose: The Ultimate Gamble.John R. Fanchi - 2022 - New Jersey: World Scientific.
    Reason, Faith, and Purpose: The Ultimate Gamble is a guide for believers and inquiring skeptics. This book summarizes the scientific view of the origins of the universe and life and analyzes the question of the existence of God from philosophical, religious, and scientific perspectives. If you are a believer, this book will help you understand your faith in a secular world and help you share your faith with non-believers. If you are an open-minded skeptic, it will help you answer the (...)
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  7.  16
    O Ne Main Topic in Practical Philosophy is the Question of When Someone has a Reason for a Certain Action. Most Philosophers Agree on the Necessity of a Motivational and a Justificatory Condition, but They Still Disagree About How These Conditions Can Be Fulfilled. Though These Conditions Are Important in Forming Convincing Concepts of Practical. [REVIEW]Kirsten B. Endres & Practical Reasons - 2003 - In P. Schaber & R. Huntelmann (eds.), Grundlagen der Ethik. pp. 1--67.
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  8.  16
    Reason, Bias, and Inquiry: The Crossroads of Epistemology and Psychology.Nathan Ballantyne & David Dunning (eds.) - 2022 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Philosophers and psychologists routinely explore questions surrounding reasoning, inquiry, and bias, though typically in disciplinary isolation. What is the source of our intellectual errors? When can we trust information others tell us? This volume brings together researchers from across the two disciplines to present ideas and insights for addressing the challenges of knowing well in a complicated world in four parts: how to best describe the conceptual and empirical terrain of reason and bias; how reasoning and bias influence basic perception (...)
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  9.  39
    Reason in Nature: New Essays on Themes From John Mcdowell.Matthew Boyle & Evgenia Mylonaki (eds.) - 2022 - Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
    Against the dominant view of reductive naturalism, John McDowell argues that human life should be seen as transformed by reason so that human minds, while not supernatural, are in an important sense sui generis. This collection assembles eleven critical essays exploring the strengths, weaknesses, and ramifications of McDowell's unorthodox position.
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  10. Compassionate Reasoning.Marc Gopin - 2022 - New York, NY, United States of America: Oxford University Press.
    This book presents the case for Compassionate Reasoning as a moral and psychosocial skill for the positive transformation of individuals and societies. It has been developed from a reservoir of moral philosophical, cultural, and religious wisdom traditions over the centuries. These have been derived from a careful combination of classical schools of ethical thought that are artfully combined with compassion neuroscience, contemporary approaches to conflict resolution, public health methodologies, and positive psychological approaches to social change. There is an urgent need (...)
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  11. Philosophy, Reasoned Belief, and Faith: An Introduction.Paul Herrick - 2022 - Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press ;.
    This clear, readable introduction to philosophy presents a traditional theistic view of the existence of God.There are many fine introductions to philosophy, but few are written for students of faith by a teacher who is sensitive to the intellectual challenges they face studying in an environment that is often hostile to religious belief. Many introductory texts present short, easy-to-refute synopses of the traditional arguments for God's existence, the soul, free will, and objective moral value rooted in God's nature, usually followed (...)
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  12.  3
    The Tragedy of Reason: Towards a Platonic Conception of Logos.David Roochnik - 1990 - Routledge.
    This work makes a case for the Platonic idea of logos as an option for interpreting the role of reason in our lives, as opposed to the roles assigned to reason by Descartes and the Cartesians.
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  13. Faith and Reason Through Christian History: A Theological Essay.Grant Kaplan - 2022 - Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press.
    In this theological essay, Grant Kaplan revisits the key figures and debates that shape how faith and reason relate. Divided into three parts, Kaplan invites readers into a conversation that has helped to shape Christianity and modern civilization. Readers will encounter the words and arguments of some of Christianity's greatest thinkers, some well-known and others nearly forgotten. Readings of these fifty figures bring them to life in an accessible manner for a range of audiences: theologians and philosophers, instructors, graduate students, (...)
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  14.  19
    Reason and Religion: Evaluating and Explaining Belief in Gods.Herman Philipse - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
    Religion is relevant to all of us, whether we are believers or not. This book concerns two interrelated topics. First, how probable is God's existence? Should we not conclude that all divinities are human inventions? Second, what are the mental and social functions of endorsing religious beliefs? The answers to these questions are interdependent. If a religious belief were true, the fact that humans hold it might be explained by describing how its truth was discovered. If all religious beliefs are (...)
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  15. Reason Explanation in Folk Psychology.Joshua Knobe - 2007 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 31 (1):90–106.
    Consider the following explanation: (1) George took his umbrella because it was just about to rain. This is an explanation of a quite distinctive sort. It is profoundly different from the sort of explanation we might use to explain, say, the movements of a bouncing ball or the gradual rise of the tide on a beach. Unlike these other types of explanations, it explains an agent’s behavior by describing the agent’s own _reasons_ for performing that behavior. Explanations that work in (...)
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  16.  2
    Elements of Logical Reasoning.Jan von Plato - 2013 - Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Some of our earliest experiences of the conclusive force of an argument come from school mathematics: faced with a mathematical proof, we cannot deny the conclusion once the premises have been accepted. Behind such arguments lies a more general pattern of 'demonstrative arguments' that is studied in the science of logic. Logical reasoning is applied at all levels, from everyday life to advanced sciences, and a remarkable level of complexity is achieved in everyday logical reasoning, even if the principles behind (...)
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  17. Ethical Reasoning.Michael Boylan - 2022 - In Michael Boylan & Wanda Teays (eds.), Ethics in the AI, Technology, and Information Age. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
     
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  18.  9
    Everyday Reasoning with Unfamiliar Conditionals.Lupita Estefania Gazzo Castañeda & Markus Knauff - forthcoming - Tandf: Thinking and Reasoning:1-28.
  19. Reason in Law.Lief H. Carter - 1979 - Little, Brown.
  20.  6
    Reconstructing Reason and RepresentationMurray Clarke Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004, X + 181 Pp. [REVIEW]Robert Hudson - 2007 - Dialogue 46 (2):383-385.
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  21.  16
    "Reason Striving To Become Law": Nature and Law in Plato's Laws.V. Bradley Lewis - 2009 - American Journal of Jurisprudence 54 (1):67-92.
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  22.  27
    Reasoning About Proof and Knowledge.Steffen Lewitzka - 2019 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 170 (2):218-250.
  23.  6
    Reason and God.H. D. Lewis - 1962 - Philosophical Books 3 (4):21-22.
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  24.  1
    Ethics, Practical Reasoning, Agency: Wilfrid Sellars's Practical Philosophy.Jeremy Randel Koons & Ronald Loeffler (eds.) - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This is the first volume devoted exclusively to the practical philosophy of Wilfrid Sellars. It features original essays by leading Sellars scholars that examine his ethical theory, his theory of practical reasoning, and his theory of intentional agency. While most scholarship on Sellars's philosophy has focused on his epistemology, metaphysics, or philosophy of language and mind, Sellars himself regarded his practical philosophy as central to his overall project of situating rational beings within the natural order. The chapters in this volume (...)
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  25. Ethical Reasoning and the Use of Insider Information in Stock Trading.Mohammad Abdolmohammadi & Jahangir Sultan - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 37 (2):165 - 173.
    The cognitive developmental theory of ethics suggests that there is a positive relationship between ethical reasoning and ethical behavior. In this study, we trained a sample of accounting and finance students in performing competitive stock trading in our state-of-the-art trading room. The subjects then performed trading of stocks under two experimental conditions: insider information, and no-insider information where significant performance-based financial awards were at stake. We also administered the Defining Issues Test. Ethical behavior, as the dependent variable was measured in (...)
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  26. Analogical Reasoning and Modeling in the Sciences.Paulo Abrantes - 1999 - Foundations of Science 4 (3):237-270.
    This paper aims at integrating the work onanalogical reasoning in Cognitive Science into thelong trend of philosophical interest, in this century,in analogical reasoning as a basis for scientificmodeling. In the first part of the paper, threesimulations of analogical reasoning, proposed incognitive science, are presented: Gentner''s StructureMatching Engine, Mitchel''s and Hofstadter''s COPYCATand the Analogical Constraint Mapping Engine, proposedby Holyoak and Thagard. The differences andcontroversial points in these simulations arehighlighted in order to make explicit theirpresuppositions concerning the nature of analogicalreasoning. In the (...)
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  27.  44
    Moral Reasoning Without Rules.Alan H. Goldman - 2001 - Mind and Society 2 (2):105-118.
    Genuine rules cannot capture our intuitive moral judgments because, if usable, they mention only a limited number of factors as relevant to decisions. But morally relevant factors are both numerous and unpredictable in the ways they interact to change priorities among them. Particularists have pointed this out, but their account of moral judgment is also inadequate, leaving no room for genuine reasoning or argument. Reasons must be general even if not universal. Particularists can insist that our judgments be reflective, (...)
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  28. Reasoning: Studies of Human Inference and its Foundations.Jonathan E. Adler & Lance J. Rips (eds.) - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    This interdisciplinary work is a collection of major essays on reasoning: deductive, inductive, abductive, belief revision, defeasible, cross cultural, conversational, and argumentative. They are each oriented toward contemporary empirical studies. The book focuses on foundational issues, including paradoxes, fallacies, and debates about the nature of rationality, the traditional modes of reasoning, as well as counterfactual and causal reasoning. It also includes chapters on the interface between reasoning and other forms of thought. In general, this last set of essays represents growth (...)
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  29.  2
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning: An Overview.Gerhard Brewka, Jürgen Dix & Kurt Konolige - 1997 - Center for the Study of Language and Inf.
    Nonmonotonic reasoning in its broadest sense is reasoning to conclusions on the basis of incomplete information. Given more information, previously drawn inferences may be retracted. Commonsense reasoning has a nonmonotonic component; it has been argued that almost all commonsense inferences are of this sort. From the end of the 1980s to the present there has been an explosion in research in nonmonotonic reasoning. It is now possible to understand more clearly the properties of the major formalisms from a metatheoretical point (...)
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  30. Reason and the Structure of Davidson's "Desire-Belief Model".Henk Bij de Weg - manuscript
    of “Reason and the structure of Davidson’s ‘Desire-Belief-Model’ ” by Henk bij de Weg In the present discussion in the analytic theory of action, broadly two models for the explanation or justification of actions can be distinguished: the internalist and the externalist model. Against this background, I discuss Davidson’s version of the internalist Desire-Belief Model . First, I show that what Davidson calls “pro attitude” has two distinct meanings. An implication of this is that Davidson’s DBM actually comprises two different (...)
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  31. Reasoning in Attitudes.Franz Dietrich & Antonios Staras - forthcoming - Synthese.
    People reason not just in beliefs, but also in intentions, preferences, and other attitudes. They form preferences from existing preferences, or intentions from existing beliefs and intentions, and so on, often facing choices between rival conclusions. Building on Broome (2013) and Dietrich et al. (2019), we present a philosophical and formal analysis of reasoning in attitudes with or without facing such choices. Reasoning in attitudes is a mental activity that differs fundamentally from reasoning about attitudes, a form of theoretical reasoning (...)
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  32. Recovering Reason: Essays in Honor of Thomas L. Pangle.Peter J. Ahrensdorf, Arlene Saxonhouse, Steven Forde, Paul A. Rahe, Michael Zuckert, Devin Stauffer, David Leibowitz, Robert Goldberg, Christopher Bruell, Linda R. Rabieh, Richard S. Ruderman, Christopher Baldwin, J. Judd Owen, Waller R. Newell, Nathan Tarcov, Ross J. Corbett, Clifford Orwin, John W. Danford, Heinrich Meier, Fred Baumann, Robert C. Bartlett, Ralph Lerner, Bryan-Paul Frost, Laurie Fendrich, Donald Kagan, H. Donald Forbes & Norman Doidge (eds.) - 2010 - Lexington Books.
    Recovering Reason: Essays in Honor of Thomas L. Pangle is a collection of essays composed by students and friends of Thomas L. Pangle to honor his seminal work and outstanding guidance in the study of political philosophy. These essays examine both Socrates' and modern political philosophers' attempts to answer the question of the right life for human beings, as those attempts are introduced and elaborated in the work of thinkers from Homer and Thucydides to Nietzsche and Charles Taylor.
     
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  33.  4
    Abductive Reasoning: Logical Investigations Into Discovery and Explanation.Atocha Aliseda - 2005 - Dordrecht and London: Springer.
    Abductive Reasoning: Logical Investigations into Discovery and Explanation is a much awaited original contribution to the study of abductive reasoning, providing logical foundations and a rich sample of pertinent applications. Divided into three parts on the conceptual framework, the logical foundations, and the applications, this monograph takes the reader for a comprehensive and erudite tour through the taxonomy of abductive reasoning, via the logical workings of abductive inference ending with applications pertinent to scientific explanation, empirical progress, pragmatism and belief revision.
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  34.  30
    Reasons and Two Kinds of Fact.Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen - 2011 - In Sliwinski Rysiek & Svensson Frans (eds.), Neither/Nor - Philosophical Papers Dedicated to Erik Carlson on the Occasion of His Fiftieth Birthday. Uppsala Philosophical Studies. pp. 95 - 113.
    Reasons are facts, i.e., they are constituted by facts. Given a popular view that conceives of facts as thin abstract rather than thick concrete entities, the dichotomy between agent-neutral and agent-relative reasons is not particularly problematic. It is argued that it would be preferable if we could understand the dichotomy even if we had a thick noton of fact in mind. It would be preferable because it is better if our notion of a reason is consistent with a (...)
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  35. Moral Reasoning.Henry S. Richardson - 2013 - The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Moral reasoning is individual or collective practical reasoning about what, morally, one ought to do. Philosophical examination of moral reasoning faces both distinctive puzzles — about how we recognize moral considerations and cope with conflicts among them and about how they move us to act — and distinctive opportunities for gleaning insight about what we ought to do from how we reason about what we ought to do.
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  36.  87
    Epistemic Reasoning and the Mental.Mikkel Gerken - 2013 - Palgrave Macmillan (Innovations in Philosophy).
    Epistemic Reasoning and the Mental integrates the epistemology of reasoning and philosophy of mind. The book contains introductions to basic concepts in the epistemology of inference and to important aspects of the philosophy of mind. By examining the fundamental competencies involved in reasoning, Gerken argues that reasoning's epistemic force depends on the external environment in ways that are both surprising and epistemologically important. -/- For example, Gerken argues that purportedly deductive reasoning that exhibits the fallacy of equivocation may nevertheless transmit (...)
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  37.  45
    Reasoning Practically.Edna Ullmann-Margalit (ed.) - 1999 - Oxford University Press.
    Reasoning Practically deals with a classical philosophical topic, the link between thought and action--how we think about what we do or ought to do, and how we move from thinking to doing. The essays by such renowned contributors as Donald Davidson, Barry Stroud, Cass R. Sunstein, Seyla Benhabib, and Gerald Dworkin, cover a range of issues raised when we link reason and practice. This collection connects state-of-the-art philosophical work with concrete issues in social life and political practice, making it of (...)
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  38. Reasons As Evidence Against Ought-Nots.Kok Yong Lee - 2021 - Philosophical Papers 49 (3):431-455.
    Reasons evidentialism is the view that normative reasons can be analyzed in terms of evidence about oughts (i.e., propositions concerning whether or not S ought to phi). In this paper, I defend a new reason-evidentialist account according to which normative reasons are evidence against propositions of the form S ought not to phi. The arguments for my view have two strands. First of all, I argue that my view can account for three difficulty cases, cases where (i) (...)
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  39.  37
    Reason and Ethics: The Case Against Objective Value.Joel Marks - 2020 - New York and Abington, Oxon: Routledge.
    Reason and Ethics defends the theoretical claim that all values are subjective and the practical claim that human affairs can be conducted fruitfully in full awareness of this. Joel Marks goes beyond his previous work defending moral skepticism to question the existence of all objective values. This leads him to suggest a novel answer to the Companions in Guilt argument that the denial of morality would mean relinquishing rationality as well. Marks disarms the argument by conceding the irreality of both (...)
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  40.  49
    Normative Reasons and Theism.Gerald K. Harrison - 2018 - Cham: Palgrave MacMillan.
    Normative reasons are reasons to do and believe things. Intellectual inquiry seems to presuppose their existence, for we cannot justifiably conclude that we exist; that there is an external world; and that there are better and worse ways of investigating it and behaving in it, unless there are reasons to do and believe such things. But just what in the world are normative reasons? In this book a case is made for believing normative reasons are (...)
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  41.  32
    Reasons, Patterns, and Cooperation.Christopher Woodard - 2007 - Routledge.
    This book is about fundamental questions in normative ethics. It begins with the idea that we often respond to ethical theories according to how principled or pragmatic they are. It clarifies this contrast and then uses it to shed light on old debates in ethics, such as debates about the rival merits of consequentialist and deontological views. Using the idea that principled views seem most appealing in dilemmas of acquiescence, it goes on to develop a novel theory of pattern-based (...). These are reasons to play one’s part in some larger pattern of action because of the goodness or rightness of that pattern. Existing accounts of pattern-based reasons usually assume that such reasons can exist only in cooperative contexts. This book rejects that assumption, and claims instead that we can have pattern-based reasons even when the other agents involved in the pattern are wholly unwilling to cooperate. The result is a pluralist teleological structure for ethics, with similarities to some forms of Rule Consequentialism. Woodard claims that this structure achieves an attractive balance between the two virtues of being pragmatic and being principled. (shrink)
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  42.  21
    Negativity Bias in Defeasible Reasoning.Lupita Estefania Gazzo Castañeda, Bruno Richter & Markus Knauff - 2016 - Thinking and Reasoning 22 (2):209-220.
    ABSTRACTIn defeasible reasoning, initially drawn conclusions can be withdrawn in light of new information. In this paper, we examine how the conclusions drawn from conditionals describing positive or negative situations can be defeated by subsequent negative or positive information, respectively. Participants were confronted with conditionals of the form “If [situation], then I am happy/sad” which were either followed by no additional information or by additional information describing situations of the same or the opposite valence. The participant's task was to decide (...)
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  43. Reasons for Action.David Sobel & Steven Wall (eds.) - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    What are our reasons for acting? Morality purports to give us these reasons, and so do norms of prudence and the laws of society. The theory of practical reason assesses the authority of these potentially competing claims, and for this reason philosophers with a wide range of interests have converged on the topic of reasons for action. This volume contains eleven essays on practical reason by leading and emerging philosophers. Topics include the differences between practical and theoretical (...)
     
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  44.  3
    Recovering Reason: Essays in Honor of Thomas L. Pangle.Timothy Burns (ed.) - 2010 - Lexington Books.
    Recovering Reason: Essays in Honor of Thomas L. Pangle is a collection of essays composed by students and friends of Thomas L. Pangle to honor his seminal work and outstanding guidance in the study of political philosophy. These essays examine both Socrates' and modern political philosophers' attempts to answer the question of the right life for human beings, as those attempts are introduced and elaborated in the work of thinkers from Homer and Thucydides to Nietzsche and Charles Taylor.
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  45.  77
    Practical Reasoning and Ethical Decision.Robert Audi - 2005 - Routledge.
    Presenting the most comprehensive and lucid account of the topic currently available, Robert Audi's "Practical Reasoning and Ethical Decision" is essential reading for anyone interested in the role of reason in ethics or the nature of human action. The first part of the book is a detailed critical overview of the influential theories of practical reasoning found in Aristotle, Hume and Kant, whilst the second part examines practical reasoning in the light of important topics in moral psychology - weakness of (...)
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  46.  58
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning: Logical Foundations of Commonsense.Gerhard Brewka (ed.) - 1991 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book the author gives a broad overview of different areas of research in nonmonotonic reasoning, and presents some new results and ideas based on his research. The guiding principles are: clarification of the different research activities in the area, which have sometimes been undertaken independently of each other; and appreciation of the fact that these research activities often represent different means to the same ends, namely sound theoretical foundations and efficient computation. The book begins with a discussion of (...)
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  47.  90
    Reason and Prediction.Simon Blackburn - 1973 - London: Cambridge University Press.
    An original study of the philosophical problems associated with inductive reasoning. Like most of the main questions in epistemology, the classical problem of induction arises from doubts about a mode of inference used to justify some of our most familiar and pervasive beliefs. The experience of each individual is limited and fragmentary, yet the scope of our beliefs is much wider; and it is the relation between belief and experience, in particular the belief that the future will in some respects (...)
  48.  61
    Hume, Reason and Morality: A Legacy of Contradiction.Sophie Botros - 2005 - Routledge.
    Covering an important theme in Humean studies, this book focuses on Hume's hugely influential attempt in book three of his _Treatise of Human Nature _to derive the conclusion that morality is a matter of feeling, not reason, from its link with action. Claiming that Hume's argument contains a fundamental contradiction that has gone unnoticed in modern debate, this fascinating volume contains a refreshing combination of historical-scholarly work and contemporary analysis that seeks to expose this contradiction and therefore provide a significant (...)
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  49.  62
    Reason in Human Affairs.Herbert Simon - 1983 - Stanford University Press.
    What can reason do for us and what can't it do? This is the question examined by Herbert A. Simon, who received the 1978 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences "for his pioneering work on decision-making processes in economic organizations." The ability to apply reason to the choice of actions is supposed to be one of the defining characteristics of our species. In the first two chapters, the author explores the nature and limits of human reason, comparing and evaluating the major (...)
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  50. Reasoning with Logic Programming.José Júlio Alferes & Luís Moniz Pereira - 2001 - Studia Logica 67 (1):118-120.
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