When Stanford M. Lyman authored The Seven Deadly Sins: Society and Evil in 1978 it was hailed by Alasdair MacIntyre as 'a book of absorbing interest and importance_[that] places us all in his debt.' By Nelson Hart as 'a masterful and thought-provoking book_[that] is the only scholarly treatment of sin that is so well-informed by the best of ancient through modern perspectives.' By James A. Aho as a work whose 'abstract hardly does justice to the scholarly and detailed analysis (...) of sin.' And by Harry Cohen as a 'book_[that] stands as a beautiful illustration of what holistic, idiosyncratic, interdisciplinary, and creative thinking and writing can bring to bear on the age-old problem of society and evil.' The American Sociological Association's section on the Sociology of the Emotions selected this book as one of the works that laid the foundations for the study of pride, lust, envy, and anger—basic sentiments embedded in the social process. For this revised and expanded edition Lyman has written a new chapter, 'Sentiments, Sin, and Social Conflict: Toward a Sociology of the Emotions.' The new edition will be a valuable work for courses in social psychology, ethics, deviance, and the sociology of morals and of religion. (shrink)
Modern efforts to model cultural transmission have struggled to identify a unit of cultural transmission and particular transmission processes. Anthropologists of the early twentieth century discussed cultural traits as units of transmission equivalent to recipes (rules and ingredients) and identified integration as a signature process and effect of transmission. (Published Online November 9 2006).
Zooarchaeological evidence has often been called on to help researchers determine prehistoric relative abundances of elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Some interpret that evidence as indicating elk were abundant; others interpret it as indicating elk were rare. Wildlife biologist Charles Kay argues that prehistoric faunal remains recovered from archaeological sites support his contention that aboriginal hunters depleted elk populations throughout the Intermountain West, including the Yellowstone area. To support his contention Kay cites differences between modern and prehistoric (...) relative abundances of artiodactyls, age and sex demographics of ungulates in the prehistoric record indicating selective predation of prime-age females, and a high degree of fragmentation of artiodactyl bones indicating humans were under nutritional stress. Kay’s data on taxonomic abundances are time and space averaged and thus mask much variation in elk abundances. When these data are not lumped they suggest that elk were at some times, in some places, as abundant as they are today. Data on the age-sex demography of artiodactyl prey are ambiguous or contradict Kay’s predictions. Bone fragmentation data are variously nonexistent or ambiguous. The zooarchaeological implications of Kay’s aboriginal overkill hypothesis have not yet undergone rigorous testing. (shrink)
This is a reply to Rebecca Taylor's 2017 JOPE article ‘Indoctrination and Social Context: A System-based Approach to Identifying the Threat of Indoctrination and the Responsibilities of Educators’. It agrees with her in going beyond the indoctrinatory role of the individual teacher to include that of whole educational systems, but differs in emphasizing indoctrinatory intention rather than outcome; and in allowing the possibility of indoctrination without individual teachers being indoctrinators at all.
Idealism, Pragmatism, and Feminism provides an account of the life and writings of Ella Lyman Cabot (1866-1934), a woman who received formal training, but not formal recognition, in the field of classical American philosophy. It highlights the themes of idealism, pragmatism and feminism as they emerged in the course of career as an educational reformer and ethicist that spanned nearly four decades. Cabot's writings, developed in graduate seminars at Harvard and Radcliffe at the turn of the century complement, and (...) in many cases anticipate, the thinking of the "fathers" of the American philosophical cannon: Charles Sanders Peirce, Josiah Royce, William James, and John Dewey. Her formal philosophical writing focuses on the concepts of growth, creativity, and the moral imagination—a fact that is especially interesting given that these concepts are developed by a woman who faced serious obstacles in her personal and intellectual development. Indeed, these concepts are not merely philosophical ideals, but practical tools that Ella Lyman Cabot used to negotiate the gender roles and intellectual marginalization that she faces at the turn of the century. The discipline of philosophy was very slow to incorporate the insights of women into its self-definition. An analysis of the writings of Ella Lyman Cabot reveals this point, but also the pointed ways in which she sought to express her genuinely creative insights. (shrink)
What Sondra [Lear, the protagonist of Marleen S. Barr's novel Oy Pioneer!] and I have in common is that we both, as Rick Rojas wrote about Edna St. Vincent Millay in the New York Times, "subverted typical gender roles, casting women as pursuers of men they desired instead of the other way around." When we had occasion to see a man as an object of desire, we said something.... I became one of the first women in a field replete with (...) liberal and intelligent men—exceedingly supportive, wonderful guys.... Some of my present best friends are science-fiction scholars who were my former boyfriends.Lyman Tower Sargent has had a personal and professional impact upon me. I cannot separate the effects of reading his work... (shrink)
Rebecca Bennett, in a recent paper dismissing Julian Savulescu's principle of procreative beneficence, advances both a negative and a positive thesis. The negative thesis holds that the principle's theoretical foundation – the notion of impersonal harm or non-person-affecting wrong – is indefensible. Therefore, there can be no obligations of the sort that the principle asserts. The positive thesis, on the other hand, attempts to plug an explanatory gap that arises once the principle has been rejected. That is, it holds (...) that the intuitions of those who adhere to the principle are not genuine moral intuitions, but instead simply give voice to mere (non-moral) preferences. This paper, while agreeing that Savulescu's principle does not express a genuine moral obligation, takes issue with both of Bennett's theses. It is suggested that the argument for the negative thesis is either weak or question-begging, while there is insufficient reason to suppose the positive thesis true. (shrink)
Lyman Tower Sargent is one of the few scholars and intellectuals I have met whose research and studies are embodied in their actual life, since for him the values of utopianism constitute the base and foundation of his personal and political choices. His research and personal life are closely bound and intertwined; his conclusion to his 1994 seminal essay "The Three Faces of Utopianism Revisited" is emblematic: The expression of utopianism seems to be among the basic strata of the (...) human experience.... Utopia expresses deep-seated needs, desires, and hopes. For some authors the... (shrink)
Most readers of this journal are well acquainted with Lyman Tower Sargent's Utopian Literature in English: An Annotated Bibliography from 1516 to the Present, hosted online by the Pennsylvania State University Libraries. The first edition of Sargent's bibliography was published in 1979 in a modest print version as British and American Utopian Literature 1516–1975: An Annotated Bibliography. A user today will find more than 10,200 entries in the online, fully searchable bibliography, which Sargent directly edits almost daily with new (...) citations and revisions.The Penn State Libraries' Open Publishing program, under the direction of Ally Laird, recently learned that the... (shrink)
I haven't been everywhere, but it's on my list.Most persons who know Lyman would describe his relationship to his scholarly work as a "vocation," or calling. I myself have described him to someone as a person whose mission in life seems to be tracking down any reference to utopia anywhere, from any time, reading it, and documenting its existence. Seeing Lyman at work in one of the many rare books collections he has visited over his lifetime might suggest (...) something monastic; although in calling on his many friends and acquaintances in university towns worldwide, Lyman would dispel any notion of a missionary's peregrination from one house of... (shrink)
Rebecca Bennett, in a recent paper dismissing Julian Savulescu's principle of procreative beneficence, advances both a negative and a positive thesis. The negative thesis holds that the principle's theoretical foundation--the notion of impersonal harm or non-person-affecting wrong--is indefensible. Therefore, there can be no obligations of the sort that the principle asserts. The positive thesis, on the other hand, attempts to plug an explanatory gap that arises once the principle has been rejected. That is, it holds that the intuitions of (...) those who adhere to the principle are not genuine moral intuitions, but instead simply give voice to mere preferences. This paper, while agreeing that Savulescu's principle does not express a genuine moral obligation, takes issue with both of Bennett's theses. It is suggested that the argument for the negative thesis is either weak or question-begging, while there is insufficient reason to suppose the positive thesis true. (shrink)
This is an intellectual biography in the most literal sense; at no point in the history of American philosophy has an individual embodied the ideals that they wrote about at length. Philosophical idealism, pragmatism and feminism served as guides for Ella Lyman Cabot as she entered the discipline of philosophy, a discipline that continues to marginalize the work of women to this very day.
Bionomics was a research approach invented by British biological scientists in the late nineteenth century and adopted by the American entomologist and evolutionist Vernon Lyman Kellogg in the early twentieth century. Kellogg hoped to use bionomics, which was the controlled observation and experimentation of organisms within settings that approximated their natural environments, to overcome the percieved weaknesses in the Darwinian natural selection theory. To this end, he established a bionomics laboratory at Stanford University, widely published results from his bionomic (...) investigations, and encouraged other biological researchers to adopt bionomics. (shrink)
Periodically, my e-mail brings me news of cannibalism.These tidbits come mostly from Lyman Tower Sargent, whom many readers here know as a bit of a gourmand and oenophile. But not of that kind.Since he found out that my research interests include cannibalism some years ago, I have received the occasional update—usually "cannibalism" in the subject line, but one lovely time "cannibalism for children" made an appearance. As a young scholar, these came as a shock—the shock of being noticed; now (...) they come as a welcome reminder that there is work yet to be done, an unfinished project, something more, always something more, to be read.And it is typical that such prods come from Lyman Sargent, who has, so long as I've... (shrink)
Ever since I encountered Lyman Tower Sargent's writing, he has signified to me a scholar whose lifelong dedication to utopian thought and literature has nurtured generations of students, critics, and practitioners of utopia. His work in the field of political science, literary history, and communitarian studies has been interdisciplinary and transnational; he has written about communities from the Icarians in Iowa to the Ohu movement in New Zealand and has considered utopian works that go well beyond anglophone contexts. Before (...) the age of the Internet, and before Lyman's own open-access annotated online bibliography of utopian literature, his 1967 article "The Three Faces of Utopianism" along with surveys such as... (shrink)
Many in this Festschrift will talk about Lyman and how important he has been in their lives as a friend, mentor, and colleague. Of that I have no doubt. Now, I know that the purpose of this annotated bibliography is self-evident, but I do want to begin with a few words about how I first met someone for whom I have come to have deep admiration. It was 1989, at the fourteenth annual meeting of the Society for Utopian Studies. (...) The place was Asilomar in Northern California—a more beautiful place for a conference is hard to imagine. Lyman was talking about his plans to create a journal devoted to utopian studies even as I was working on putting together an annotated bibliography on Edward Bellamy. I was interested to... (shrink)
ExcerptThe Summer 2010 issue of Telos contained an article by Rebecca E. Karl in which she alleged that, as President of the Association for Asian Studies, I argued in an “inaugural AAS speech’” that “the current appeal to a Confucian-inspired harmonious society (hexie shehui) provides evidence for the fact that the old Confucian lack of rights-thinking is the cultural basis for the CCP's lack of rights thinking.”1 No citation or footnote was offered for this allegation. First, let me clarify (...) that I never delivered an “inaugural AAS speech.” My official speech as president of the Association for Asian Studies was…. (shrink)
This paper recovers and investigates the work of two forgotten figures in the history of American philosophy: Ella Lyman Cabot and Mary Parker Follett. It focuses on Cabot's work, developed between 1889 and 1906. During this period, Cabot took several classes given by Josiah Royce at Radcliffe College. Cabot's work creatively extends Royce's early thinking on the issues of growth, unity, and loyalty. This paper claims that Cabot's writing serves as a valuable type of Roycean interpretation—an interpretation that sheds (...) light on Royce's philosophy while redeploying his thinking in ways that explore its ethical and social implications. Cabot is an important figure in the community of classical American thinkers, a figure who deserves greater attention. This analysis concludes with a brief discussion of Cabot's legacy as it is carried on by Mary Parker Follett's progressive and feminist writings published in the early decades of the 1900s. Follett's contribution to the field of organizational management reveals her affinity with Cabot and variety of other American thinkers. (shrink)
The purpose of this study is to determine after a one year program, the effects of Philosophy for Children on critical thinking skills of a select group of 22 second graders at Saginaw Elementary. These students have had no previous study in Philosophy for Children and met for 170 days, bi-weekly for at least 30-minutes with no more than three sessions missed. It was anticipated there would be a significant positive difference of critical thinking skills of second graders as observed (...) and noted by the teacher, in a recorded journal, prior, during and after the study. The teacher used Rebecca plus the teacher's manual for the basis of instruction. (shrink)
For over 50 years, since the development of nuclear-armed ICBMs, the USA has sought a way to defend against them. These efforts evolved through various strategies and technologies: from nuclear-tipped rockets through space-based laser weapons to today’s system of ground-based kinetic-kill interceptors. Public debate around these issues reached a peak in the 1980s with President Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative, popularly known as Star Wars.Rebecca Slayton examines this history in Arguments that Count, a valuable and well-told account of a particular (...) aspect of missile defense: computer software. Missile defense required identifying a hostile missile launch, keeping track of thousands of incoming warheads on their ballistic trajectories, and directing interceptors to the right place—and doing all this in less than 30 minutes. From the outset, designers turned to computers to do the complex calculations quickly enough. But missile defense presented an additional factor, in that any m .. (shrink)
Challenging previous interpretations of Levinas that gloss over his use of the feminine or show how he overlooks questions raised by feminists, Claire Elise Katz explores the powerful and productive links between the feminine and religion in Levinas’s work. Rather than viewing the feminine as a metaphor with no significance for women or as a means to reinforce traditional stereotypes, Katz goes beyond questions of sexual difference to reach a more profound understanding of the role of the feminine in Levinas’s (...) conception of ethical responsibility. She combines feminist interpretations of Levinas with interpretations that focus on his Jewish writings to reveal that the feminine provides an important bridge between his philosophy and his Judaism. Katz’s reading of Levinas’s conception of the feminine against the backdrop of discussions of women of the Hebrew bible points to important shifts in contemporary philosophy toward the creation of life and care for the other. (shrink)
In 1992, I along with my wife, Annette Giesecke, moved from Los Angeles to New Zealand. Almost immediately after arriving, I was struck by a perceived spatial "utopianism" of Wellington, the capital city, and the arrangement and straightforward names of the two major islands, the North Island and the South Island. Although I had no concept of what might constitute "utopia" beyond the architectural proposals by Wright, Le Corbusier, Garnier, and others that I recalled from architecture school, I couldn't shake (...) the impression that New Zealand expressed "utopian" desires. When I applied to the Master of Architecture program at Victoria University of Wellington, I pitched a thesis proposal that would somehow build on... (shrink)