In recent years, multifetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR) has increasingly been the subject of debate in Norway, and the intensity reached a tentative maximum when Legislation Department delivered the interpretative statement § 2 - Interpretation of the Abortion Act in 2016 in response to the Ministry of Health (2014) requesting the Legislation Department to consider whether the Law on abortion allows for MFPR of healthy fetuses in multiple pregnancies. The Legislation Department concluded that current abortion laws allow MFPR within the framework (...) the law otherwise stipulates. The debate has not subsided, and during autumn 2018, it was further intensified in connection with the Christian Democrat "crossroads" and signals from the Conservatives to consider removing §2.3c and to forbid MFPR. -/- Many of the arguments in the MFPR debate appear seemingly similar to arguments pending in the general abortion debate, and an analysis of what sets MFPR apart from other abortions is wanting. The aim of this article is, therefore, to examine whether there is a moral distinction between abortion and MFPR of healthy fetuses. We will cover the typical arguments of the Norwegian debate, and highlight them with scholarly articles from the literature. The most important arguments against MFPR that we have identified we have dubbed the harm argument, slippery-slope argument, intent argument, grief argument, psychological long-term effects for the woman and sorting argument. We conclude that counter-arguments do not measure up in terms of detecting a morally relevant difference between MFPR of healthy fetuses and abortions. Our conclusion is therefore that—despite what several debaters seem to think—there is no morally relevant difference between the two. Therefore, when we allow abortion, we should also allow MFPR. (shrink)
In this book, Rebekka Hufendiek explores emotions as embodied, action-oriented representations, providing a non-cognitivist theory of emotions that accounts for their normative dimensions. _Embodied Emotions_ focuses not only on the bodily reactions involved in emotions, but also on the environment within which emotions are embedded and on the social character of this environment, its ontological constitution, and the way it scaffolds both the development of particular emotion types and the unfolding of individual emotional episodes. In addition, it provides a (...) critical review and appraisal of current empirical studies, mainly in psychophysiology and developmental psychology, which are relevant to discussions about whether emotions are embodied as well as socially embedded. The theory that Hufendiek puts forward denies the distinction between basic and higher cognitive emotions: all emotions are embodied, action-oriented representations. This approach can account for the complex normative structure of emotions, and shares the advantages of cognitivist accounts of emotions without sharing their problems. _Embodied Emotions _makes an original contribution to ongoing debates on the normative aspects of emotions and will be of interest to philosophers working on emotions, embodied cognition and situated cognition, as well as neuroscientists or psychologists who study emotions and are interested in placing their own work within a broader theoretical framework. (shrink)
Embodied accounts have offered a theoretical framework in which emotions are understood to be patterned embodied responses that are about core relational themes. Some authors argue that this intentionality should be understood in terms of some kind of non-conceptual representation format, while others suggest a radical enactivist framework that takes emotions to be intentional but not representational. In this paper I will argue that the abstract nature of the core relational themes emotions are about and the interrelatedness of emotions with (...) each other and with other mental states speak in favor of emotions being representations. (shrink)
The normativity of emotions is a widely discussed phenomenon. So far embodied accounts have not paid sufficient attention to the various aspects of the normativity of emotions. In this paper it shall be pointed out that embodied accounts are constrained in the way they can account for the normativity of emotions due to their commitments to naturalism, externalism, and anti-vehicle-internalism. One way to account for the normativity of emotions within a naturalist framework is to describe the intentional objects of emotions (...) as affordances that are of value for the organism. These affordances are part of a biological and social environment we are situated in, and they stand in complex relations to each other and to skillful organisms. I suggest that describing these relations can replace vehicle-internalist approaches but still account for the normativity of emotions within a naturalist framework. (shrink)
The relevance of leader ethicality has moti- vated ethical leadership theory. In this paper, we emphasize the importance of moral identity for the concept of ethical leadership. We relate ethical leadership incorporating an internalized moral identity to productive deviant workplace behavior. Using qualitative empirical data we illustrate the relevance of critical situations, i.e., situations in which hypernorms and organizational norms diverge, for the distinction of ethical leaders with or without internalized moral identities. Our paper takes a multidisciplinary approach integrating insight (...) from management as well as humanities and social sciences toward a comprehensive sense of ethical leadership. (shrink)
The paper examines the “prehistory” in the 18th century of the theory of Bildung. Pedagogical historiography commonly traces the theory back to the influence of Anthony Ashley Cooper, third Earl of Shaftesbury, who is held to be the founder of the concept of “innere Bildung; on the grounds that Shaftesbury’s concept of “inward form” was translated into German as Bildung. The study focuses on the reception of Shaftesbury’s writings in the German-speaking realm in the 17th century in order to discover (...) the contexts of discourse in which this reception took place and to find out what significance the various discourses had for the formulation of a German “theory of Bildung.” What is revealed are varied influences of a religious, literary theory, and aesthetics nature that give indications as to why the construct of Bildung has remained diffuse and excessive in the German tradition up to the very present. It is also shown that the concept, in comparison to other discourses, found its way into the pedagogical discourse relatively late, which may be another reason for the difficulties that the German theory of Bildung continues to present to the science of pedagogy. (shrink)
Arrow's Theorem, in its social choice function formulation, assumes that all nonempty finite subsets of the universal set of alternatives is potentially a feasible set. We demonstrate that the axioms in Arrow's Theorem, with weak Pareto strengthened to strong Pareto, are consistent if it is assumed that there is a prespecified alternative which is in every feasible set. We further show that if the collection of feasible sets consists of all subsets of alternatives containing a prespecified list of alternatives and (...) if there are at least three additional alternatives not on this list, replacing nondictatorship by anonymity results in an impossibility theorem. (shrink)
German education plays a huge role in the development of education sciences and modern universities internationally. It is influenced by the educational concept of _Bildung_, which defines Germany ‘s theoretical and curricular ventures. This concept is famously untranslatable into other languages and is often misinterpreted as education, instruction, training, upbringing and other terms which don’t encompass its cultural ambitions. Despite this hurdle, _Bildung_ is now being recognized in current discussions of education issues such as standardization, teaching to the test, evidence-based (...) policy and high stakes testing. This volume clears up the confusion and misunderstandings surrounding _Bildung_ by examining the origins of the concept and how it has been applied throughout history. It paves the way for educators to fully understand and benefit from this model and all it has to offer. (shrink)
The essays in this volume, first published in 1986, examine the philosophical foundations of social choice theory. This field, a modern and sophisticated outgrowth of welfare economics, is best known for a series of impossibility theorems, of which the first and most crucial was proved by Kenneth Arrow in 1950. That has often been taken to show the impossibility of democracy as a procedure for making collective decisions. However, this interpretation is challenged by several of the contributors here. Other central (...) issues discussed in the volume include the possibility of making interpersonal comparisons of utility, the question of whether all preferences are equally to be valued, and the normative individualism underlying the theoretical tradition. Criticisms of social choice theory are advanced and suggestions for alternative approaches are developed. (shrink)
A recurring claim made by evolutionary psychologists is that their opponents neglect biological explanations as such for ideological reasons. I argue in this paper that this is a self-immunizing strategy that avoids serious engagement with existing critique by exploiting the long history of essentialist fallacies and anti-essentialist debunking arguments. To argue for this claim, I reconstruct the general form of the essentialist fallacy as well as the history of anti-essentialist debunking arguments and suggest that they play a central role in (...) the persistence of the ideological dimension of the nature-nurture debate. Discussing recent work from evolutionary psychology on how hormones influence female behavior, I show how self-immunizing strategies are used to avoid engagement with existing critique, while reproducing sexist stereotypes at the same time. (shrink)
This paper reconstructs Michael Tomasello's account of the evolution of morality and discusses it in the context of the philosophical debates on human nature and the concept of morality. The aim is to show that Tomasello presupposes a particular understanding of what morality is. He takes cooperation and fairness to be constitutive elements of human moral psychology and takes these to be dispositions that enable egalitarian interaction within a group. That these dispositions are what is central to the evolution of (...) human morality is not justified through the causal-historical reconstruction that Tomasello offers. Moreover, his understanding of morality is not without alternatives. (shrink)
There is an eye-catching similarity in structure between Paul Rée’s Origin of Moral Sensations and Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morals. Accordingly, the Genealogy has been understood as a riposte to Rée. I will argue in this paper that Nietzsche distances himself from Rée not only by developing alternative genealogies for moral concepts and institutions. Nietzsche’s main aim in criticizing Rée is to develop his own genealogical method that aims for historical adequacy, psychological adequacy, distinction of cause and function, acceptance of partial (...) historical opacity and perspectivism. (shrink)
Social functions and functional explanations play a prominent role not only in our everyday reasoning but also in classical as well as contemporary social theory and empirical social research. This volume explores metaphysical, normative, and methodological perspectives on social functions and functional explanations in the social sciences. It aims to push the philosophical debate on social functions forward along new investigative lines by including up-to-date discussions of the metaphysics of social functions, questions concerning the nature of functional explanations within the (...) social domain, and various applications of functionalist theorising. As such, this is one of the first collections to exclusively address a variety of philosophical questions concerning the nature and relevance of social functions. (shrink)
After workshops on the topics “Handcraft and Spiritual Craftsmanship” and “Cure and Spiritual Healing,” the third and final interdisciplinary working conference of the German Research Foundation project “Markets of Singularities—Hybrid Religious Networks in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania” took place on March 22 and 23, 2019, at the University of Rostock under the title “Ecology–Community–Spirituality: Holistic Lifestyles on the ‘Markets of Singularities.’” For two days, a diverse group of scholars and leaders from the field attempted not only to define the organic sector and (...) the holistic approach that often seems to underlie it but also to better understand the market and market mechanisms for ecological products... (shrink)
Cette recension a déjà paru dans la Revue de l'Institut français d'histoire en Allemagne, le 1er janvier 2010. Rebekka von Malinckrodt , Bewegtes Leben. Körpertechniken in der Frühen Neuzeit, Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek , 2008, VIII-375 p. Issu d'une exposition tenue à Wolfenbüttel en 2008, cet ouvrage présente de nombreux textes ayant trait aux usages du corps conservés dans les fonds de la bibliothèque du duc Auguste. Mais il - Recensions.
With reference to two different projects examining North American Christianities, this symposium contribution explores opportunities for critique when conducting fieldwork. Drawing from observations made by E. E. Evans-Pritchard, I suggest that critique is most productive when it uses the perspective and position of one’s interlocutors as its point of departure.
ZUSAMMENFASSUNGDer Artikel erläutert vier Thesen, in denen der Beitrag der theologischen Anthropologie zum interdisziplinären Gespräch über die Sozialnatur des Menschen bestimmt wird. Die Theologie kann zu diesem Gespräch beitragen, indem sie nicht die biologische Unterscheidung von Mensch und Tier in den Vordergrund rückt, sondern die ethische Differenz von Menschlichkeit und Unmenschlichkeit zur Leitdifferenz ihrer Beschreibungsperspektive macht. Sie bringt ihre Sichtweise konstruktiv in das interdisziplinäre Gespräch ein, indem sie eine Phänomenologie und Grammatik des zwischenmenschlichen Verhältnisses entwirft, welche die Differenz von humanem (...) und inhumanem Zusammenleben von Menschen durch das Indexwort ›Gott‹ explizit macht.SUMMARYThe article presents four arguments concerning the contribution of theological anthropology to an interdisciplinary dialogue on the sociality of human nature. It defends the view that theology shall not employ the biological difference of man and animal to describe social humanity. Rather, it can challenge interdisciplinary dialogue with the social sciences by focusing on the ethical non-indifference of social humanity and inhumanity. Thus, theology has to conceptualize a phenomenology of interpersonal relationships which faces the possible neglect of inhumanity and offers a grammar of sociality making the difference of humanity and inhumanity explicit by using the index word ›God‹. (shrink)
Zusammenfassung Der Artikel untersucht die in der Sozialtheorie seit der Antike gebrauchte Metapher eines sozialen Bandes im Blick auf die Religion. Mit ihr wird die Performativität sozialer Bindungen und Kohäsionskräfte und damit ihre kulturelle Hervorbringung akzentuiert. Religion kann jedoch nicht einfach mit kulturellen Akten gleichgesetzt werden, wie es oft in liberalprotestantischen Ansätzen und in Konzeptionen einer Öffentlichen Theologie der Fall ist. Alternativ wird daher das Gespräch mit poststrukturalistischen Autoren gesucht, um von ihm her einen Bezug zur offenen Metaphorik des sozialen (...) Bandes und zur These seiner Performanz zu suchen. (shrink)
This article takes up the current debate on populism and democracy and deals with the philosophical critique that the twentieth-century idea of pacifism represents an ideology, the misguided nature of which must be debunked. In this context, the term ideology is referred to with a post-Marxist understanding, which interprets ideology as a collective fantasy structuring our social reality by way of a practice of disguise. Hence, the question will be raised as to whether modern religions, such as neo-Buddhism or Christianity, (...) are well advised to appropriate the idea of pacifism in order to renew their imaginary register of peace and non-violence. In conclusion, it will be argued that the imagination and promise of a peaceful community is among the biblical motives that are the source of Christian faith. However, in order to prevent a political force from turning into an ideology, biblical motives have to be interpreted from the perspective of a negative Christology, which sees pacifism as an impossible project and thus liberates us from the pitfalls of human desire. (shrink)
Zusammenfassung Der Artikel versucht, eine Typologie für die Beschreibung des Verhältnisses von Religion und Kultur in Theologie und Philosophie zu entwickeln. Er problematisiert die These moderner protestantischer Theologen, welche im Anschluss an Friedrich Schleiermacher ‚Religion als Kultur‘ deuten und diese Deutung zu einer differenzlosen Identifikation beider verdichten. Nach einer Klärung der Funktion des Religionsbegriffs in den Theologien von Calvin und Schleiermacher wird die aktuelle Debatte um ein de-kolonialisiertes Kulturverständnis adressiert und von ihr aus die Möglichkeit einer Neufassung des Verhältnisses von (...) Religion und Kultur diskutiert. (shrink)
Examining recent experiments on human altruism in economics, this book offers a critique of naturalistic approaches to the phenomenon of human sociality. It draws on philosophical theories of social conflict and recognition, and on theological concepts of neighborly love.
This article sets out to critically examine the accounts of well-being produced by a middle-aged Swiss woman living in precarious prosperity. By taking on a feminist reading of the narrative on well-being, the article challenges the taken for granted assumption of the powerful agent in thriving societies. Insights from literature on happiness in nations and gender beliefs enabled addressing the woman’s capability to exert agency, while acknowledging the influence of the context in which narratives are embedded. In addition, the presence (...) of a non-national interviewer appears to be an incentive for the interviewee’s compliance with cultural meta-narratives. The approach of well-being as ‘agential flourishing’ proved helpful in assessing the woman’s capability on a gendered career path in atypical employment to deal with precariousness. (shrink)