Results for 'Reciprocity'

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  1.  63
    Reciprocity: Weak or Strong? What Punishment Experiments Do Demonstrate.Francesco Guala - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (1):1-15.
    Strong Reciprocity theorists claim that cooperation in social dilemma games can be sustained by costly punishment mechanisms that eliminate incentives to free ride, even in one-shot and finitely repeated games. There is little doubt that costly punishment raises cooperation in laboratory conditions. Its efficacy in the field however is controversial. I distinguish two interpretations of experimental results, and show that the wide interpretation endorsed by Strong Reciprocity theorists is unsupported by ethnographic evidence on decentralised punishment and by historical (...)
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  2. Strong Reciprocity, Human Cooperation, and the Enforcement of Social Norms.Ernst Fehr, Urs Fischbacher & Simon Gächter - 2002 - Human Nature 13 (1):1-25.
    This paper provides strong evidence challenging the self-interest assumption that dominates the behavioral sciences and much evolutionary thinking. The evidence indicates that many people have a tendency to voluntarily cooperate, if treated fairly, and to punish noncooperators. We call this behavioral propensity “strong reciprocity” and show empirically that it can lead to almost universal cooperation in circumstances in which purely self-interested behavior would cause a complete breakdown of cooperation. In addition, we show that people are willing to punish those (...)
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  3.  56
    Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility.Yves Fassin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):83-96.
    Stakeholder theory advocates that firms bear responsibility for the implications of their actions. However, while a firm affects or can affect stakeholders, stakeholders can also affect the corporation. Previous stakeholder theorising has neglected the reciprocal nature of responsibility. The question can be asked whether—in a spirit of reciprocity, loyalty and fairness—stakeholders should treat the corporation in a fair and responsible way. This study based on different definitions of stakeholders argues that various stakeholder attributes differ for different categories of stakeholders. (...)
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  4.  73
    Reciprocity.Lawrence C. Becker - 1986 - Routledge.
    The tendency to reciprocate – to return good for good and evil for evil – is a potent force in human life, and the concept of reciprocity is closely connected to fundamental notions of ‘justice’, ‘obligation’ or ‘duty’, ‘gratitude’ and ‘equality’. In _Reciprocity_, first published in 1986,_ _Lawrence Becker presents a sustained argument about reciprocity, beginning with the strategy for developing a moral theory of the virtues. He considers the concept of reciprocity in detail, contending that it (...)
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  5.  14
    Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control.Diego S. Silva, Angus Dawson & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (1):75-86.
    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative (...)
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  6.  53
    A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance (II): Compliance, Reputation and Reciprocity[REVIEW]Lorenzo Sacconi - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (1):77 - 96.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. Whereas, justificatory issues have been discussed in a related paper (Sacconi, L.: 2006b, this journal), in this essay I focus on the implementation of and compliance with this normative model. The theory of reputation games, with reference to the basic game of trust, is introduced in order to make sense of self-regulation as a (...)
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  7.  55
    Your Liberty or Your Life: Reciprocity in the Use of Restrictive Measures in Contexts of Contagion. [REVIEW]A. M. Viens, Cécile M. Bensimon & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (2):207-217.
    In this paper, we explore the role of reciprocity in the employment of restrictive measures in contexts of contagion. Reciprocity should be understood as a substantive value that governs the use, level and extent of restrictive measures. We also argue that independent of the role reciprocity plays in the legitimisation the use of restrictive measures, reciprocity can also motivate support and compliance with legitimate restrictive measures. The importance of reciprocity has implications for how restrictive measures (...)
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  8.  12
    Vive la Différence: Social Banks and Reciprocity in the Credit Market. [REVIEW]Simon Cornée & Ariane Szafarz - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (3):1-20.
    Social banks are financial intermediaries paying attention to non-economic (i.e., social, ethical, and environmental) criteria. To investigate the behavior of social banks on the credit market, this paper proposes both theory and empirics. Our theoretical model rationalizes the idea that reciprocity can generate better repayment performances. Based on a unique hand-collected dataset released by a French social bank, our empirical results are twofold. First, we show that the bank charges below-market interest rates for social projects. Second, regardless of their (...)
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  9.  39
    Doing Unto Others: The Reciprocity of Helping Behavior in Organizations. [REVIEW]John R. Deckop, Caril C. Cirka & Lynne M. Andersson - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 47 (2):101 - 113.
    Reciprocity is a fundamental aspect of social life, and a phenomenon studied from a wide variety of philosophical, theological, and social scientific perspectives. In this study, we use social exchange theory to investigate why employees help other employees. We hypothesize, based on the norm of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960), that a significant cause of an employee''s helping behavior is how much organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) the employee has received from coworkers. To provide evidence of the discriminant validity of OCB (...)
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  10.  46
    A Note on Reciprocity of Reasons.Thomas M. Besch - manuscript
    Rainer Forst and others claim that normative moral and political claims depend for their justification on meeting a requirement of reciprocal and general acceptability (RGA). I focus on a core component of RGA, namely, the idea of reciprocity of reasons, distinguish between two readings of RGA, and argue that if reciprocity of reasons is understood in Forst’s terms, then RGA, even on the most promising reading, may not serve as a requirement of moral or political justification at all. (...)
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  11.  57
    Paternalism, Autonomy and Reciprocity: Ethical Perspectives in Encounters with Patients in Psychiatric in-Patient Care.Veikko Pelto-Piri, Karin Engström & Ingemar Engström - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):49.
    BackgroundPsychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients’ opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real (...)
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  12.  6
    Three Models of Intergenerational Reciprocity.Axel Gosseries - 2009 - In Axel Gosseries & Lukas H. Meyer (eds.), Intergenerational Justice. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter explores the specificities, strengths, and weaknesses of the idea of reciprocity as a basis for intergenerational obligations. Three models are presented: descending, ascending, and double reciprocity. Each of these three models is tested against three objections. The first objection asks why having received something from someone would necessarily entail the obligation to give back. The second objection questions the ability of each model to justify the direction of reciprocation. A final objection looks at the extent to (...)
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  13.  87
    Justice in Global Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: An Analysis Based on the Values of Contribution, Ownership and Reciprocity.Meena Krishnamurthy & Matthew Herder - 2013 - Public Health Ethics (3):pht027.
    In December 2006, Indonesia decided to stop sending influenza virus specimens to the World Health Organization’s Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN). Indonesia justified its actions by claiming that they were in protest of the injustice of GISN. Its actions stimulated negotiations to improve the workings of GISN by developing and implementing a more just framework for ‘sharing influenza viruses and other benefits’. These negotiations eventually led to the adoption of a new framework for virus and benefit sharing in May 2011, (...)
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  14.  97
    Justice as Fairness and Reciprocity.Andrew Lister - 2011 - Analyze and Kritik 33 (1):93-112.
    This paper tries to reconcile reciprocity with a fundamentally 'subject-centred' ethic by interpreting the reciprocity condition as a consequence of the fact that justice is in part a relational value. Duties of egalitarian distributive justice are not grounded on the duty to reciprocate benefits already received, but limited by a reasonable assurance of compliance on the part of those able to reciprocate, because their point is to constitute a valuable relationship, one of mutual recognition as equals. We have (...)
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  15.  30
    Granularity in Reciprocity.Caroline Nevejan & Frances Brazier - 2012 - AI and Society 27 (1):129-147.
    Witnessing in merging biological, social and algorithmic realities is crucial to trust, as modelled in the YUTPA framework. Being witness and bearing witness is fundamental to human interaction. System participation in human communities of practice challenges the notion of witnessing and therefore the ability to build trust. Nevertheless, through trial and error, people in a variety of practices have found ways to establish the presence and develop trust in merging realities. This paper presents the results of 20 in-depth interviews with (...)
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  16. Reciprocity, Altruism and the Civil Society: In Praise of Heterogeneity , Luigino Bruni. Routledge, 2008, XIII + 158 Pages. [REVIEW]Alejandro Rosas - 2010 - Economics and Philosophy 26 (1):108-114.
    Economic theory has tended to reduce all social bonds and relations to forms of contract, whereas social theory has seen contracts as opposed to, and destructive of, genuine social bonds. Bruni sees these contrapositions as ideological (‘left’ against ‘right’, p. xi). His main goal is to overcome them; to show that three forms of reciprocity, covering the ideological spectrum from left to right, are complementary and simultaneously required in a healthy society. These three forms are, in his words: ‘(1) (...)
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  17.  28
    Mature Care and Nursing in Psychiatry: Notions Regarding Reciprocity in Asymmetric Professional Relationships.Marit Helene Hem & Tove Pettersen - 2011 - Health Care Analysis 19 (1):65-76.
    The idea behind this article is to discuss the importance and to develop the concept of reciprocity in asymmetric professional relationships. As an empirical starting point for an examination of the possible forms of reciprocity between patients and nurses in psychiatry, we chose two qualitative in-depth interviews with two different patients. The manners in which these two patients relate to medical personnel—one is dependent, the other is independent—show that this presents challenges to nurses. The theoretical context is provided (...)
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  18.  73
    Reason and Reciprocity in Hobbes's Political Philosophy: On Sharon Lloyd's: Morality in the Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. Martinich - 2010 - Hobbes Studies 23 (2):158-169.
    Lloyd's book, Morality in the Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes, correctly stresses the deductive element in Hobbes's proofs of the laws of nature. She believes that “the principle of reciprocity” is the key to these proofs. This principle is effective in getting ego-centric people to recognize moral laws and their moral obligations. However, it is not, I argue, the basic principle Hobbes uses to derive the laws of nature, from definitions. The principle of reason, which dictates that all similar cases (...)
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  19.  49
    Explaining Strong Reciprocity: Cooperation, Competition, and Partner Choice. [REVIEW]Ben Fraser - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (2):113-119.
    Paul Seabright argues that strong reciprocity was crucial in the evolution of large-scale cooperation. He identifies three potential evolutionary explanations for strong reciprocity. Drawing (like Seabright) on experimental economics, I identify and elaborate a fourth explanation for strong reciprocity, which proceeds in terms of partner choice, costly signaling, and competitive altruism.
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  20.  33
    Born Reciprocity and the 1/R Potential.R. Delbourgo & D. Lashmar - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (11):995-1010.
    Many structures in nature are invariant under the transformation pair, (p,r)→(b r,−p/b), where b is some scale factor. Born’s reciprocity hypothesis affirms that this invariance extends to the entire Hamiltonian and equations of motion. We investigate this idea for atomic physics and galactic motion, where one is basically dealing with a 1/r potential and the observations are very accurate, so as to determine the scale b≡mΩ. We find that an Ω∼1.5×10−15 s−1 has essentially no effect on atomic physics but (...)
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  21.  10
    The Pragmatist Conception of Altruism and Reciprocity.Emil Višňovský - 2011 - Human Affairs 21 (4):437-453.
    The paper provides an account of the pragmatist philosophical conception of reciprocity and altruism based on the ontology of “panrelationalism”. The Deweyan concepts of transaction and cooperation are also outlined in some detail as well as the pragmatist idea of justice. The author attempts to show that altruism is not necessarily just reciprocal but demands as its supplement altruism without reciprocation.
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  22.  9
    Reciprocity in Corporate Social Responsibility and Channel Performance: Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together?Xueming Luo & Qinqin Zheng - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (1):203-213.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is more and more important in the supply chain. Drawing from the stakeholder theory and channel relational reciprocity literature, we develop and empirically support a theoretical framework. Our framework predicts that CSR reciprocity between buyer and seller firms in a supply chain affects channel tie intensity and channel sales performance (main effects) and that market competition may amplify these influences (moderated effects). The framework reveals important implications regarding the role of reciprocal CSR for channel (...)
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  23.  9
    Sex Differences in Moral Interests: The Role of Kinship and the Nature of Reciprocity.Deborah Mower - 2009 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (1):111-119.
    Although moral psychologists and feminist moral theorists emphasize males’ interest in justice or fairness and females’ interest in care or empathy, recent work in evolutionary psychology links females’ interests in care and empathy for others with interests in fairness and equality. In an important work on sex differences in cognitive abilities, David Geary (1998) argues that the evolutionary mechanism of sexual selection drives the evolution of particular cognitive abilities and selection for particular interests. I mount two main challenges to Geary’s (...)
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  24.  10
    Time-Intensity Reciprocity Under Various Conditions of Adaptation and Backward Masking.Daniel Kahneman - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (4):543.
  25.  16
    To Avenge or Not to Avenge? Exploring the Interactive Effects of Moral Identity and the Negative Reciprocity Norm.Laurie J. Barclay, David B. Whiteside & Karl Aquino - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 121 (1):15-28.
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  26.  9
    Hostile Attribution Bias and Negative Reciprocity Beliefs Exacerbate Incivility’s Effects on Interpersonal Deviance.Long-Zeng Wu, Haina Zhang, Randy K. Chiu, Ho Kwong Kwan & Xiaogang He - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 120 (2):189-199.
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  27.  5
    The Urgency of Engaging with Oddities and Ambiguities: Reciprocity and Cooperation Visited as Semio-Aesthetic Notions in Bridging Nature and Culture.Jui-Pi Chien - 2019 - Semiotica 2019 (227):227-243.
    The notion of the third culture forms the background of the study that seeks to unify humanistic and scientific approaches for a better appreciation of nature, culture, and the arts. This study draws on the kind of emotion and attitude that we may intuit and act out soon after noticing another individual demanding our help in nature and culture. Such feelings as sympathy and empathy, uncertainty and ambiguity, are perceived to be extremely useful in the context of strategy formation and (...)
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  28.  28
    Reciprocity, Altruism, Solidarity: A Dynamic Model.Friedel Bolle & Alexander Kritikos - 2006 - Theory and Decision 60 (4):371-394.
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  29.  25
    `The Capabilities Approach', `The Imaginary Domain', and `Asymmetrical Reciprocity': Feminist Perspectives on Equality and Justice.Karin van Marle - 2003 - Feminist Legal Studies 11 (3):255-278.
  30.  7
    Masking Phenomena and Time Intensity Reciprocity for Form.Donald L. Schurman, Charles W. Eriksen & John Rohrbaugh - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (2p1):310.
  31.  5
    Dark Intervals as Stimulus Events and Their Effect on Visual Masking and Time-Intensity Reciprocity.D. L. Schurman & R. L. Colegate - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (2):278.
  32. Created: 9 June 2003 12 November 2003 Version 1.1 Www.Andrewboucher.Com/Papers/Quadratic_reciprocity.Pdf.Andrew Boucher - manuscript
    These notes are meant to continue from the paper on Consistency, in proving number-theoretic theorems from the second-order arithmetical system called FFFF. Its ultimate target is Quadratic Reciprocity, although it introduces and proves some facts about the least common multiple at the start.
     
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  33.  84
    Rawls, Reciprocity and the Barely Reasonable.Christopher Mcmahon - 2013 - Utilitas 26 (1):1-22.
    The concept of the reasonable plays an important role in Rawls's political philosophy, but there has been little systematic investigation of this concept or of the way Rawls employs it. This article distinguishes several different forms of reasonableness and uses them to explore Rawls's political liberalism. The discussion focuses on the idea, found especially in the most recent versions of this theory, of a family of liberal conceptions of justice each of which is regarded by everyone in a polity as (...)
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  34.  2
    Invoices on Scraps of Paper: Trust and Reciprocity in Local Food Systems.Shawn Trivette - 2017 - Agriculture and Human Values 34 (3):529-542.
    One of the many claims about the value of local food is that local food exchanges generate trust between producers and consumers. To what degree is this actually the case and how does such trust develop? Drawing on interview and fieldwork data in one local food system in the Northeastern U.S., I show how local food participants build trust and reciprocity with one another in order to mitigate the challenges imposed by the conventional system. This trust and reciprocity (...)
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  35.  93
    The Bright Lights on Self Identity and Positive Reciprocity: Spinoza’s Ethics of the Other Focusing on Competency, Sustainability and the Divine Love.Ignace Haaz - 2018 - Journal of Dharma 43 (3):261-284.
    The claim of this paper is to present Spinoza’s view on self-esteem and positive reciprocity, which replaces the human being in a monistic psycho-dynamical affective framework, instead of a dualistic pedestal above nature. Without naturalising the human being in an eliminative materialistic view as many recent neuro-scientific conceptions of the mind do, Spinoza finds an important entry point in a panpsychist and holistic perspective, presenting the complexity of the human being, which is not reducible to the psycho-physiological conditions of (...)
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  36.  6
    EU Migration, Out-of-Work Benefits and Reciprocity: Are Member States Justified in Restricting Access to Welfare Rights?Dimitrios Efthymiou - forthcoming - European Journal of Political Theory.
    This article examines whether restrictions on access to welfare rights for EU immigrants are justifiable on grounds of reciprocity. Recently political theorists have supported some robust restricti...
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  37.  18
    Markets, Desert, and Reciprocity.Andrew Lister - 2017 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 16 (1):47-69.
    This article traces John Rawls’s debt to Frank Knight’s critique of the ‘just deserts’ rationale for laissez-faire in order to defend justice as fairness against some prominent contemporary criticisms, but also to argue that desert can find a place within a Rawlsian theory of justice when desert is grounded in reciprocity. The first lesson Rawls took from Knight was that inheritance of talent and wealth are on a moral par. Knight highlighted the inconsistency of objecting to the inheritance of (...)
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  38.  11
    Sharing the Dance – on the Reciprocity of Movement in the Case of Elite Sports Dancers.Jing He & Susanne Ravn - 2018 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17 (1):99-116.
    In his recent works on daily face-to-face encounters, Zahavi claims that the phenomenon of sharing involves reciprocity. Following Zahavi’s line of thought, we wonder what exactly reciprocity amounts to and how the shared experience emerges from the dynamic process of interaction. By turning to the highly specialized field of elite sports dance, we aim at exploring the way in which reciprocity unfolds in intensive deliberate practices of movement. In our analysis, we specifically argue that the ongoing dynamics (...)
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  39.  26
    The Reciprocity Theory of Rights.David Rodin - 2014 - Law and Philosophy 33 (3):281-308.
    This article provides an explanatory account of a central class of moral rights; their normative grounding, the conditions for their possession and forfeiture, and their moral stringency. It argues that interpersonal rights against harm and rights to assistance are best understood as arising from reciprocity relations between moral agents. The account has significant advantages compared with rivals such as the interest theory of rights. By explaining the differential enforceability of rights against harm and rights to assistance, the reciprocity (...)
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  40.  6
    Invoices on Scraps of Paper: Trust and Reciprocity in Local Food Systems.A. Trivette Shawn - 2017 - Agriculture and Human Values 34 (3):529-542.
    One of the many claims about the value of local food is that local food exchanges generate trust between producers and consumers. To what degree is this actually the case and how does such trust develop? Drawing on interview and fieldwork data in one local food system in the Northeastern U.S., I show how local food participants build trust and reciprocity with one another in order to mitigate the challenges imposed by the conventional system. This trust and reciprocity (...)
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  41.  25
    The Limits of Generosity: Lessons on Ethics, Economy, and Reciprocity in Kafka’s The Metamorphosis.Carl Rhodes & Robert Westwood - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 133 (2):235-248.
    This paper interrogates the relation between reciprocity and ethics as it concerns participation in the world of work and organizations. Tracing discussions of business and organizational ethics that concern themselves, respectively, with the ethics of self-interest, the ethics of reciprocity, and the ethics of generosity, we explore the possibility of ethical relations with those who are seen as radically different, and who are divested of anything worth exchanging. To address this we provide a reading of Franz Kafka’s famous (...)
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  42.  6
    Mature Care and Reciprocity: Two Cases From Acute Psychiatry.Tove Pettersen & Marit Helene Hem - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (2):217-231.
    In this article we elaborate on the concept of mature care, in which reciprocity is crucial. Emphasizing reciprocity challenges other comprehensions where care is understood as a one-sided activity, with either the carer or the cared for considered the main source of knowledge and sole motivation for caring. We aim to demonstrate the concept of mature care’s advantages with regard to conceptualizing the practice of care, such as in nursing. First, we present and discuss the concept of mature (...)
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  43.  4
    A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance : Compliance, Reputation and Reciprocity.Lorenzo Sacconi - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (1):77-96.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility, meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. Whereas, justificatory issues have been discussed in a related paper, in this essay I focus on the implementation of and compliance with this normative model. The theory of reputation games, with reference to the basic game of trust, is introduced in order to make sense of self-regulation as a way to implement the social contract (...)
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  44.  26
    Universalizability and Reciprocity in International Business Ethics.John Hendry - 1999 - Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (3):405-420.
    Most writers on international business ethics adopt a universalist perspective, but the traditional expression of problems in terms of a discrepancy between (superior) home country and (inferior) host country values makes it difficult to preserve the symmetry required by a universalizability criterion. In this paper a critique of Donaldson’s (1989) theory is used to illustrate some of the ways in which ethnocentric assumptions can enter into a supposedly universalist argument. A number of suggestions are then made for improving Donaldson’s approach (...)
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  45.  22
    Gift-Giving and Reciprocity in Global Society: Introducing Marcel Mauss in International Studies.Volker M. Heins, Christine Unrau & Kristine Avram - 2018 - Journal of International Political Theory 14 (2):126-144.
    How do multiple obligations to give, to receive, and to reciprocate contribute to the evolution of international society? This question can be derived from the works of the French anthropologist and sociologist Marcel Mauss, in particular from his classic essay The Gift, published in 1925. The aim of this article is to introduce Mauss’ theory of the gift to international political theorists, to develop a general theoretical argument from his claim about the universality of gift-giving, and to lay out the (...)
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  46.  23
    Green Innovation and Performance: The View of Organizational Capability and Social Reciprocity.Jing-Wen Huang & Yong-Hui Li - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 145 (2):309-324.
    Synthesizing insights from a dynamic capability perspective and social network theory, this study identifies the factors influencing green innovation and examines the relationships between influencing factors, green innovation, and performance. This study uses structural equation modeling to test the research hypotheses. The results indicate that dynamic capability, coordination capability, and social reciprocity are significant drivers of green innovation, including green product innovation and green process innovation. Green product and process innovation have positive effects on environmental performance and organizational performance. (...)
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  47.  21
    Reciprocity‐Based Reasons for Benefiting Research Participants: Most Fail, the Most Plausible is Problematic.Neema Sofaer - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (9):456-471.
    A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: most are false. (...)
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  48.  83
    Reciprocity and Reasonable Disagreement: From Liberal to Democratic Legitimacy.David A. Reidy - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 132 (2):243-291.
    At the center of Rawls’s work post-1980 is the question of how legitimate coercive state action is possible in a liberal democracy under conditions of reasonable disagreement. And at the heart of Rawls’s answer to this question is his liberal principle of legitimacy. In this paper I argue that once we attend carefully to the depth and range of reasonable disagreement, Rawls’s liberal principle of legitimacy turns out to be either wildly utopian or simply toothless, depending on how one reads (...)
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  49. A Return to Reciprocity.Lorraine Mayer - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (3):22-42.
    : Feminist affiliation has long been suspect among Native American women whose memories survive the dishonor of colonialism. The idea of common struggles is simultaneously repugnant and alluring. Sadly, this has led to much confusion and rejection between Aboriginal women. I suggest "a return to reciprocity" to understand and come to terms with feminist rejection or affiliation. If we cannot come together, the fracturing that began with European ideology will continue to fragment and destroy the fabric of Native cultures.
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    Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.Jack Vromen - 2017 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 39 (3):25.
    Strong reciprocity has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the “West camp” :231–262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the “Laland camp” :1512–1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28:719–745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate (...)
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