Results for 'Reciprocity'

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  1. Reciprocity: Weak or Strong? What Punishment Experiments Do Demonstrate.Francesco Guala - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (1):1-15.
    Strong Reciprocity theorists claim that cooperation in social dilemma games can be sustained by costly punishment mechanisms that eliminate incentives to free ride, even in one-shot and finitely repeated games. There is little doubt that costly punishment raises cooperation in laboratory conditions. Its efficacy in the field however is controversial. I distinguish two interpretations of experimental results, and show that the wide interpretation endorsed by Strong Reciprocity theorists is unsupported by ethnographic evidence on decentralised punishment and by historical (...)
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  2. Strong Reciprocity, Human Cooperation, and the Enforcement of Social Norms.Ernst Fehr, Urs Fischbacher & Simon Gächter - 2002 - Human Nature 13 (1):1-25.
    This paper provides strong evidence challenging the self-interest assumption that dominates the behavioral sciences and much evolutionary thinking. The evidence indicates that many people have a tendency to voluntarily cooperate, if treated fairly, and to punish noncooperators. We call this behavioral propensity “strong reciprocity” and show empirically that it can lead to almost universal cooperation in circumstances in which purely self-interested behavior would cause a complete breakdown of cooperation. In addition, we show that people are willing to punish those (...)
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  3. Reciprocity.Lawrence C. Becker - 1986 - Routledge.
    The tendency to reciprocate – to return good for good and evil for evil – is a potent force in human life, and the concept of reciprocity is closely connected to fundamental notions of ‘justice’, ‘obligation’ or ‘duty’, ‘gratitude’ and ‘equality’. In _Reciprocity_, first published in 1986,_ _Lawrence Becker presents a sustained argument about reciprocity, beginning with the strategy for developing a moral theory of the virtues. He considers the concept of reciprocity in detail, contending that it (...)
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  4.  23
    Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control.Diego S. Silva, Angus Dawson & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (1):75-86.
    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative (...)
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  5.  78
    Reciprocal Causation and the Proximate–Ultimate Distinction.T. E. Dickins & R. A. Barton - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (5):747-756.
    Laland and colleagues have sought to challenge the proximate–ultimate distinction claiming that it imposes a unidirectional model of causation, is limited in its capacity to account for complex biological phenomena, and hinders progress in biology. In this article the core of their argument is critically analyzed. It is claimed that contrary to their claims Laland et al. rely upon the proximate–ultimate distinction to make their points and that their alternative conception of reciprocal causation refers to phenomena that were already accounted (...)
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  6. Rawls, Reciprocity and the Barely Reasonable.Christopher Mcmahon - 2014 - Utilitas 26 (1):1-22.
    The concept of the reasonable plays an important role in Rawls's political philosophy, but there has been little systematic investigation of this concept or of the way Rawls employs it. This article distinguishes several different forms of reasonableness and uses them to explore Rawls's political liberalism. The discussion focuses on the idea, found especially in the most recent versions of this theory, of a family of liberal conceptions of justice each of which is regarded by everyone in a polity as (...)
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  7.  28
    Reciprocal Causation and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis.Andrew Buskell - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (4):267-279.
    Kevin Laland and colleagues have put forward a number of arguments motivating an extended evolutionary synthesis. Here I examine Laland et al.'s central concept of reciprocal causation. Reciprocal causation features in many arguments supporting an expanded evolutionary framework, yet few of these arguments are clearly delineated. Here I clarify the concept and make explicit three arguments in which it features. I identify where skeptics can—and are—pushing back against these arguments, and highlight what I see as the empirical, explanatory, and methodological (...)
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  8.  47
    Reciprocal Linkage Between Self-Organizing Processes is Sufficient for Self-Reproduction and Evolvability.Terrence W. Deacon - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (2):136-149.
    A simple molecular system is described consisting of the reciprocal linkage between an autocatalytic cycle and a self-assembling encapsulation process where the molecular constituents for the capsule are products of the autocatalysis. In a molecular environment sufficiently rich in the substrates, capsule growth will also occur with high predictability. Growth to closure will be most probable in the vicinity of the most prolific autocatalysis and will thus tend to spontaneously enclose supportive catalysts within the capsule interior. If subsequently disrupted in (...)
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  9.  24
    Reciprocity and Cumulative Predication.Wolfgang Sternefeld - 1998 - Natural Language Semantics 6 (3):303-337.
    This paper investigates different readings of plural and reciprocal sentences and how they can be derived from syntactic surface structures in a systematic way. The main thesis is that these readings result from different ways of inserting logical operators at the level of Logical Form. The basic operator considered here is a cumulative mapping from predicates that apply to singularities onto the corresponding predicates that apply to pluralities. Given a theory which allows for free insertion of such operators, it can (...)
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  10.  87
    Reciprocal Expressions and the Concept of Reciprocity.Mary Dalrymple, Makoto Kanazawa, Yookyung Kim, Sam McHombo & Stanley Peters - 1998 - Linguistics and Philosophy 21 (2):159-210.
  11.  53
    The Reciprocity Theory of Rights.David Rodin - 2014 - Law and Philosophy 33 (3):281-308.
    This article provides an explanatory account of a central class of moral rights; their normative grounding, the conditions for their possession and forfeiture, and their moral stringency. It argues that interpersonal rights against harm and rights to assistance are best understood as arising from reciprocity relations between moral agents. The account has significant advantages compared with rivals such as the interest theory of rights. By explaining the differential enforceability of rights against harm and rights to assistance, the reciprocity (...)
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  12. Forst on Reciprocity of Reasons: A Critique.Thomas M. Besch - 2020 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 58 (3):357-382.
    According to Rainer Forst, (i) moral and political claims must meet a requirement of reciprocal and general acceptability (RGA) while (ii) we are under a duty in engaged discursive practice to justify such claims to others, or be able to do so, on grounds that meet RGA. The paper critically engages this view. I argue that Forst builds a key component of RGA, i.e., reciprocity of reasons, on an idea of the reasonable that undermines both (i) and (ii): if (...)
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  13. Proving Quadratic Reciprocity: Explanation, Disagreement, Transparency and Depth.William D’Alessandro - 2020 - Synthese (9):1-44.
    Gauss’s quadratic reciprocity theorem is among the most important results in the history of number theory. It’s also among the most mysterious: since its discovery in the late 18th century, mathematicians have regarded reciprocity as a deeply surprising fact in need of explanation. Intriguingly, though, there’s little agreement on how the theorem is best explained. Two quite different kinds of proof are most often praised as explanatory: an elementary argument that gives the theorem an intuitive geometric interpretation, due (...)
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  14.  87
    Reciprocals Are Definites.Sigrid Beck - 2001 - Natural Language Semantics 9 (1):69-138.
    This paper proposes that elementary reciprocal sentences have four semantic readings: a strongly reciprocal interpretation, a weakly reciprocal interpretation, a situation-based weakly reciprocal reading, and a collective reading. Interpretational possibilities of reciprocal sentences that have been discussed in the literature are identified as one of these four. A compositional semantic analysis of all of these readings is provided in which the reciprocal expression is uniformly represented as 'the other ones among them' (recasting Heim, Lasnik and May 1991a, b). A reciprocal (...)
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  15. Defense of Epistemic Reciprocalism.Seungbae Park - 2017 - Filosofija. Sociologija 28 (1):56-64.
    Scientific realists and antirealists believe that a successful scientific theory is true and merely empirically adequate, respectively. In contrast, epistemic reciprocalists believe that realists’ positive theories are true, and that antirealists’ positive theories are merely empirically adequate, treating their target agents as their target agents treat other epistemic agents. Antirealists cannot convince reciprocalists that their positive theories are true, no matter how confident they might be that they are true. In addition, reciprocalists criticize antirealists’ positive theories exactly in the way (...)
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  16.  43
    Reciprocity as a Foundation of Financial Economics.Timothy C. Johnson - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 131 (1):43-67.
    This paper argues that the subsistence of the fundamental theorem of contemporary financial mathematics is the ethical concept ‘reciprocity’. The argument is based on identifying an equivalence between the contemporary, and ostensibly ‘value neutral’, Fundamental Theory of Asset Pricing with theories of mathematical probability that emerged in the seventeenth century in the context of the ethical assessment of commercial contracts in a framework of Aristotelian ethics. This observation, the main claim of the paper, is justified on the basis of (...)
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  17.  20
    Publicity, Reciprocity, and Incentives.Andrew Lister - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):67-82.
    This paper mounts a partial defense of the basic structure objection to the egalitarian criticism of productive incentives. The defense is based on the claim that some duties of justice are subject to a reciprocity condition. The paper develops this position via an examination of the debate between Andrew Williams and G. A. Cohen on publicity and incentives. Reciprocity is an intrinsic feature of a relational conception of social justice, not simply a requirement of stability. Not all duties (...)
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  18.  1
    Reciprocity in Ancient Greece.Christopher Gill, Norman Postlethwaite & Richard Seaford - 1998 - Clarendon Press.
    Reciprocity has been seen as an important notion for anthropologists studying economic and social relations, and this volume examines it in connection with Greek culture from Homer to the Hellenistic period.
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  19.  14
    Reciprocity and Plurality.I. Heim, H. Lasnik & R. May - 1991 - Linguistic Inquiry 22 (1):63--101.
  20. Reciprocity, Justice, and Disability.Lawrence C. Becker - 2005 - Ethics 116 (1):9-39.
  21.  13
    Reciprocity in Quarantine: Observations From Wuhan’s COVID-19 Digital Landscapes.Yanping Ni, Morris Fabbri, Chi Zhang & Kearsley A. Stewart - 2020 - Asian Bioethics Review 12 (4):435-457.
    The 2003 SARS pandemic heralded the return of quarantine as a vital part of twenty-first century public health practice. Over the last two decades, MERS, Ebola, and other emerging infectious diseases each posed unique challenges for applying quarantine ethics lessons learned from the 2003 SARS-CoV-1 outbreak. In an increasingly interdependent and connected global world, the use of quarantine to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2, or COVID-19, similarly poses new and unexpected ethical challenges. In this essay, we look beyond standard debates (...)
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  22.  74
    Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility.Yves Fassin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):83-96.
    Stakeholder theory advocates that firms bear responsibility for the implications of their actions. However, while a firm affects or can affect stakeholders, stakeholders can also affect the corporation. Previous stakeholder theorising has neglected the reciprocal nature of responsibility. The question can be asked whether—in a spirit of reciprocity, loyalty and fairness—stakeholders should treat the corporation in a fair and responsible way. This study based on different definitions of stakeholders argues that various stakeholder attributes differ for different categories of stakeholders. (...)
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  23.  15
    Comment: Reciprocity and the Rise of Populism.Paul Weithman - 2020 - Res Publica 26 (3):423-431.
    It has recently been contended that the rise of populism in the US, culminating in the election of Donald Trump, vindicates liberal political theory, and the liberal political theory of John Rawls in particular. For the election of someone like Trump is just what Rawls’s theory would lead us to expect. Rawls’s theory would lead us to expect it because Rawls thought that if a liberal democracy is to be stable, it must satisfy the demands of reciprocity. But there (...)
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  24.  28
    The Reciprocal and Non-Linear Relationship of Sustainability and Financial Performance.Marcus Wagner & Joris Blom - 2011 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 20 (4):418-432.
    The goal of this paper is to describe the link between financial performance and the level of sustainability. In a novel approach, the paper classifies firms based on past financial success to address a potentially reciprocal relationship. For the groups of better and worse performing firms and for the entire sample, the above link is then tested, also accounting for non-linearity in the relationship. We show that environmental management system (EMS) implementation as a proxy for a firm's sustainability level is (...)
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  25.  6
    Reciprocal Neural Response Within Lateral and Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex During Hot and Cold Reasoning.Vinod Goel & Raymond J. Dolan - 2003 - NeuroImage 20 (4):2314-2321.
    Logic is widely considered the basis of rationality. Logical choices, however, are often influenced by emotional responses, sometimes to our detriment, sometimes to our advantage. To understand the neural basis of emotionally neutral and emotionally salient reasoning we studied 19 volunteers using event-related fMRI, as they made logical judgments about arguments that varied in emotional saliency. Despite identical logical form and content categories across “hot” and “cold” reasoning conditions, lateral and ventral medial prefrontal cortex showed reciprocal response patterns as a (...)
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  26.  94
    Reciprocity and Reasonable Disagreement: From Liberal to Democratic Legitimacy.David A. Reidy - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 132 (2):243-291.
    At the center of Rawls’s work post-1980 is the question of how legitimate coercive state action is possible in a liberal democracy under conditions of reasonable disagreement. And at the heart of Rawls’s answer to this question is his liberal principle of legitimacy. In this paper I argue that once we attend carefully to the depth and range of reasonable disagreement, Rawls’s liberal principle of legitimacy turns out to be either wildly utopian or simply toothless, depending on how one reads (...)
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  27.  7
    On Reciprocity and Practical Morality: A Response to Sagan and Valentino.Michael Walzer - 2019 - Ethics and International Affairs 33 (4):445-450.
    The findings reported in the article “Just War and Unjust Soldiers: American Public Opinion on the Moral Equality of Combatants,” by Scott Sagan and Benjamin Valentino, are indeed disturbing, but I am not convinced that they tell us all we need to know about public attitudes. Different questions, those that invite respondents to reflect on the reciprocal nature of practical morality, might reveal very different views of justified and unjustified conduct in war. I believe that these views, regarding, for example, (...)
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  28.  25
    Reciprocity‐Based Reasons for Benefiting Research Participants: Most Fail, the Most Plausible is Problematic.Neema Sofaer - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (9):456-471.
    A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: most are false. (...)
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  29.  87
    Reciprocal Legitimation: Reframing the Problem of International Legitimacy.Allen Buchanan - 2011 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 10 (1):5-19.
    Theorizing about the legitimacy of international institutions usually begins with a framing assumption according to which the legitimacy of the state is understood solely in terms of the relationship between the state and its citizens, without reference to the effects of state power on others. In contrast, this article argues that whether a state is legitimate vis-a-vis its own citizens depends upon whether its exercise of power respects the human rights of people in other states. The other main conclusions are (...)
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  30.  91
    Why Reciprocal Altruism is Not a Kind of Group Selection.Grant Ramsey & Robert Brandon - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (3):385-400.
    Reciprocal altruism was originally formulated in terms of individual selection and most theorists continue to view it in this way. However, this interpretation of reciprocal altruism has been challenged by Sober and Wilson (1998). They argue that reciprocal altruism (as well as all other forms of altruism) evolves by the process of group selection. In this paper, we argue that the original interpretation of reciprocal altruism is the correct one. We accomplish this by arguing that if fitness attaches to (at (...)
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  31.  59
    Reciprocal Relations Between Cognitive Neuroscience and Formal Cognitive Models: Opposites Attract?Birte U. Forstmann, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Tom Eichele, Scott Brown & John T. Serences - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (6):272-279.
  32.  51
    A Paleolithic Reciprocation Crisis: Symbols, Signals, and Norms.Kim Sterelny - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (1):65-77.
    Within paleoanthropology, the origin of behavioral modernity is a famous problem. Very large-brained hominins have lived for around half a million years, yet social lives resembling those known from the ethnographic record appeared perhaps 100,000 years ago. Why did it take 400,000 years for humans to start acting like humans? In this article, I argue that part of the solution is a transition in the economic foundations of cooperation from a relatively undemanding form, to one that imposed much more stress (...)
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  33.  16
    Reciprocity-Building and the Importance of Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tuberculosis Research.P. H. Mason, A. Roy & P. Singh - 2017 - Journal of Biosocial Science 49 (4):559-562.
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  34.  40
    Denying Reciprocity.David Jenkins - 2016 - European Journal of Political Theory 15 (3):312-332.
    When individuals receive benefits as a result of the burdens assumed by other people, they are expected to make a return in similar form. To do otherwise is considered as a failure to treat those other people with appropriate respect. It is this which justifies the expectation that individuals share in the labour that is necessary to preserve just institutions and productive practices that characterise complex schemes of social cooperation. In this paper, I argue that where benefits do not meet (...)
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  35.  44
    Reciprocal Suppression of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow During Emotional Versus Higher Cognitive Processes: Implications for Interactions Between Emotion and Cognition.Wayne C. Drevets & Marcus E. Raichle - 1998 - Cognition and Emotion 12 (3):353-385.
  36.  18
    Reciprocity and the Quest for Meaningful Disclosure.Ma’N. H. Zawati & Bartha Maria Knoppers - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (5):36-38.
    Volume 19, Issue 5, May 2019, Page 36-38.
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  37.  58
    Indirect Reciprocity and the Evolution of “Moral Signals”.Rory Smead - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (1):33-51.
    Signals regarding the behavior of others are an essential element of human moral systems and there are important evolutionary connections between language and large-scale cooperation. In particular, social communication may be required for the reputation tracking needed to stabilize indirect reciprocity. Additionally, scholars have suggested that the benefits of indirect reciprocity may have been important for the evolution of language and that social signals may have coevolved with large-scale cooperation. This paper investigates the possibility of such a coevolution. (...)
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  38.  31
    Reciprocity, Relationships, and Distributive Justice.Andrew Lister - 2013 - Social Theory and Practice 39 (1):70-94.
    This paper argues that the concern for distributive justice might be universal rather than contingent on a morally optional relationship, but limited in the demands it places upon us where a reasonable assurance of reciprocity is lacking. Principles of distributive justice apply wherever people are interacting, even if they have no choice but to interact, but are grounded in the goal of constituting relationships of mutual recognition as equals, and so partly conditional on compliance by others. On this view, (...)
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  39.  22
    Reciprocals Distribute Over Information States.J. Dotlacil - 2013 - Journal of Semantics 30 (4):423-477.
    Reciprocal sentences require distributivity for the correct interpretation. In the semantic literature on reciprocals, it is standard to assume that distributivity spans almost everything in reciprocal clauses, including not only reciprocals but also predicates and their arguments. In contrast to this tradition, I argue that nothing but reciprocals themselves should be interpreted distributively. Such a semantics of reciprocal clauses can be accommodated in dynamic frameworks which can store and retrieve dependencies between pluralities, modeled as plural information states, i.e., sets of (...)
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  40.  51
    Reflexives, Reciprocals and Contrast.S. Cable - 2012 - Journal of Semantics (1):ffs020.
    In many languages, reflexively marked predicates with plural arguments can describe scenarios of reciprocal action (Evans 2008; Maslova 2008; Murray 2007, 2008; Nedjalkov 2007). This paper analyzes such cases, and shows that they can be given a rather simple, univocal analysis, one that follows from certain now-commonplace assumptions in the semantic theory of plurals and events (Krifka 1992; Kratzer 2003, 2008). In addition, I analyze the effect that so-called ‘intensifiers’ have upon the interpretation of reflexively marked predicates in these languages. (...)
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  41.  8
    Reciprocity.Michael Davis & Lawrence C. Becker - 1988 - Philosophical Review 97 (3):432.
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  42. Global Justice, Reciprocity, and the State.Andrea Sangiovanni - 2007 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 35 (1):3–39.
  43. Reciprocals and Same/Different: Towards a Semantic Analysis.Friederike Moltmann - 1992 - Linguistics and Philosophy 15 (4):411 - 462.
  44.  8
    Gift, Reciprocity and Learning Health Systems.Jean-François Ethier, Roxanne Dault, Annabelle Cumyn & Adrien Barton - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (4):91-93.
    Lee suggests a conceptualization of health data sharing not merely as an act of altruism, but as a gift. The difference is important, as the inscription of the latter in a social context inv...
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  45.  17
    Time-Intensity Reciprocity Under Various Conditions of Adaptation and Backward Masking.Daniel Kahneman - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (4):543.
  46.  45
    Doing Unto Others: The Reciprocity of Helping Behavior in Organizations. [REVIEW]John R. Deckop, Caril C. Cirka & Lynne M. Andersson - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 47 (2):101 - 113.
    Reciprocity is a fundamental aspect of social life, and a phenomenon studied from a wide variety of philosophical, theological, and social scientific perspectives. In this study, we use social exchange theory to investigate why employees help other employees. We hypothesize, based on the norm of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960), that a significant cause of an employee''s helping behavior is how much organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) the employee has received from coworkers. To provide evidence of the discriminant validity of OCB (...)
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  47. Reciprocity and the Social Contract.Ken Binmore - 2004 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (1):5-35.
    This article is extracted from a forthcoming book, ‘Natural Justice’. It is a nontechnical introduction to the part of game theory immediately relevant to social contract theory. The latter part of the article reviews how concepts such as trust, responsibility, and authority can be seen as emergent phenomena in models that take formal account only of equilibria in indefinitely repeated games. Key Words: game theory • equilibrium • evolutionary stability • reciprocity • folk theorem • trust • altruism • (...)
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  48.  48
    Reciprocal Modelling of Active Perception of 2-D Forms in a Simple Tactile-Vision Substitution System.John Stewart & Olivier Gapenne - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (3):309-330.
    The strategies of action employed by a human subject in order to perceive simple 2-D forms on the basis of tactile sensory feedback have been modelled by an explicit computer algorithm. The modelling process has been constrained and informed by the capacity of human subjects both to consciously describe their own strategies, and to apply explicit strategies; thus, the strategies effectively employed by the human subject have been influenced by the modelling process itself. On this basis, good qualitative and semi-quantitative (...)
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  49.  47
    Citizenship, Reciprocity, and the Gendered Division of Labor: A Stability Argument for Gender Egalitarian Political Interventions.Gina Schouten - 2017 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 16 (2):174-209.
    Despite women’s increased labor force participation, household divisions of labor remain highly unequal. Properly implemented, gender egalitarian political interventions such as work time regulation, dependent care provisions, and family leave initiatives can induce families to share work more equally than they currently do. But do these interventions constitute legitimate uses of political power? In this article, I defend the political legitimacy of these interventions. Using the conception of citizenship at the heart of political liberalism, I argue that citizens would accept (...)
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  50.  2
    Reciprocity and the Guaranteed Income.Karl Widerquist - 1999 - Politics and Society 27 (3):387-402.
    This paper argues that a guaranteed income is not only consistent with the principle of reciprocity but is required for reciprocity. This conclusion follows from a three-part argument. First, if a guaranteed income is in place, all individuals have the same opportunity to live without working. Therefore, those who choose not to work do not take advantage of a privilege that is unavailable to everyone else. Second, in the absence of an unconditional income, society is, in effect, applying (...)
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