Results for 'Reed Brannon Richter'

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  1. Rationality revisited.Reed Richter - 1984 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 62 (4):392 – 403.
    This paper looks at a dispute decision theory about how best to characterize expected utility maximization and express the logic of rational choice. Where A1, … , An are actions open to some particular agent, and S1, … , Sn are mutually exclusive states of the world such that the agent knows at least one of which obtains, does the logic of rational choice require an agent to consider the conditional probability of choice Ai given that some state Si obtains, (...)
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  2. Jon Elster and Aanund Hylland, eds., Foundations of Social Choice Theory Reviewed by.Reed Richter - 1987 - Philosophy in Review 7 (7):265-267.
     
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  3. Ideal rationality and hand waving.Reed Richter - 1990 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 68 (2):147 – 156.
    In discussions surrounding epistemology and rationality, it is often useful to assume an agent is rational or ideally rational. Often, this ideal rationality assumption is spelled out along the following lines: -/- 1. The agent believes everything about a situation which the evidence entitles her to believe and nothing which it does not. -/- 2. The agent believes all the logical consequences of any of her beliefs. -/- 3. The agent knows her own mind: if she believes P, she believes (...)
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  4.  40
    Further comments on decision instability.Reed Richter - 1986 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (3):345 – 349.
  5.  36
    On Philips and Racism.Reed Richter - 1986 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 16 (4):785 - 794.
    Michael Philips’ ‘Racist Acts and Racist Humor’ attempts to analyze the ethics of racism. At the heart of his discussion is the view that… “racist” is used in its logically primary sense when it is attributed to actions. All other uses of “racist” … must be understood directly or indirectly in relation to this one. Accordingly, racist beliefs are beliefs about an ethnic group used to “justify” racist acts, racist feelings are feelings about an ethnic group that typically give rise (...)
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  6. “Leckie on Fatal Attraction”.Reed Richter - 1991 - APA Newsletter on Feminism. 90 (Winter).
     
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  7. What Science Can and Cannot Say: The Problems with Methodological Naturalism.Reed Richter - 2002 - Reports of the National Center for Science Education 22 (Jan-Apr 2002):18-22.
    This paper rejects a view of science called "methodological naturalism." -/- According to many defenders of mainstream science and Darwinian evolution, anti-evolution critics--creationists and intelligent design proponents--are conceptually and epistemologically confusing science and religion, a supernatural view of world. These defenders of evolution contend that doing science requires adhering to a methodology that is strictly and essentially naturalistic: science is essentially committed to "methodological naturalism" and assumes that all the phenomena it investigates are entirely natural and consistent with the laws (...)
     
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  8. American Science and its Anti-Evolutionist Critics: it's the evidence stupid.Reed Richter - manuscript
    This is an unpublished talk written for a meeting of French philosophers. The paper describes the evolution versus creationism/intelligent design controversy in the U.S. A number of philosophers and scientists try to resolve this issue by sharply distinguishing the realm of science versus any talk of the supernatural. These pro-evolutionists often appeal to science's essential commitment to "methodological naturalism," the view that scientific methodology is essentially committed to naturalism and cannot meaningfully entertain hypotheses concerning the supernatural. I criticize methodological naturalism, (...)
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  9.  85
    Rationality, group choice and expected utility.Reed Richter - 1985 - Synthese 63 (2):203 - 232.
    This paper proposes a view uniformly extending expected utility calculations to both individual and group choice contexts. Three related cases illustrate the problems inherent in applying expected utility to group choices. However, these problems do not essentially depend upon the tact that more than one agent is involved. I devise a modified strategy allowing the application of expected utility calculations to these otherwise problematic cases. One case, however, apparently leads to contradiction. But recognizing the falsity of proposition (1) below allows (...)
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  10. DNA, Masterpieces, and Abortion: Shifting the Grounds of the Debate.Reed Richter - manuscript
    Writers, philosophers, and theologians have oft made the comparison between being a mature human being and a masterpiece work of art or design. Employing the analogy between the creation of artistic value and the creation of full-fledged human value, this paper stakes out a middle ground between pro-choice and pro-life by considering a more general account of value and the relationship between being a potential X and a mature implementation of X's potential. I argue that the value of a potential (...)
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  11. Counterfactuals and newcomb's paradox.Daniel Hunter & Reed Richter - 1978 - Synthese 39 (2):249 - 261.
    In their development of causal decision theory, Allan Gibbard and William Harper advocate a particular method for calculating the expected utility of an action, a method based upon the probabilities of certain counterfactuals. Gibbard and Harper then employ their method to support a two-box solution to Newcomb’s paradox. This paper argues against some of Gibbard and Harper’s key claims concerning the truth-values and probabilities of counterfactuals involved in expected utility calculations, thereby disputing their analysis of Newcomb’s Paradox. If we are (...)
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  12. The Hastings Center and Euthanasia.Reed Richter - 1988 - The Euthanasia Review 3 (1):56-72.
    The Hasting Center's, "Guidelines on the Termination of Life-Sustaining Treatment and the Care of the Dying" (1987), outlines a position on assisted suicide that I argue is contradictory. On one hand the guidelines offers a position on human dignity and autonomy that accords competent patients the right to intentionally kill themselves by requesting doctors to terminate life-support. Yet, on the other hand, the guidelines argue that terminating life-support upon request is not ever the moral equivalent of doctored-assisted suicide, and granting (...)
     
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  13. Richard Eric Sharvy 1942-1988.Dale Jamieson & Reed Richter - 1988 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 62 (2):315 - 316.
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  14.  39
    Learning of novel semantic relationships via sudden comprehension is associated with a hippocampus-independent network.Jasmin M. Kizilirmak, Björn H. Schott, Hannes Thuerich, Catherine M. Sweeney-Reed, Anni Richter, Kristian Folta-Schoofs & Alan Richardson-Klavehn - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 69:113-132.
  15.  76
    Reflections on deliberative coherence.Leigh B. Kelley - 1988 - Synthese 76 (1):83 - 121.
    This paper treats two problem cases in decision theory, the Newcomb problem and Reed Richter''s Button III. Although I argue that, contrary to Richter, the latter case does not constitute a genuine counterexample to a standard general proposition of (causal) decision theory, I agree with and undertake to amplify his solution to the decision problem in Button III. I then apply the conclusions and distinctions in the foregoing treatment of Button III to the Newcomb problem and argue (...)
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  16. Stakeholder Management Theory: A Critical Theory Perspective.Darryl Reed - 1999 - Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (3):453-483.
    Abstract:This article elaborates a normative Stakeholder Management Theory (SHMT) from a critical theory perspective. The paper argues that the normative theory elaborated by critical theorists such as Habermas exhibits important advantages over its rivals and that these advantages provide the basis for a theoretically more adequate version of SHMT. In the first section of the paper an account is given of normative theory from a critical theory perspective and its advantages over rival traditions. A key characteristic of the critical theory (...)
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  17.  90
    Partnerships for Development: Four Models of Business Involvement.Ananya Mukherjee Reed & Darryl Reed - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (S1):3 - 37.
    Over the last two decades there has been a proliferation of partnerships between business and government, multilateral bodies, and/or social actors such as NGOs and local community organizations engaged in promoting development. While proponents hail these partnerships as an important new approach to engaging business, critics argue that they are not only generally ineffective but also serve to legitimate a neo-liberal, global economic order which inhibits development. In order to understand and evaluate the role of such partnerships, it is necessary (...)
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  18.  5
    Withdrawing Life Support After Attempted Suicide: A Case Study and Review of Ethical Consideration.David A. Oxman & Benjamin Richter - forthcoming - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics.
    Ethical questions surrounding withdrawal of life support can be complex. When life support therapies are the result of a suicide attempt, the potential ethical issues take on another dimension. Duties and principles that normally guide clinicians’ actions as caregivers may not apply as easily. We present a case of attempted suicide in which decisions surrounding withdrawal of life support provoked conflict between a patient’s family and the medical team caring for him. We highlight the major unresolved philosophical questions and contradictory (...)
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  19.  8
    Abwägen und Anwenden: Zum ‚guten‘ Umgang mit ethischen Normen und Werten (Tübinger Studien zur Ethik 9).Uta Müller, Philipp Richter & Thomas Potthast - 2018 - Tübingen, Germany: Narr Francke Attempto.
  20.  46
    Towards a definition of living systems: A theory of ecological support for behavior.Edward S. Reed & Rebecca K. Jones - 1977 - Acta Biotheoretica 26 (3):153-163.
    It is proposed that the Darwinian theoretical approach and account of living systems has not yet been clearly given. A first approximation to this is attempted, focussing on behavior in evolving environments. A theoretical terminology is defined emphasizing the mutuality of organism and environment and the existence of biologically theoretical entities.
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  21.  53
    Vegan diets for women, infants, and children.Ann Reed Mangels & Suzanne Havala - 1994 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):111-122.
    Infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women have been described as groups with special needs. Regardless of diet chosen, these groups are at higher risk for nutritional deficiencies than adult males. Vegan diets can be safely used by these groups if foods, and in some instances supplements, are selected which provide a healthful and nutritionally adequate diet. Guidelines have been developed for those choosing to follow vegan diets. In many instances vegan diets offer health benefits. Studies of vegans are (...)
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  22. The new science and the old: Complexity and realism in the social sciences.Michael Reed & David L. Harvey - 1992 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 22 (4):353–380.
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  23.  48
    Methodological Reflections on Typologies for Numerical Notations.Theodore Reed Widom & Dirk Schlimm - 2012 - Science in Context 25 (2):155-195.
    Past and present societies world-wide have employed well over 100 distinct notational systems for representing natural numbers, some of which continue to play a crucial role in intellectual and cultural development today. The diversity of these notations has prompted the need for classificatory schemes, or typologies, to provide a systematic starting point for their discussion and appraisal. The present paper provides a general framework for assessing the efficacy of these typologies relative to certain desiderata, and it uses this framework to (...)
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  24.  16
    Theoretical foundations for illocutionary structure parsing1.Katarzyna Budzynska, Mathilde Janier, Chris Reed & Patrick Saint-Dizier - 2016 - Argument and Computation 7 (1):91-108.
  25.  95
    Man apart: An alternative to the self-realization approach.Peter Reed - 1989 - Environmental Ethics 11 (1):53-69.
    Seeing nature as ultimately separate from us rather than as apart of us is the source of a powerful environmental ethic. The work of Martin Buber, Rudolf Otto, and Peter Wessei Zapffe forms the conceptual framework for a view of nature as a Thou or a “Wholly Other,” a view which inspires awe for the nonhuman intrinsic value in nature. In contrast to the Self-realization approach of Naess and others, intrinsic value is here independent of the notion of a self. (...)
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  26. Knowledge, doubt, and circularity.Baron Reed - 2012 - Synthese 188 (2):273-287.
    Ernest Sosa's virtue perspectivism can be thought of as an attempt to capture as much as possible of the Cartesian project in epistemology while remaining within the framework of externalist fallibilism. I argue (a) that Descartes's project was motivated by a desire for intellectual stability and (b) that his project does not suffer from epistemic circularity. By contrast, Sosa's epistemology does entail epistemic circularity and, for this reason, proves unable to secure the sort of intellectual stability Descartes wanted. I then (...)
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  27.  38
    Seeing where we look: Fixation as extraretinal information.D. Alfred Owens & Edward S. Reed - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):271-272.
  28.  45
    Translating Toulmin Diagrams: Theory Neutrality in Argument Representation.Chris Reed & Glenn Rowe - 2005 - Argumentation 19 (3):267-286.
    The Toulmin diagram layout is very familiar and widely used, particularly in the teaching of critical thinking skills. The conventional box-and-arrow diagram is equally familiar and widespread. Translation between the two throws up a number of interesting challenges. Some of these challenges (such as the relationship between Toulmin warrants and their counterparts in traditional diagrams) represent slightly different ways of looking at old and deep theoretical questions. Others (such as how to allow Toulmin diagrams to be recursive) are diagrammatic versions (...)
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  29.  6
    Befragungsstrategien in Interviews – ein kommunikationswissenschaftliches Forschungsprogramm.Rainer Seidel, Helmut Richter, Jürgen Goetze & Michael Böttner - 1978 - Communications 4 (1):91-109.
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  30.  27
    Self‐Knowledge and Rationality.Baron Reed - 2009 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 80 (1):164-181.
    There have been several recent attempts to account for the special authority of self‐knowledge by grounding it in a constitutive relation between an agent’s intentional states and her judgments about those intentional states. This constitutive relation is said to hold in virtue of the rationality of the subject. I argue, however, that there are two ways in which we have self‐knowledge without there being such a constitutive relation between first‐order intentional states and the second‐order judgments about them. Recognition of this (...)
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  31.  55
    Overstraining Human Nature in the Nicomachean Ethics.Doug Reed - 2021 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 59 (1):45-67.
    In this paper, I investigate Aristotle’s claim in 'Nicomachean Ethics' III.1 about situations that “overstrain human nature.” By setting out and answering several interpretative questions about such situations, I offer a comprehensive interpretation of this passage. I argue that in (at least some of) these cases, the agent voluntarily does something wrong, even though there is a right action available. Furthermore, I argue that Aristotle would think it is possible for a rare agent to perform the right action in (at (...)
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  32.  30
    Hartmut Rosa’s project for critical theory.Isaac Ariail Reed - 2016 - Thesis Eleven 133 (1):122-129.
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  33.  34
    Perception of gait patterns that deviate from normal and symmetric biped locomotion.Ismet Handžić & Kyle B. Reed - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  34.  7
    The Bible, religious storytelling, and revolution: The case of Solentiname, Nicaragua.Jean-Pierre Reed - 2017 - Critical Research on Religion 5 (3):227-250.
    Building on the storytelling, political storytelling, and religious storytelling literatures, I examined the role religious stories play in the formation of revolutionary convictions. This study’s primary sources of data are volumes I, II, and III of The Gospel in Solentiname, a historical record of religious discussions that took place in an isolated campesino community at a seminary-like setting under a growing national revolutionary scenario in 1970s Nicaragua. My analysis of these discussions reveals that religious discourse based on stories of prophecy, (...)
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  35.  20
    Saccadic eye movements during a concurrent auditory task.Frederick V. Malmstrom, Lawrence E. Reed & Robert J. Weber - 1983 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 21 (1):31-34.
  36. Measures of Performance for Highway and Transit Systems.S. A. Shbaklo & G. L. Reed - 1996 - In Enrique Villanueva (ed.), Perception. Ridgeview Pub. Co. pp. 25--042.
     
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  37.  40
    VR and hallucination: a technoetic perspective.Diana Reed Slattery - 2008 - Technoetic Arts 6 (1):3-18.
    Virtual Reality (VR), especially in a technologically focused discourse, is defined by a class of hardware and software, among them head-mounted displays (HMD); navigation and pointing devices; and stereoscopic imaging. This presentation examines an experiential aspect of VR. Putting virtual in front of reality modifies the ontological status of a class of experience that of reality. Reality has also been modified (by artists, new media theorists, technologists and philosophers) as augmented, mixed, simulated, artificial, layered and enhanced. Modifications of reality are (...)
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  38. Towards an Expansive Epistemology: Norms, Action, and the Social Sphere.Baron Reed & A. K. Flowerree (eds.) - forthcoming - Routledge.
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  39.  7
    Examining the Testing Effect in University Teaching: Retrievability and Question Format Matter.Sven Greving & Tobias Richter - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  40.  50
    Hume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Psychology.Philip A. Reed & Rico Vitz (eds.) - 2018 - London, UK: Routledge.
    Recent work at the intersection of moral philosophy and the philosophy of psychology has dealt mostly with Aristotelian virtue ethics. The dearth of scholarship that engages with Hume’s moral philosophy, however, is both noticeable and peculiar. Hume's Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Psychology demonstrates how Hume’s moral philosophy comports with recent work from the empirical sciences and moral psychology. It shows how contemporary work in virtue ethics has much stronger similarities to the metaphysically thin conception of human nature that Hume developed, (...)
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  41. Responsibility to protect and militarized humanitarian intervention: When and why the churches failed to discern moral Hazard.Esther D. Reed - 2012 - Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (2):308-334.
    This essay addresses moral hazards associated with the emerging doctrine of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P). It reviews the broad acceptance by the Vatican and the World Council of Churches of the doctrine between September 2003 and September 2008, and attempts to identify grounds for more adequate investigation of the moral issues arising. Three themes are pursued: how a changing political context is affecting notions of sovereignty; the authority that can approve or refuse the use of force; and plural foundations (...)
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  42. Platonic Personal Immortality.Doug Reed - 2019 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 100 (3):812-836.
    I argue that Plato distinguishes between personal immortality and immortality of the soul. I begin by criticizing the consensus view that Plato identifies the person and the soul. I then turn to the issue of immortality. By considering passages from 'Symposium' and 'Timaeus', I make the case that Plato thinks that while the soul is immortal by nature, if a person is going to be immortal, they must become so. Finally, I argue that Plato has a psychological continuity approach to (...)
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  43.  17
    Sex, Law, and Society in Late Imperial China.Bradly W. Reed & Matthew H. Sommer - 2002 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 122 (3):626.
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  44.  7
    8. unverfügbarkeit in der synthese.Werner Kogge & Michael Richter - 2013 - In Gabriele Gramelsberger, Peter Bexte & Werner Kogge (eds.), Synthesis: Zur Konjunktur Eines Philosophischen Begriffs in Wissenschaft Und Technik. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag. pp. 121-146.
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  45.  17
    Social Mechanisms and Empirical Research in the Field of Sociology of the Family: The Case of Separation and Divorce.Johannes Kopp & Nico Richter - 2016 - Analyse & Kritik 38 (1):121-148.
    During the last decades, social mechanisms have been broadly discussed in general sociology, but, in family sociology, they seem to be non-existent. Therefore, the first aim of this paper is to show that., although the term can hardly be found, prominent theoretical ideas use more or less explicitly mechanistic explanations. Focusing on the determinants of separation can show that all arguments connect (structural) input with (social) outcome and search for theoretical explanations in the sense of social mechanisms. We will demonstrate (...)
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  46.  18
    The blank trials law: The equivalence of positive reinforcement and nonreinforcement.M. Levine Leitenberg & M. Richter - 1964 - Psychological Review 71 (2):94-103.
  47.  47
    The War Machine, the Formula and the Hypothesis: Deleuze and Guattari as Readers of Clausewitz.Guillaume Sibertin-Blanc & Daniel Richter - 2010 - Theory and Event 13 (3).
  48.  30
    Argumentum Ad Alia: argument structure of arguing about what others have said.Chris Reed & Katarzyna Budzynska - 2023 - Synthese 201 (3):1-29.
    Expertise, authority, and testimony refer to aspects of one of the most important elements of communication and cognition. Argumentation theory recognises various forms of what we call the argumentum ad alia pattern, in which speakers appeal to what others have said, including Position to Know scheme, Witness Testimony scheme, Expert Opinion scheme and the classical ad verecundiam. In this paper we show that ad alia involves more than merely an inferential step from what others (a person in position to know, (...)
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  49.  18
    The relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to mental disorders and their treatment.Geoffrey M. Reed, William D. Spaulding & Lynn F. Bufka - 2009 - Alter - European Journal of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche Sur le Handicap 3 (4):340-359.
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  50.  50
    Having to do with knowledge.Baron Reed - 2016 - Episteme 13 (4):549-554.
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