Results for 'Regina Pally'

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  1.  20
    Non-Conscious Prediction and a Role for Consciousness in Correcting Prediction Errors.Regina Pally - 2005 - Cortex. Special Issue 41 (5):643-662.
  2. Part VI Palliative Sedation.Palliative Sedation - 2002 - In Chris Gastmans (ed.), Between Technology and Humanity: The Impact of Technology on Health Care Ethics. Leuven University Press. pp. 217.
     
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  3. Greek Religious Texts. Edited by S. A. Pallis. Pp. Xvi + 154. Copenhagen: Branner, 1948.H. J. Rose & S. A. Pallis - 1950 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 70:91-91.
  4.  48
    The Ethics of Microaggression.Regina Rini - 2021 - Abingdon UK: Routledge.
    Slips of the tongue, unwitting favoritism and stereotyped assumptions are just some examples of microaggression. Nearly all of us commit microaggressions at some point, even if we don’t intend to. Yet over time a pattern of microaggression can cause considerable harm by reminding members of marginalized groups of their precarious position. The Ethics of Microaggression is a much needed and clearly written exploration of this pervasive yet complex problem. What is microaggression and how do we know when it is occurring? (...)
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  5. Fake News and Partisan Epistemology.Regina Rini - 2017 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 27 (S2):43-64.
    Did you know that Hillary Clinton sold weapons to ISIS? Or that Mike Pence called Michelle Obama “the most vulgar First Lady we’ve ever had”? No, you didn’t know these things. You couldn’t know them, because these claims are false.1 But many American voters believed them.One of the most distinctive features of the 2016 campaign was the rise of “fake news,” factually false claims circulated on social media, usually via channels of partisan camaraderie. Media analysts and social scientists are still (...)
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  6.  59
    Palliative Sedation, Foregoing Life-Sustaining Treatment, and Aid-in-Dying: What is the Difference?Patrick Daly - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (3):197-213.
    After a review of terminology, I identify—in addition to Margaret Battin’s list of five primary arguments for and against aid-in-dying—the argument from functional equivalence as another primary argument. I introduce a novel way to approach this argument based on Bernard Lonergan’s generalized empirical method. Then I proceed on the basis of GEM to distinguish palliative sedation, palliative sedation to unconsciousness when prognosis is less than two weeks, and foregoing life-sustaining treatment from aid-in-dying. I conclude that aid-in-dying must be justified on (...)
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  7.  12
    Betwixt and Between: The Enculturated Predictive Processing Approach to Cognition.Regina Fabry - 2018 - Synthese 195 (6):2483-2518.
    Many of our cognitive capacities are the result of enculturation. Enculturation is the temporally extended transformative acquisition of cognitive practices in the cognitive niche. Cognitive practices are embodied and normatively constrained ways to interact with epistemic resources in the cognitive niche in order to complete a cognitive task. The emerging predictive processing perspective offers new functional principles and conceptual tools to account for the cerebral and extra-cerebral bodily components that give rise to cognitive practices. According to this emerging perspective, many (...)
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  8.  25
    Into the Dark Room: A Predictive Processing Account of Major Depressive Disorder.Regina E. Fabry - 2020 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 19 (4):685-704.
    Major depression is a prevalent mental disorder that leads to persistent negative mood and tremendous suffering in affected individuals. However, the biological realization of this disorder and associated symptom clusters remain poorly understood. Recently, phenomenological accounts of major depressive disorder and contributions to the emerging predictive processing account have provided valuable insights into the phenomenological and neuro-functional components that lead to manifestations of major depressive episodes. The purpose of this paper is to weave together these different strands of research to (...)
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  9. Deepfakes and the Epistemic Backstop.Regina Rini - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (24):1-16.
    Deepfake technology uses machine learning to fabricate video and audio recordings that represent people doing and saying things they've never done. In coming years, malicious actors will likely use this technology in attempts to manipulate public discourse. This paper prepares for that danger by explicating the unappreciated way in which recordings have so far provided an epistemic backstop to our testimonial practices. Our reasonable trust in the testimony of others depends, to a surprising extent, on the regulative effects of the (...)
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  10.  38
    Palliative Opioid Use, Palliative Sedation and Euthanasia: Reaffirming the Distinction.Guy Schofield, Idris Baker, Rachel Bullock, Hannah Clare, Paul Clark, Derek Willis, Craig Gannon & Rob George - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (1):48-50.
    We read with interest the extended essay published from Riisfeldt and are encouraged by an empirical ethics article which attempts to ground theory and its claims in the real world. However, such attempts also have real-world consequences. We are concerned to read the paper’s conclusion that clinical evidence weakens the distinction between euthanasia and normal palliative care prescribing. This is important. Globally, the most significant barrier to adequate symptom control in people with life-limiting illness is poor access to opioid analgesia. (...)
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  11.  7
    A Palliative Care Approach in Psychiatry: Clinical Implications.Mattias Strand, Manne Sjöstrand & Anna Lindblad - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-8.
    Background Traditionally, palliative care has focused on patients suffering from life-threatening somatic diseases such as cancer or progressive neurological disorders. In contrast, despite the often chronic, severely disabling, and potentially life-threatening nature of psychiatric disorders, there are neither palliative care units nor clinical guidelines on palliative measures for patients in psychiatry. Main text This paper contributes to the growing literature on a palliative approach in psychiatry and is based on the assumption that a change of perspective from a curative to (...)
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  12.  46
    Understanding Palliative Cancer Chemotherapy: About Shared Decisions and Shared Trajectories.Susanne J. de Kort, Jeannette Pols, Dick J. Richel, Nelleke Koedoot & Dick L. Willems - 2010 - Health Care Analysis 18 (2):164-174.
    Most models of patient-physician communication take decision-making as a central concept. However, we found that often the treatment course of metastatic cancer patients is not easy to describe in straightforward terms used in decision-making models but is instead frequently more erratic. Our aim was to analyse these processes as trajectories. We used a longitudinal case study of 13 patients with metastatic colorectal and pancreatic cancer for whom palliative chemotherapy was a treatment option, and analysed 65 semi-structured interviews. We analysed three (...)
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  13. How Not to Test for Philosophical Expertise.Regina A. Rini - 2015 - Synthese 192 (2):431-452.
    Recent empirical work appears to suggest that the moral intuitions of professional philosophers are just as vulnerable to distorting psychological factors as are those of ordinary people. This paper assesses these recent tests of the ‘expertise defense’ of philosophical intuition. I argue that the use of familiar cases and principles constitutes a methodological problem. Since these items are familiar to philosophers, but not ordinary people, the two subject groups do not confront identical cognitive tasks. Reflection on this point shows that (...)
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  14. Palliative Care Ethics: A Good Companion.Fiona Randall - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    Palliative care is a recent branch of health care. The doctors, nurses, and other professionals involved in it took their inspiration from the medieval idea of the hospice, but have now extended their expertise to every area of health care: surgeries, nursing homes, acute wards, and the community. This has happened during a period when patients wish to take more control over their own lives and deaths, resources have become scarce, and technology has created controversial life-prolonging treatments. Palliative care is (...)
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  15.  41
    Evaluating Palliative Care: Facilitating Reflexive Dialgoues About an Ambiguous Concept. [REVIEW]Tineke A. Abma - 2001 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (3):261-276.
    Palliation is a relatively new concept that is used in connection with the integral care provided to those who are unable to recover from their illness. The specific meaning of the concept has not been clearly defined. This article explores the possibilities offered by a responsive approach to evaluation that can facilitate a reflexive dialogue on this ambiguous concept. In doing so it draws on a case study of a palliative care project in a Dutch health care authority. The article (...)
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  16.  18
    Transcending the Evidentiary Boundary: Prediction Error Minimization, Embodied Interaction, and Explanatory Pluralism.Regina E. Fabry - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 30 (4):395-414.
    In a recent paper, Jakob Hohwy argues that the emerging predictive processing perspective on cognition requires us to explain cognitive functioning in purely internalistic and neurocentric terms. The purpose of the present paper is to challenge the view that PP entails a wholesale rejection of positions that are interested in the embodied, embedded, extended, or enactive dimensions of cognitive processes. I will argue that Hohwy’s argument from analogy, which forces an evidentiary boundary into the picture, lacks the argumentative resources to (...)
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  17. How to Take Offense: Responding to Microaggression.Regina Rini - 2018 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 4 (3):332-351.
    A microaggression is a small insulting act made disproportionately harmful by its part in an oppressive pattern of similar insults. How should you respond when made the victim of a microaggression? In this paper I survey several morally salient factors, including effects upon victims, perpetrators, and third parties. I argue, contrary to popular views, that ‘growing a thicker skin’ is not good advice nor is expressing reasonable anger always the best way to contribute to confronting oppression. Instead, appropriately responding to (...)
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  18.  11
    Cognitive Innovation, Cumulative Cultural Evolution, and Enculturation.Regina E. Fabry - 2017 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 17 (5):375-395.
    Cognitive innovation has shaped and transformed our cognitive capacities throughout history. Until recently, cognitive innovation has not received much attention by empirical and conceptual research in the cognitive sciences. This paper is a first attempt to help close this gap. It will be argued that cognitive innovation is best understood in connection with cumulative cultural evolution and enculturation. Cumulative cultural evolution plays a vital role for the inter-generational transmission of the products of cognitive innovation. Furthermore, there are at least two (...)
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  19.  22
    Pränataldiagnostik als Instanz von struktureller Diskriminierung? Überlegungen zur Debatte um den PraenaTest und seine Auswirkungen auf Menschen mit Behinderung.Regina Schidel - 2020 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 7 (1):231-264.
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  20.  24
    Enculturation and Narrative Practices.Regina Fabry - 2018 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17 (5):911-937.
    Recent work on enculturation suggests that our cognitive capacities are significantly transformed in the course of the scaffolded acquisition of cognitive practices such as reading and writing. Phylogenetically, enculturation is the result of the co-evolution of human organisms and their socio-culturally structured cognitive niche. It is rendered possible by evolved cerebral and extra-cerebral bodily learning mechanisms that make human organisms apt to acquire culturally inherited cognitive practices. In addition, cultural learning allows for the intergenerational transmission of relevant knowledge and skills. (...)
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  21.  9
    Not the Function of Eating, but Spontaneous Activity and Energy Expenditure, Reflected in “Restlessness” and a “Drive for Activity” Appear to Be Dysregulated in Anorexia Nervosa: Treatment Implications.Regina C. Casper - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  22.  26
    Palliative Sedation: Not Just Normal Medical Practice. Ethical Reflections on the Royal Dutch Medical Association's Guideline on Palliative Sedation.Rien Janssens, Johannes J. M. van Delden & Guy A. M. Widdershoven - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (11):664-668.
    The main premise of the Royal Dutch Medical Association's (RDMA) guideline on palliative sedation is that palliative sedation, contrary to euthanasia, is normal medical practice. Although we do not deny the ethical distinctions between euthanasia and palliative sedation, we will critically analyse the guideline's argumentation strategy with which euthanasia is demarcated from palliative sedation. First, we will analyse the guideline's main premise, which entails that palliative sedation is normal medical treatment. After this, we will critically discuss three crucial propositions of (...)
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  23. Analogies, Moral Intuitions, and the Expertise Defence.Regina A. Rini - 2014 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (2):169-181.
    The evidential value of moral intuitions has been challenged by psychological work showing that the intuitions of ordinary people are affected by distorting factors. One reply to this challenge, the expertise defence, claims that training in philosophical thinking confers enhanced reliability on the intuitions of professional philosophers. This defence is often expressed through analogy: since we do not allow doubts about folk judgments in domains like mathematics or physics to undermine the plausibility of judgments by experts in these domains, we (...)
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  24.  25
    The Impact of Goal Specificity on Strategy Use and the Acquisition of Problem Structure.Regina Vollmeyer, Bruce D. Burns & Keith J. Holyoak - 1996 - Cognitive Science 20 (1):75-100.
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  25. Debunking Debunking: A Regress Challenge for Psychological Threats to Moral Judgment.Regina Rini - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (3):675-697.
    This paper presents a regress challenge to the selective psychological debunking of moral judgments. A selective psychological debunking argument conjoins an empirical claim about the psychological origins of certain moral judgments to a theoretical claim that these psychological origins cannot track moral truth, leading to the conclusion that the moral judgments are unreliable. I argue that psychological debunking arguments are vulnerable to a regress challenge, because the theoretical claim that ‘such-and-such psychological process is not moral-truth-tracking’ relies upon moral judgments. We (...)
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  26. Taking the Measure of Microaggression: How to Put Boundaries on a Nebulous Concept.Regina Rini - 2020 - In Jeanine Weekes Schroer & Lauren Freeman (eds.), Microaggressions and Philosophy.
    How can we tell whether an incident counts as a microaggression? How do we draw the boundary between microaggressions and weightier forms of oppression, such as hate crimes? I address these questions by exploring the ontology and epistemology of microaggression, in particular the constitutive relationship between microaggression and systemic social oppression. I argue that we ought to define microaggression in terms of the ambiguous experience that its victims undergo, focusing attention on their perspectives while providing criteria for distinguishing microaggression.
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  27.  19
    Corona Pan(Dem)Ic: Gateway to Global Surveillance.Regina Sibylle Surber - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (3):569-578.
    The essay reviews the digital emergency measures many governments have adopted in an attempt to curb Covid-19. It argues that those ‘virologically legitimized’ measures may infringe the human right to privacy and mark the transition into a world of global surveillance. At this possible turning point in human history, panic and latent fear seem to fog much needed farsightedness. Leaving the current state of emotional paralysis and restarting to critically assess the digital pandemic management can serve as an emergency break (...)
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  28.  15
    Quilombos, racismo ambiental e formação em saúde e saúde mental: diálogos emergentes.Regina Marques de Souza Oliveira - 2020 - Odeere 5 (10):129-156.
    O artigo apresenta as relações entre os Povos dos Quilombos, a formação em saúde e o racismo ambiental, visto como uma face da segregação sócio espacial que é também racial. A partir da noção sobre a importância dos Quilombos para a fundação das cidades brasileiras é preciso a superação do racismo na sociedade e nos modos de pensar e produzir ciência e formação em saúde e saúde mental que deve considerar necessariamente os ensinamentos e conhecimentos dos Povos Quilombolas.
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  29.  15
    Palliative Sedation: Clinical Context and Ethical Questions.Farr Curlin - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (3):197-209.
    Practitioners of palliative medicine frequently encounter patients suffering distress caused by uncontrolled pain or other symptoms. To relieve such distress, palliative medicine clinicians often use measures that result in sedation of the patient. Often such sedation is experienced as a loss by patients and their family members, but sometimes such sedation is sought as the desired outcome. Peace is wanted. Comfort is needed. Sedation appears to bring both. Yet to be sedated is to be cut off existentially from human experience, (...)
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  30. Making Psychology Normatively Significant.Regina A. Rini - 2013 - The Journal of Ethics 17 (3):257-274.
    The debate between proponents and opponents of a role for empirical psychology in ethical theory seems to be deadlocked. This paper aims to clarify the terms of that debate, and to defend a principled middle position. I argue against extreme views, which see empirical psychology either as irrelevant to, or as wholly displacing, reflective moral inquiry. Instead, I argue that moral theorists of all stripes are committed to a certain conception of moral thought—as aimed at abstracting away from individual inclinations (...)
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  31. An Honest Look at Hybrid Theories of Pleasure.Daniel Pallies - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (3):887-907.
    What makes it the case that a given experience is pleasurable? According to the felt-quality theory, each pleasurable experience is pleasurable because of the way that it feels—its “qualitative character” or “felt-quality”. According to the attitudinal theory, each pleasurable experience is pleasurable because the experiencer takes certain attitudes towards it. These two theories of pleasure are typically framed as rivals, but it could be that they are both partly right. It could be that pleasure is partly a matter of felt-quality, (...)
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  32.  58
    Climate Change, Buen Vivir, and the Dialectic of Enlightenment: Toward a Feminist Critical Philosophy of Climate Justice.Regina Cochrane - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (3):576-598.
    This paper examines the proposal that the indigenous cosmovision of buen vivir (good living)—the “organizing principle” of Ecuador's 2008 and Bolivia's 2009 constitutional reforms—constitutes an appropriate basis for responding to climate change. Advocates of this approach blame climate change on a “civilizational crisis” that is fundamentally a crisis of modern Enlightenment reason. Certain Latin American feminists and indigenous women, however, question the implications, for women, of any proposed “civilizational shift” seeking to reverse the human separation from nonhuman nature wrought via (...)
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  33.  42
    Palliative Care and the QALY Problem.Jonathan Hughes - 2005 - Health Care Analysis 13 (4):289-301.
    Practitioners of palliative care often argue for more resources to be provided by the state in order to lessen its reliance on charitable funding and to enable the services currently provided to some of those with terminal illnesses to be provided to all who would benefit from it. However, this is hard to justify on grounds of cost-effectiveness, since it is in the nature of palliative care that the benefits it brings to its patients are of short duration. In particular, (...)
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  34.  31
    Comparing Measures of Approach–Avoidance Behaviour: The Manikin Task Vs. Two Versions of the Joystick Task.Regina Krieglmeyer & Roland Deutsch - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (5):810-828.
  35.  11
    Spontaneous Cognition and Epistemic Agency in the Cognitive Niche.Regina E. Fabry - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  36.  3
    Manipulation and Free Will in Shared Decision Making.Regina Christiansen & Jakob Emiliussen - 2020 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 26 (2):403-408.
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  37. Abortion, Ultrasound, and Moral Persuasion.Regina Rini - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18.
    We ought to treat others’ moral views with respect, even when we disagree. But what does that mean? This paper articulates a moral obligation to make ourselves open to sincere moral persuasion by others. Doing so allows us to participate in valuable relationships of reciprocal respect for agency. Yet this proposal can sound tritely agreeable. To explore its full implications, the paper applies the general obligation to one of the most challenging topics of moral disagreement: the morality of abortion. I (...)
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  38. Palliative Sedation, Physician-Assisted Suicide, and Euthanasia: “Same, Same but Different”?Bert Broeckaert - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):62 - 64.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 6, Page 62-64, June 2011.
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  39.  7
    How Palliative Care Patients’ Feelings of Being a Burden to Others Can Motivate a Wish to Die. Moral Challenges in Clinics and Families.Heike Gudat, Kathrin Ohnsorge, Nina Streeck & Christoph Rehmann‐Sutter - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (4):421-430.
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  40. The Philosophy of Palliative Care: Critique and Reconstruction.Fiona Randall - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    It is a philosophy of patient care, and is therefore open to critique and evaluation.Using the Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine Third Edition as their ...
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  41. Palliative Care Ethics a Companion for All Specialties.Fiona Randall & R. S. Downie - 1999
     
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  42.  17
    Reconsidering the Mind-Wandering Reader: Predictive Processing, Probability Designs, and Enculturation.Regina E. Fabry & Karin Kukkonen - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  43. Attraction, Aversion, and Asymmetrical Desires.Daniel Pallies - forthcoming - Ethics.
    Many philosophers endorse the view that desires play an important role in well-being. I argue that, insofar as we endorse this general idea, we ought to believe that desire’s significance for well-being is derived from a pair of more fundamental attitudes: attraction and aversion. Attraction has wholly positive significance for well-being: its satisfaction is good for us, but its frustration is not bad for us. Aversion has wholly negative significance for well-being: its frustration is bad for us, but its satisfaction (...)
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  44.  86
    Transmural Palliative Care by Means of Teleconsultation: A Window of Opportunities and New Restrictions. [REVIEW]Jelle van Gurp, Martine van Selm, Evert van Leeuwen & Jeroen Hasselaar - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):12-.
    Background: Audio-visual teleconsultation is expected to help home-based palliative patients, hospital-based palliative care professionals, and family physicians to jointly design better, pro-active care. Consensual knowledge of the possibilities and limitations of teleconsultation in transmural palliative care is, however, largely lacking.This paper aims at describing elements of both the physical workplace and the cultural-social context of the palliative care practice, which are imperative for the use of teleconsultation technologies. Methods: A semi-structured expert meeting and qualitative, open interviews were deployed to explore (...)
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  45.  12
    Narrative Scaffolding.Regina E. Fabry - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-21.
    Mental capacities, philosophers of mind and cognition have recently argued, are not exclusively realised in brain, but depend upon the rest of the body and the local environment. In this context, the concept of ‘scaffolding’ has been employed to specify the relationship between embodied organisms and their local environment. The core idea is that at least some cognitive and affective capacities are causally dependent upon environmental resources. However, in-depth examinations of specific examples of scaffolding as test cases for current theorising (...)
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  46.  30
    On the Nature of Automatically Triggered Approach–Avoidance Behavior.Regina Krieglmeyer, Jan De Houwer & Roland Deutsch - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (3):280-284.
    Theory suggests that stimulus evaluations automatically evoke approach–avoidance behavior. However, the extent to which approach–avoidance behavior is triggered automatically is not yet clear. Furthermore, the nature of automatically triggered approach–avoidance behavior is controversial. We review research on two views on the type of approach–avoidance behavior that is triggered automatically (arm flexion/extension, distance change). Present evidence supports the distance-change view and corroborates the notion of an automatic pathway from evaluation to distance-change behavior. We discuss underlying mechanisms (direct stimulus–response links, outcome anticipations, (...)
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  47.  28
    Flemish Palliative-Care Nurses' Attitudes to Palliative Sedation: A Quantitative Study.J. Gielen, S. Van den Branden, T. Van Iersel & B. Broeckaert - 2012 - Nursing Ethics 19 (5):692-704.
    Palliative sedation is an option of last resort to control refractory suffering. In order to better understand palliative-care nurses’ attitudes to palliative sedation, an anonymous questionnaire was sent to all nurses (589) employed in palliative care in Flanders (Belgium). In all, 70.5% of the nurses (n = 415) responded. A large majority did not agree that euthanasia is preferable to palliative sedation, were against non-voluntary euthanasia in the case of a deeply and continuously sedated patient and considered it generally better (...)
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  48.  68
    Palliative Care, Public Health and Justice: Setting Priorities in Resource Poor Countries.Craig Blinderman - 2009 - Developing World Bioethics 9 (3):105-110.
    Many countries have not considered palliative care a public health problem. With limited resources, disease-oriented therapies and prevention measures take priority. In this paper, I intend to describe the moral framework for considering palliative care as a public health priority in resource-poor countries. A distributive theory of justice for health care should consider integrative palliative care as morally required as it contributes to improving normal functioning and preserving opportunities for the individual. For patients requiring terminal care , we are guided (...)
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  49.  54
    BDNF Mediates Improvements in Executive Function Following a 1-Year Exercise Intervention.Regina L. Leckie, Lauren E. Oberlin, Michelle W. Voss, Ruchika S. Prakash, Amanda Szabo-Reed, Laura Chaddock-Heyman, Siobhan M. Phillips, Neha P. Gothe, Emily Mailey, Victoria J. Vieira-Potter, Stephen A. Martin, Brandt D. Pence, Mingkuan Lin, Raja Parasuraman, Pamela M. Greenwood, Karl J. Fryxell, Jeffrey A. Woods, Edward McAuley, Arthur F. Kramer & Kirk I. Erickson - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  50. Of Course the Baby Should Live: Against 'After-Birth Abortion'.Regina A. Rini - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (5):353-356.
    In a recent paper, Giubilini and Minerva argue for the moral permissibility of what they call ‘after-birth abortion’, or infanticide. Here I suggest that they actually employ a confusion of two distinct arguments: one relying on the purportedly identical moral status of a fetus and a newborn, and the second giving an independent argument for the denial of moral personhood to infants (independent of whatever one might say about fetuses). After distinguishing these arguments, I suggest that neither one is capable (...)
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