Originally published in 1938, this book examines the meaning of the word 'intuition'. Wild considers many different applications of the word in a variety of poetic and philosophical sources, and questions whether or not such a faculty truly can be said to exist. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in intuition and the implications of such a word's usage.
In all western countries health care budgets are under considerable constraint and therefore a reflection process has started on how to gain the most health benefit for the population within limited resource boundaries. The field of ethics of resource allocation has evolved only recently in order to bring some objectivity and rationality in the discussion. In this article it is argued that priority setting is the prerequisite of ethical resource allocation and that for purposes of operationalization, instruments such as need (...) assessment and health technology assessment (HTA) are essential worktools for making more rational decisions. Thresholds (deduced from the need assessment and HTA) are - within this context - guiding but not binding principles. -/- Discussion of theoretical concepts of not only priority setting, need assessment and HTA complemented by practical examples for showing the challenges and the need, but also the chances of a more explicit and transparent policy of resource allocation in health care. Results: Priority setting in health care is based on the values of equity, justice and solidarity. Health packages decisions are determined from medical need (the severity of the condition) and/or the appropriateness of medical interventions (their cost-effectiveness). With growing awareness that originally effective and cost-effective services and programmes are eventually provided inappropriately, the focus is shifting towards the organisational aspects of provision and application. Therefore, need assessment is based on the distinction of health care needs from demand, supply, or actual care. Additionally HTA provides the evidence on health care interventions in a way that it becomes obvious who benefits from an intervention and who definitely does not benefit, but eventually is harmed. -/- Health services research on effective and cost-effective interventions and research/monitoring of performance that the effective and cost-effective services are provided appropriately are of increasing importance for guiding the decision-making process on priority setting and need assessment. Effective healthcare for all is sustainable, if we start to put expenditures in perspective and focus health policies and research strategies on managing expectations through patient information and a more realistic notion of medical advancements and, on the other hand, on encouraging need-based and cost-effective innovations. (shrink)
According to Marin Cureau de La Chambre—steering a middleway between the Aristotelian and the Cartesian conception of the soul—everything that lives cognizes and everything that cognizes is alive. Cureau sticks with the general tripart distinction of vegetative, sensitive, and intellectual soul. Each part of the soul has its own cognition. Cognition is the way in which living beings regulate bodily equilibirum and environmental navigation. This regulative activity is gouverned by acquired or by innate images. Natural cognition (or instinct) is cognition (...) by innate images only. Cureau develops a highly originel theory of natural (or 'specialized') instinct. His theory attempts to explain five features of instinct (innateness, specialization, species-specifitiy, coerciveness, teleological nature). According to my interpretation, Cureau proposes a species of what is called a 'teleosemantic theory' of innate cognition. (shrink)
In this paper I shall be concerned with the new concept of existence that is emerging from recent phenomenology and existential philosophy. I shall begin by raising certain logical questions about this concept of existence. What kind of a concept is it? Does it possess any peculiar features which distinguish it from other concepts in normal use? It refers to something, our own existence, which we experience immediately or directly. Hence, in the second place, I shall examine the relation of (...) this concept to experience, and the method by which it may be clarified and refined. (shrink)
Even the so-called empiricists, though they rejected an extreme rationalization of reality, nevertheless performed an analogous operation, replacing the object of reason by the object of sense. Reality thus became sensation, or sense impression, rather than concept. The individual substance was interpreted as a cluster of sense data, and change as the mere succession of impressions. This noetic etherealization of existence, however, was soon subjected to attack by a number of critics, resolved to follow the concrete facts of existence, irrespective (...) of their agreement or disagreement with the apparent structure of human cognition. (shrink)
Professor Hartshorne, together with many other recent thinkers, has rightly rebelled against these distortions and perversions of theological doctrine. He cannot accept the view that "the most wicked acts are caused by God, made inevitable even though 'not necessary') by his decision". He is repelled by the "otherworldliness" of traditional religion, so often embraced as "the flight from the one task we surely face, that of human welfare on earth, to a questionable one, the winning of a heavenly passport". He (...) objects to religious irrationalism and "obscurantism--the theory that we can best praise God by indulging in contradiction and semantical nonsense". (shrink)
In the Western world, this negativistic movement has proved to be a far more serious and lasting threat. Failing to take a firm root in Europe, the place of its origin, it moved to England and North America, where the central disciplines of philosophy were found to be less firmly grounded in sound empirical traditions of academic life and thought. Here for many years it has now run its course, and has exerted a powerful destructive effect. In many secular schools (...) and universities, the history of philosophy has been neglected, logic and linguistics have replaced ontology as the focal discipline, and many philosophers, moved by the widespread fear and idolatry of "science," have abandoned the performance of their vital descriptive and synoptic functions. This has had a markedly disintegrating effect on the cultural life of the West at a time of crisis and world upheaval. (shrink)
On all these sides, therefore, the ground has been well prepared for such a new metaphysical synthesis as Mr. Weiss has attempted in this work. It differs from recent foundational studies that have been made by analysts and phenomenologists in its far-reaching, systematic scope. This is metaphysics on the grand scale, and Mr. Weiss leaves us in no doubt concerning his claim to be formulating an exhaustive system which will do justice to every major mode of being. In this respect (...) it resembles the systems of classical and mediaeval realistic thought. But it differs from them in dealing with many modern problems of recent origin, and in other basic features of marked originality. In this review I shall first present a general summary of the author's thought as I understand it, and shall then conclude by selecting certain topics for more critical consideration. (shrink)
This book, originally published in 1948 by Harper and Row, provides the student and general reader with a sympathetic introduction to the basic concepts and principles of classical, realistic philosophy. Topics include: the perfection of human nature; irresponsibility and its causes; intellectual virtue and moral virtue; the rational guidance of action and the happy life; social ethics; and the philosophy of nature among others.