Results for 'Reinhard Kaiser'

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  1. Versuch Über den Menschen: Einführung in Eine Philosophie der Kultur.Ernst Cassirer & Reinhard Kaiser - 2010 - Felix Meiner Verlag.
    Angeregt von Freunden und Kollegen, hat Ernst Cassirer im amerikanischen Exil mit diesem Werk eine Summe seines Denkens vorgelegt, in der seine Philosophie der symbolischen Formen in ihren Hauptgedanken fortgeführt wird, und zwar in einer Weise, die auch einem breiteren Kreis interessierter Leser zugänglich ist. Cassirer stellt die alte Frage nach dem Wesen des Menschen neu und beantwortet sie, indem er die klassische Antwort mit weitreichenden Folgen abwandelt:Er bestimmt den Menschen als ein Wesen, das Symbole schafft und sich durch Symbole (...)
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  2.  18
    Hunter Heyck and David Kaiser: Introduction.Hunter Heyck & David Kaiser - 2010 - Isis 101:362-366.
  3.  4
    Kurt-Reinhard Biermann zum 80. Geburtstag.Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze - 1999 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 7 (1):244-245.
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  4.  20
    Reductive Explanation in the Biological Sciences.Marie I. Kaiser - 2015 - Cham: Springer.
    Back cover: This book develops a philosophical account that reveals the major characteristics that make an explanation in the life sciences reductive and distinguish them from non-reductive explanations. Understanding what reductive explanations are enables one to assess the conditions under which reductive explanations are adequate and thus enhances debates about explanatory reductionism. The account of reductive explanation presented in this book has three major characteristics. First, it emerges from a critical reconstruction of the explanatory practice of the life sciences itself. (...)
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  5.  9
    Kynast, Reinhard, Intuitive Erkenntnis.Reinhard Kynast - 1920 - Kant-Studien 24 (1).
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  6.  44
    Heidegger’s Hidden Sources. East Asian Influences on His Work.Reinhard May - 1996 - Routledge.
    While the enormous influence of Martin Heidegger's thought in Japan and China is well documented, the influence on him from East-Asian sources is much lesser known. This remarkable study shows that Heidegger drew some of the major themes of his philosophy--on occasion almost word for word--from German translations of Chinese Daoist and Zen Buddhist classics.
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  7.  98
    Corporations, Stakeholders and Sustainable Development I: A Theoretical Exploration of Business–Society Relations.Reinhard Steurer, Markus E. Langer, Astrid Konrad & André Martinuzzi - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 61 (3):263-281.
    Sustainable development (SD) – that is, “Development that meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs and aspirations” – can be pursued in many different ways. Stakeholder relations management (SRM) is one such way, through which corporations are confronted with economic, social, and environmental stakeholder claims. This paper lays the groundwork for an empirical analysis of the question of how far SD can be achieved through SRM. It describes the so-called SD–SRM (...)
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  8. Reinhard Brandt: Universität zwischen Selbst- und Fremdbestimmung. [REVIEW]Reinhard Mehring - 2005 - Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 58 (2).
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  9. Sense and the Computation of Reference.Reinhard Muskens - 2004 - Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (4):473 - 504.
    The paper shows how ideas that explain the sense of an expression as a method or algorithm for finding its reference, preshadowed in Frege’s dictum that sense is the way in which a referent is given, can be formalized on the basis of the ideas in Thomason (1980). To this end, the function that sends propositions to truth values or sets of possible worlds in Thomason (1980) must be replaced by a relation and the meaning postulates governing the behaviour of (...)
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  10.  14
    Measuring Emotions During Epistemic Activities: The Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales.Reinhard Pekrun, Elisabeth Vogl, Krista R. Muis & Gale M. Sinatra - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (6):1268-1276.
    Measurement instruments assessing multiple emotions during epistemic activities are largely lacking. We describe the construction and validation of the Epistemically-Related Emotion Scales, which measure surprise, curiosity, enjoyment, confusion, anxiety, frustration, and boredom occurring during epistemic cognitive activities. The instrument was tested in a multinational study of emotions during learning from conflicting texts. The findings document the reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the instrument. A seven-factor model best fit the data, suggesting that epistemically-related emotions should be conceptualised in terms (...)
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  11. Combining Montague Semantics and Discourse Representation.Reinhard Muskens - 1996 - Linguistics and Philosophy 19 (2):143 - 186.
    This paper embeds the core part of Discourse Representation Theory in the classical theory of types plus a few simple axioms that allow the theory to express key facts about variables and assignments on the object level of the logic. It is shown how the embedding can be used to combine core analyses of natural language phenomena in Discourse Representation Theory with analyses that can be obtained in Montague Semantics.
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  12.  24
    Is There a “Hilbert Thesis”?Reinhard Kahle - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (1):145-165.
    In his introductory paper to first-order logic, Jon Barwise writes in the Handbook of Mathematical Logic :[T]he informal notion of provable used in mathematics is made precise by the formal notion provable in first-order logic. Following a sug[g]estion of Martin Davis, we refer to this view as Hilbert’s Thesis.This paper reviews the discussion of Hilbert’s Thesis in the literature. In addition to the question whether it is justifiable to use Hilbert’s name here, the arguments for this thesis are compared with (...)
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  13.  38
    Normativity in the Philosophy of Science.Marie I. Kaiser - 2019 - Metaphilosophy 50 (1-2):36-62.
    This paper analyzes what it means for philosophy of science to be normative. It argues that normativity is a multifaceted phenomenon rather than a general feature that a philosophical theory either has or lacks. It analyzes the normativity of philosophy of science by articulating three ways in which a philosophical theory can be normative. Methodological normativity arises from normative assumptions that philosophers make when they select, interpret, evaluate, and mutually adjust relevant empirical information, on which they base their philosophical theories. (...)
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  14. The Limits of Reductionism in the Life Sciences.Marie I. Kaiser - 2011 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (4):453-476.
    In the contemporary life sciences more and more researchers emphasize the “limits of reductionism” (e.g. Ahn et al. 2006a, 709; Mazzocchi 2008, 10) or they call for a move “beyond reductionism” (Gallagher/Appenzeller 1999, 79). However, it is far from clear what exactly they argue for and what the envisioned limits of reductionism are. In this paper I claim that the current discussions about reductionism in the life sciences, which focus on methodological and explanatory issues, leave the concepts of a reductive (...)
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  15.  72
    Questions and Answers in an Orthoalgebraic Approach.Reinhard Blutner - 2012 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (3):237-277.
    Taking the lead from orthodox quantum theory, I will introduce a handy generalization of the Boolean approach to propositions and questions: the orthoalgebraic framework. I will demonstrate that this formalism relates to a formal theory of questions (or ‘observables’ in the physicist’s jargon). This theory allows formulating attitude questions, which normally are non-commuting, i.e., the ordering of the questions affects the answer behavior of attitude questions. Further, it allows the expression of conditional questions such as “If Mary reads the book, (...)
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  16. Crimes Against Minds: On Mental Manipulations, Harms and a Human Right to Mental Self-Determination. [REVIEW]Jan Christoph Bublitz & Reinhard Merkel - 2014 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (1):51-77.
    The neurosciences not only challenge assumptions about the mind’s place in the natural world but also urge us to reconsider its role in the normative world. Based on mind-brain dualism, the law affords only one-sided protection: it systematically protects bodies and brains, but only fragmentarily minds and mental states. The fundamental question, in what ways people may legitimately change mental states of others, is largely unexplored in legal thinking. With novel technologies to both intervene into minds and detect mental activity, (...)
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  17. The Chain Store Paradox.Reinhard Selten - 1978 - Theory and Decision 9 (2):127-159.
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  18.  34
    Meaning and Partiality.Reinhard Muskens - 1995 - Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
    This book radically simplifies Montague Semantics and generalizes the theory by basing it on a partial higher order logic. The resulting theory is a synthesis of Montague Semantics and Situation Semantics. In the late sixties Richard Montague developed the revolutionary idea that we can understand the concept of meaning in ordinary languages much in the same way as we understand the semantics of logical languages. Unfortunately, however, he formalized his idea in an unnecessarily complex way - two outstanding researchers in (...)
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  19. Heidegger’s Hidden Sources. East Asian Influences on His Work.Reinhard May - 1996 - Routledge.
    _Heidegger's Hidden Sources_ documents for the first time Heidegger's remarkable debt to East Asian philosophy. In this groundbreaking study, Reinhard May shows conclusively that Martin Heidegger borrowed some of the major ideas of his philosophy - on occasion almost word for word - from German translations of Chinese Daoist and Zen Buddhist classics. The discovery of this astonishing appropriation of non-Western sources will have important consequences for future interpretations of Heidegger's work. Moreover, it shows Heidegger as a pioneer of (...)
     
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  20. Why It Is Time To Move Beyond Nagelian Reduction.Marie I. Kaiser - 2012 - In D. Dieks, W. J. Gonzalez, S. Hartmann, M. Stöltzner & M. Weber (eds.), Probabilities, Laws, and Structures. The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective. Heidelberg, GER: Springer. pp. 255-272.
    In this paper I argue that it is finally time to move beyond the Nagelian framework and to break new ground in thinking about epistemic reduction in biology. I will do so, not by simply repeating all the old objections that have been raised against Ernest Nagel’s classical model of theory reduction. Rather, I grant that a proponent of Nagel’s approach can handle several of these problems but that, nevertheless, Nagel’s general way of thinking about epistemic reduction in terms of (...)
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  21.  40
    Explanation in the Special Science: The Case of Biology and History.Marie I. Kaiser, Oliver Scholz, Daniel Plenge & Andreas Hüttemann (eds.) - 2014 - Dordrecht: Springer.
    Contents 1 Introduction – Points of Contact between Biology and History Marie I. Kaiser and Daniel Plenge Part I General Issues on Explanation 2 The Ontic Account of Scientific Explanation, Carl F. Craver Part II Explanation in the Biological Sciences 3 Causal Graphs and Biological Mechanisms, Alexander Gebharter and Marie I. Kaiser 4 Semiotic Explanation in the Biological Sciences, Ulrich Krohs 5 Mechanisms, Pathomechanisms, and Disease in Scientific Clinical Medicine, Gerhard Müller-Strahl 6 The Generalizations of Biology: Historical and (...)
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  22.  17
    Uncertainty From Heisenberg to Today.Reinhard F. Werner & Terry Farrelly - 2019 - Foundations of Physics 49 (6):460-491.
    We explore the different meanings of “quantum uncertainty” contained in Heisenberg’s seminal paper from 1927, and also some of the precise definitions that were developed later. We recount the controversy about “Anschaulichkeit”, visualizability of the theory, which Heisenberg claims to resolve. Moreover, we consider Heisenberg’s programme of operational analysis of concepts, in which he sees himself as following Einstein. Heisenberg’s work is marked by the tensions between semiclassical arguments and the emerging modern quantum theory, between intuition and rigour, and between (...)
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  23. From Rocks to Graphs — the Shaping of Phenomena.Matthias Kaiser - 1991 - Synthese 89 (1):111 - 133.
    Assuming an essential difference between scientific data and phenomena, this paper argues for the view that we have to understand how empirical findings get transformed into scientific phenomena. The work of scientists is seen as largely consisting in constructing these phenomena which are then utilized in more abstract theories. It is claimed that these matters are of importance for discussions of theory choice and progress in science. A case study is presented as a starting point: paleomagnetism and the use of (...)
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  24.  9
    Explorations of Disgust: A Narrative Inquiry Into the Experiences of Nurses Working in Palliative Care.Mara Kaiser, Helen Kohlen & Vera Caine - 2019 - Nursing Inquiry 26 (3):e12290.
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  25.  22
    Modern Science and Modern Man.C. Hillis Kaiser - 1953 - Journal of Philosophy 50 (4):125-129.
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  26. Tense and the Logic of Change.Reinhard Muskens - 1995 - In Urs Egli, Peter Pause, Christoph Schwarze, Arnim von Stechow & Götz Wienold (eds.), Lexical Knowledge in the Organization of Language. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. pp. 147-183.
    In this paper it is shown how the DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) treatment of temporal anaphora can be formalized within a version of Montague Semantics that is based on classical type logic.
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  27. Complexity.Marie I. Kaiser - 2013 - In W. Dubitzky, O. Wolkenhauser, K.-H. Cho & H. Yokota (eds.), Encyclopedia of Systems Biology. New York, USA: Springer. pp. 456-460.
  28.  10
    Relevant Logic: A Philosophical Interpretation.Reinhard Kahle - 2007 - Studia Logica 85 (3):419-424.
  29.  26
    Toward Old Testament Ethics.Walter C. Kaiser - 1983 - Zondervan.
    Only six men have written a major work on Old Testament ethics in the last hundred years, and only two of these works, both written before 1900, are in English.
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  30. Context Update for Lambdas and Vectors.Reinhard Muskens & Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh - 2016 - In Maxime Amblard, Philippe de Groote, Sylvain Pogodalla & Christian Retoré (eds.), Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics. Celebrating 20 Years of LACL (1996--2016). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 247--254.
    Vector models of language are based on the contextual aspects of words and how they co-occur in text. Truth conditional models focus on the logical aspects of language, the denotations of phrases, and their compositional properties. In the latter approach the denotation of a sentence determines its truth conditions and can be taken to be a truth value, a set of possible worlds, a context change potential, or similar. In this short paper, we develop a vector semantics for language based (...)
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  31. Higher Order Modal Logic.Reinhard Muskens - 2006 - In Patrick Blackburn, Johan Van Benthem & Frank Wolter (eds.), Handbook of Modal Logic. Elsevier. pp. 621-653.
    A logic is called higher order if it allows for quantification over higher order objects, such as functions of individuals, relations between individuals, functions of functions, relations between functions, etc. Higher order logic began with Frege, was formalized in Russell [46] and Whitehead and Russell [52] early in the previous century, and received its canonical formulation in Church [14].1 While classical type theory has since long been overshadowed by set theory as a foundation of mathematics, recent decades have shown remarkable (...)
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  32. Intensional Models for the Theory of Types.Reinhard Muskens - 2007 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 72 (1):98-118.
    In this paper we define intensional models for the classical theory of types, thus arriving at an intensional type logic ITL. Intensional models generalize Henkin's general models and have a natural definition. As a class they do not validate the axiom of Extensionality. We give a cut-free sequent calculus for type theory and show completeness of this calculus with respect to the class of intensional models via a model existence theorem. After this we turn our attention to applications. Firstly, it (...)
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  33.  5
    Foreword.Reinhard Neck, David Miller & Jack Birner - 2016 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 46 (3):219-220.
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  34.  24
    Deep Neural Networks as Scientific Models.Radoslaw M. Cichy & Daniel Kaiser - 2019 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 23 (4):305-317.
  35. Introduction: Proof-Theoretic Semantics.Reinhard Kahle & Peter Schroeder-Heister - 2006 - Synthese 148 (3):503-506.
  36.  14
    Nuclear Democracy: Political Engagement, Pedagogical Reform, and Particle Physics in Postwar America.David Kaiser - 2002 - Isis 93 (2):229-268.
    The influential Berkeley theoretical physicist Geoffrey Chew renounced the reigning approach to the study of subatomic particles in the early 1960s. The standard approach relied on a rigid division between elementary and composite particles. Partly on the basis of his new interpretation of Feynman diagrams, Chew called instead for a “nuclear democracy” that would erase this division, treating all nuclear particles on an equal footing. In developing his rival approach, which came to dominate studies of the strong nuclear force throughout (...)
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  37.  98
    On Partial and Paraconsistent Logics.Reinhard Muskens - 1999 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 40 (3):352-374.
    In this paper we consider the theory of predicate logics in which the principle of Bivalence or the principle of Non-Contradiction or both fail. Such logics are partial or paraconsistent or both. We consider sequent calculi for these logics and prove Model Existence. For L4, the most general logic under consideration, we also prove a version of the Craig-Lyndon Interpolation Theorem. The paper shows that many techniques used for classical predicate logic generalise to partial and paraconsistent logics once the right (...)
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  38.  90
    A Relational Formulation of the Theory of Types.Reinhard Muskens - 1989 - Linguistics and Philosophy 12 (3):325 - 346.
    This paper developes a relational---as opposed to a functional---theory of types. The theory is based on Hilbert and Bernays' eta operator plus the identity symbol, from which Church's lambda and the other usual operators are then defined. The logic is intended for use in the semantics of natural language.
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  39.  23
    John Locke: Symposium, Wolfenbüttel, 1979.Reinhard Brandt (ed.) - 1980 - De Gruyter.
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  40. Lambda Grammars and the Syntax-Semantics Interface.Reinhard Muskens - 2001 - In Robert Van Rooij & Martin Stokhof (eds.), Proceedings of the Thirteenth Amsterdam Colloquium. Amsterdam: ILLC. pp. 150-155.
    In this paper we discuss a new perspective on the syntax-semantics interface. Semantics, in this new set-up, is not ‘read off’ from Logical Forms as in mainstream approaches to generative grammar. Nor is it assigned to syntactic proofs using a Curry-Howard correspondence as in versions of the Lambek Calculus, or read off from f-structures using Linear Logic as in Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG, Kaplan & Bresnan [9]). All such approaches are based on the idea that syntactic objects (trees, proofs, fstructures) are (...)
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  41. Order-Independence and Underspecification.Reinhard Muskens - 2004 - In Hans Kamp & Barbara Hall Partee (eds.), Context-Dependence in the Analysis of Linguistic Meaning. Elsevier. pp. 11--239.
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  42.  8
    Das Kausalgesetz Und Seine Grenzen.Hillis Kaiser - 1933 - Philosophical Review 42:343.
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  43.  59
    Anaphora and the Logic of Change.Reinhard Muskens - 1991 - In Jan Van Eijck (ed.), Logics in AI, Proceedings of JELIA '90, volume 478 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 412-427.
    This paper shows how the dynamic interpretation of natural language introduced in work by Hans Kamp and Irene Heim can be modeled in classical type logic. This provides a synthesis between Richard Montague's theory of natural language semantics and the work by Kamp and Heim.
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  44.  32
    Talking About Trees and Truth-Conditions.Reinhard Muskens - 1991 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (4):417-455.
    We present Logical Description Grammar (LDG), a model ofgrammar and the syntax-semantics interface based on descriptions inelementary logic. A description may simultaneously describe the syntacticstructure and the semantics of a natural language expression, i.e., thedescribing logic talks about the trees and about the truth-conditionsof the language described. Logical Description Grammars offer a naturalway of dealing with underspecification in natural language syntax andsemantics. If a logical description (up to isomorphism) has exactly onetree plus truth-conditions as a model, it completely specifies thatgrammatical (...)
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  45. Language, Lambdas, and Logic.Reinhard Muskens - 2003 - In R. Oehrle & J. Kruijff (eds.), Resource Sensitivity, Binding, and Anaphora (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy 80). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 23--54.
    The paper develops Lambda Grammars, a form of categorial grammar that, unlike other categorial formalisms, is non-directional. Linguistic signs are represented as sequences of lambda terms and are combined with the help of linear combinators.
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  46.  13
    Fixing Identity by Denying Uniqueness: An Analysis of Professional Identity in Medicine.Rachel Kaiser - 2002 - Journal of Medical Humanities 23 (2):95-105.
    Cultural forces such as film create and reinforce rigidly-defined images of a doctor's identity for both the public and for medical students. The authoritarian and hierarchical institution of medical school also encourages students to adopt rigidly-defined professional identities. This restrictive identity helps to perpetuate the power of the patriarchy, limits uniqueness, squelches inquisitiveness, and damages one's self-confidence. This paper explores the construction of a physician's identity using cultural theorists' psychoanalytic analyses of gender and race as a framework of analysis. Cultural (...)
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  47. Causal Graphs and Biological Mechanisms.Alexander Gebharter & Marie I. Kaiser - 2014 - In Marie I. Kaiser, Oliver Scholz, Daniel Plenge & Andreas Hüttemann (eds.), Explanation in the special sciences: The case of biology and history. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 55-86.
    Modeling mechanisms is central to the biological sciences – for purposes of explanation, prediction, extrapolation, and manipulation. A closer look at the philosophical literature reveals that mechanisms are predominantly modeled in a purely qualitative way. That is, mechanistic models are conceived of as representing how certain entities and activities are spatially and temporally organized so that they bring about the behavior of the mechanism in question. Although this adequately characterizes how mechanisms are represented in biology textbooks, contemporary biological research practice (...)
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  48. Carl Stumpfs Wirken für die deskriptive Psychologie.M. Kaiser-El-Safti - 1996 - Brentano Studien 6:67-102.
  49. A Quantum Probability Perspective on Borderline Vagueness.Reinhard Blutner, Emmanuel M. Pothos & Peter Bruza - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (4):711-736.
    The term “vagueness” describes a property of natural concepts, which normally have fuzzy boundaries, admit borderline cases, and are susceptible to Zeno's sorites paradox. We will discuss the psychology of vagueness, especially experiments investigating the judgment of borderline cases and contradictions. In the theoretical part, we will propose a probabilistic model that describes the quantitative characteristics of the experimental finding and extends Alxatib's and Pelletier's () theoretical analysis. The model is based on a Hopfield network for predicting truth values. Powerful (...)
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  50. Categorial Grammar and Lexical-Functional Grammar.Reinhard Muskens - 2001 - In Miriam Butt & Tracey Holloway King (eds.), Proceedings of the LFG01 Conference, University of Hong Kong. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications. pp. 259-279.
    This paper introduces λ-grammar, a form of categorial grammar that has much in common with LFG. Like other forms of categorial grammar, λ-grammars are multi-dimensional and their components are combined in a strictly parallel fashion. Grammatical representations are combined with the help of linear combinators, closed pure λ-terms in which each abstractor binds exactly one variable. Mathematically this is equivalent to employing linear logic, in use in LFG for semantic composition, but the method seems more practicable.
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