The thesis developed and defended in this paper is that is it false that all knowledge is founded on experience. Much of our knowledge (or alleged knowledge), it is argued, is based on testimony. Still, many philosophers have either not dealt with testimony at all, or treated it very unkindly. One of the reasons for this is that those philosophers (such as Descartes and Locke) work with a concept of knowledge according to which knowledge is certain, indubitable, and/or self-evident. And (...) if knowledge is what these philosophers say it is, then there is no such thing as knowledge based on testimony indeed. Thomas Reid is introduced as holding that we do have testimonial knowledge and that therefore Descartes’ and Locke’s concept of knowledge is untenable. Reid furthermore holds that human beings are endowed with a disposition to accept or believe what otherstell us („the principle of credulity”). The working of this principle is refined through all kinds of experience. What Reid says or shows is how this disposition in fact operates. Many epistemologists, however, have higher aspirations and look for reasons or arguments that can justify our factual acceptance of testimony. The inductive argument Hume offers, it is argued, is unconvincing. There is even reason to think that the principle of credulity can never be justified by adducing reasons. This does not imply, however, that acceptance of testimony is unjustified. Whether or not it is depends, among other things, on the concept of justification one uses. On an internalist concept of justification (as Locke’s or Hume’s) this disposition may never be justified. But on an externalist conception it may. This may be disappointing, given some widely held philosophical aspirations, but at the same time it is, as Alston has said, a lesson in intellectual humility. (shrink)
" ‘I can be understood only after my death,’ Kierkegaard noted prophetically: the fulfillment of this expectation for the English-speaking world a century and a quarter later is signified by the English translation in authoritative editions of all his works by the indefatigable Howard and Edna Hong.... The importance of [the Papirer] was emphasized by Kierkegaard himself.... The essentially religious interpretation he gave to his mission in life and his personal relationships is now documented clearly and exhaustively.... Obviously, these editions (...) are essential for academic and large general collections." —Library Journal "From this point on, anyone interested in tracking down a Kierkegaardian theme will have to consult the Hong presentation as well as the books of Kierkegaard." —Annual Review of Philosophy "The translations are entirely excellent. One envies the Hongs their capacity in language, the breadth of their reading in Kierkegaard and his sources, and the dedication they brought to this Herculean task. The assistance of Gregor Malantschuk has contributed materially to the notes which serve as trenchant summaries of Kierkegaard’s thought on the topics.... This is indeed a monumental work." —Review of Metaphysics "... [an] astonishing labor of editing and translating... " —International Studies in Philosophy "Howard and Edna Hong have brought to the task solid scholarship, linguistic competence, an imaginative and useful arrangement of the material, and a scrupulous self-effacement before the work. No one could ask for more." —Citation of the Judges at the National Book Awards "We must be grateful to the Hongs for their enormous labor.... Kierkegaard’s Journals and Papers are worth having for angry days, or ‘inward’ days; especially when they have been translated in as lively and sensitive a manner as are the texts in this first volume." —Nation The incidental writings of Søren Kierkegaard, published in the twenty-volume Danish edition of the Papirer, provide direct access to the thought of the many-faceted nineteenth-century philosopher who exerted so profound an influence on Protestant theology and modern existentialism. This important material, which Danish scholars regard as the "key to the scriptures" of Kierkegaard’s other work, spans his entire productive life, the last entry of the Papirer being dated only a few days before his death. These writings have been previously inaccessible in English except for a few fragmentary selections; the most significant writings are now being made available in this definitive seven-volume edition under the editorship of two expert scholars and translators. Kierkegaard’s scattered writings fall into three main subject groupings: journal entries of varied content, notes and early versions of his published material, and personal reactions to his reading and study. In length and degree of polish they range from brief and cryptic notes to extensive lecture material, finished travel sketches, and extended philosophical speculation. The translators provide annotations, copious notes, and a collation of entries with the Danish Papirer. The editors group the selections in Volumes I through IV by theme, with all entries on a given subject under the same heading. Within subject headings, entries are arranged chronologically, making it feasible to trace the evolution of Kierkegaard’s thought on a specific topic. Volumes V and VI are devoted to autobiographical material. Volume VII contains an extensive index with topical crossreferences. (shrink)
This article aims to review the standard objections to dualism and to argue that will either fail to convince someone committed to dualism or are flawed on independent grounds. I begin by presenting the taxonomy of metaphysical positions on concrete particulars as they relate to the dispute between materialists and dualists, and in particular substance dualism is defined. In the first section, several kinds of substance dualism are distinguished and the relevant varieties of this kind of dualism are selected. The (...) remaining sections are analyses of the standard objections to substance dualism : It is uninformative, has troubles accounting for soul individuation, causal pairing and interaction, violates laws of physics, is made implausible by the development of neuroscience and it postulates entities beyond necessity. I conclude that none of these objections is successful. (shrink)
Public universities in Poland receive fairly limited financial support for creating e-textbooks and lack the appropriate ICT competences among teaching staff, especially in the case of non-technical universities. The authors propose a pedagogical and technological paradigm for e-textbooks in medical education using open source software with minimal IT skills required. Technologies used to develop e-textbooks are connected with: publication and distribution of e-textbooks, e-book readers, and editing tools. The paper also discusses a survey that targeted students of medical sciences, which (...) focused on their understanding of their educational needs that can be met through new online resources as well as their expectations of how such e-textbooks should be like. (shrink)
Professor Margaret Jo Osler of the University of Calgary, an historian of early modern science and philosophy (and a member of the Board of Directors of the Journal of the History of Philosophy since 2002) died on September 15, 2010. Born on November 27, 1942, she proudly proclaimed herself to be a "red diaper baby" and particularly delighted in telling her right-wing friends how her middle name was her parents' homage to Stalin. An energetic scholar with a vibrant and positive (...) personality, Maggie, as everyone who worked with her came to call her, never considered retirement and was actively working right up to her diagnosis with pancreatic cancer in early July, 2010.After graduating from Swarthmore College in .. (shrink)
In this paper we examine some proposals to disprove the hypothesis that the interaction between mind and matter causes the collapse of the wave function, showing that such proposals are fundamentally flawed. We then describe a general experimental setup retaining the key features of the ones examined, and show that even a more general case is inadequate to disprove the mind-matter collapse hypothesis. Finally, we use our setup provided to argue that, under some reasonable assumptions about consciousness, such hypothesis is (...) unfalsifiable. (shrink)
Groupware systems, along with other workplace configurations, embody particular perspectives and approaches. This paper explores how groupware can influence organizational processes in not-for-profit and nonprofit institutions, with an emphasis on those institutions with expressed work styles, images, and philosophies. Employee privacy and autonomy issues are highlighted in the case studies provided in this analysis.
The article focuses in a particular way on two Jesuits of the XVII Century, Philips van Winghe e Jean l'Heureux . It describes their active participation in the scientific life of their time, as well as their own contributions to science.
Sommario: Il mio obiettivo in questo testo è discutere la nozione di lavoro produttivo nell’ambito della opera di Kierkegaard, con speciale atenzione alla teoria degli stadi esistenziali. Partendo dal concetto di uomo come un essere relazionale cioè che si rapporta a sé stesso ed alle altre persone, cerco di esaminare come il teologo danese descrive il lavoro in ogni stadio. Mentre si può dire che nell’etico il lavoro sia il dovere di ogni uomo, dovere che lo porta all’universale, e nell’estetico (...) che il lavoro sia una noiosa attività almeno quando non si riesce ad svilupparsi qualche talento speciale, nel religioso tutto cambia. Nello stadio religioso l’altro è il prossimo cioè un somigliante e quindi l’esistenza umana prende come scopo un attuarsi del sé verso ad una possibilità che si trova oltre sé stesso, una possibilità che Kierkegaard designa come coscienza eterna. Dunque il lavoro diventa sfera anche per la manifestazione dello umano come coscienza e libertà e non soltanto uno sforzo per soddisfare le necessità materiale dell’uomo come individuo di una spezie animale.: My purpose here was to discuss the notion of productive work in the philosophy of Kierkegaard. I put special attention upon the so-called theory of the life’stages. Firstly I take the concept of man as a relational being, that is a being that related himself to himself and to the other people. Then I examine Kierkegaardian discussion of the concept of work in each stage: the esthetic, the ethical and the religious. It is possible to affirm that while in the ethical the work is an universal duty, and for the esthetic it is a boring activity or at the best, is one occasion for exercising a special talent, in the religious everything changes. In the religious the Other person with whom the Self relates himself must be taken as the biblical-neighbour and so the human life takes a diferente purpose: become conscious of his own eternal calling. In the same sense working becomes a way of developing the most important atributes of human beings – his self-conscience and his liberty – more than a way of caring about the material necessities of life as an individual of an animal specie. Key words: Life’stages; Work; Subjectivity. (shrink)
The central problem of the book of Job is represented in the question on how to combine the evils of an innocent with the righteousness of God. For the current doctrine of earthly rewards, such a case would be paradoxical. If each one must be treated according to his works, as a righteous man can suffer? There is a link between suffering and personal sin. Against this strict correlation, Job stands up with all the strength of his innocence. He fights (...) desperately to rediscover God that evades and whose kindness he continues to believe in. God intercedes only to reveal the transcendence of his being and his designs and reduce Job to the silence. This is the religious message of the book of Job: man should persist in faith even when his soul isn’t quiet. The book of Job asks us: is there free religion or it is always a self seeking trade? Rich and prosperous, Job becomes poor and with no future at all. Nevertheless, Job remains faithful and recognizes that God has the absolute right of disposing of all that had given him. Job says: “If we accept God’s riches, shouldn’t we also accept evil?”. Job demonstrated that he is able to profess and live a free religion, without any reward shadow. (shrink)
In a controlled laboratory experiment, we found evidence for our predictions that participants who received fair distributive treatment were more likely to lie to give a supervisor a good performance evaluation than those treated unfairly, and those who received unfair distributive treatment were more likely to steal money from a supervisor than those treated fairly. We further proposed that the presence of an ethical code of conduct would moderate these relationships such that when the code was present these relationships would (...) be weaker than when the code was absent, but we failed to find support for these moderating effects. Our findings suggest that the relationship between distributive justice and unethical behavior is likely more complex than previously considered. Both researchers and managers may benefit from a broader understanding of the factors that motivate and inhibit unethical behaviors intended to benefit and harm supervisors and/or organizations. (shrink)