Corporations and investors are responding to recent major ethical scandals with increased attention to the social impacts of business operations. In turn, business colleges and their international accrediting body are increasing their efforts to make students more aware of the social context of corporate activity. Business education literature lacks data on student attitudes toward such education. This study found that postscandal business students, particularly women, are indeed interested in it. Their interest is positively related to their past donation, volunteerism, and (...) non-profit organization membership activities, whether limited or extensive. Some evidence supports the proposition that education can modify internal principles over time. We offer suggestions for classroom and program uses of these findings in hopes of enriching the vision of future business managers. (shrink)
" ‘I can be understood only after my death,’ Kierkegaard noted prophetically: the fulfillment of this expectation for the English-speaking world a century and a quarter later is signified by the English translation in authoritative editions of all his works by the indefatigable Howard and Edna Hong.... The importance of [the Papirer] was emphasized by Kierkegaard himself.... The essentially religious interpretation he gave to his mission in life and his personal relationships is now documented clearly and exhaustively.... Obviously, these editions (...) are essential for academic and large general collections." —Library Journal "From this point on, anyone interested in tracking down a Kierkegaardian theme will have to consult the Hong presentation as well as the books of Kierkegaard." —Annual Review of Philosophy "The translations are entirely excellent. One envies the Hongs their capacity in language, the breadth of their reading in Kierkegaard and his sources, and the dedication they brought to this Herculean task. The assistance of Gregor Malantschuk has contributed materially to the notes which serve as trenchant summaries of Kierkegaard’s thought on the topics.... This is indeed a monumental work." —Review of Metaphysics "... [an] astonishing labor of editing and translating... " —International Studies in Philosophy "Howard and Edna Hong have brought to the task solid scholarship, linguistic competence, an imaginative and useful arrangement of the material, and a scrupulous self-effacement before the work. No one could ask for more." —Citation of the Judges at the National Book Awards "We must be grateful to the Hongs for their enormous labor.... Kierkegaard’s Journals and Papers are worth having for angry days, or ‘inward’ days; especially when they have been translated in as lively and sensitive a manner as are the texts in this first volume." —Nation The incidental writings of Søren Kierkegaard, published in the twenty-volume Danish edition of the Papirer, provide direct access to the thought of the many-faceted nineteenth-century philosopher who exerted so profound an influence on Protestant theology and modern existentialism. This important material, which Danish scholars regard as the "key to the scriptures" of Kierkegaard’s other work, spans his entire productive life, the last entry of the Papirer being dated only a few days before his death. These writings have been previously inaccessible in English except for a few fragmentary selections; the most significant writings are now being made available in this definitive seven-volume edition under the editorship of two expert scholars and translators. Kierkegaard’s scattered writings fall into three main subject groupings: journal entries of varied content, notes and early versions of his published material, and personal reactions to his reading and study. In length and degree of polish they range from brief and cryptic notes to extensive lecture material, finished travel sketches, and extended philosophical speculation. The translators provide annotations, copious notes, and a collation of entries with the Danish Papirer. The editors group the selections in Volumes I through IV by theme, with all entries on a given subject under the same heading. Within subject headings, entries are arranged chronologically, making it feasible to trace the evolution of Kierkegaard’s thought on a specific topic. Volumes V and VI are devoted to autobiographical material. Volume VII contains an extensive index with topical crossreferences. (shrink)
The thesis developed and defended in this paper is that is it false that all knowledge is founded on experience. Much of our knowledge (or alleged knowledge), it is argued, is based on testimony. Still, many philosophers have either not dealt with testimony at all, or treated it very unkindly. One of the reasons for this is that those philosophers (such as Descartes and Locke) work with a concept of knowledge according to which knowledge is certain, indubitable, and/or self-evident. And (...) if knowledge is what these philosophers say it is, then there is no such thing as knowledge based on testimony indeed. Thomas Reid is introduced as holding that we do have testimonial knowledge and that therefore Descartes’ and Locke’s concept of knowledge is untenable. Reid furthermore holds that human beings are endowed with a disposition to accept or believe what otherstell us („the principle of credulity”). The working of this principle is refined through all kinds of experience. What Reid says or shows is how this disposition in fact operates. Many epistemologists, however, have higher aspirations and look for reasons or arguments that can justify our factual acceptance of testimony. The inductive argument Hume offers, it is argued, is unconvincing. There is even reason to think that the principle of credulity can never be justified by adducing reasons. This does not imply, however, that acceptance of testimony is unjustified. Whether or not it is depends, among other things, on the concept of justification one uses. On an internalist concept of justification (as Locke’s or Hume’s) this disposition may never be justified. But on an externalist conception it may. This may be disappointing, given some widely held philosophical aspirations, but at the same time it is, as Alston has said, a lesson in intellectual humility. (shrink)
Public universities in Poland receive fairly limited financial support for creating e-textbooks and lack the appropriate ICT competences among teaching staff, especially in the case of non-technical universities. The authors propose a pedagogical and technological paradigm for e-textbooks in medical education using open source software with minimal IT skills required. Technologies used to develop e-textbooks are connected with: publication and distribution of e-textbooks, e-book readers, and editing tools. The paper also discusses a survey that targeted students of medical sciences, which (...) focused on their understanding of their educational needs that can be met through new online resources as well as their expectations of how such e-textbooks should be like. (shrink)
The ICE-theory of technical functions Content Type Journal Article Category Book Symposium Pages 1-22 DOI 10.1007/s11016-012-9642-9 Authors E. Weber, Centre for Logic and Philosophy of Science, Ghent University (UGent), Blandijnberg 2, 9000 Gent, Belgium T. A. C. Reydon, Institute of Philosophy, Leibniz University Hannover, Im Moore 21, 30167 Hannover, Germany M. Boon, Department of Philosophy, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands W. Houkes, Philosophy and Ethics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB (...) Eindhoven, The Netherlands P. E. Vermaas, Department of Philosophy, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX Delft, The Netherlands Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796. (shrink)
Recognition that biological systems are stabilized far from equilibrium by self-organizing, informed, autocatalytic cycles and structures that dissipate unusable energy and matter has led to recent attempts to reformulate evolutionary theory. We hold that such insights are consistent with the broad development of the Darwinian Tradition and with the concept of natural selection. Biological systems are selected that re not only more efficient than competitors but also enhance the integrity of the web of energetic relations in which they are embedded. (...) But the expansion of the informational phase space, upon which selection acts, is also guaranteed by the properties of open informational-energetic systems. This provides a directionality and irreversibility to evolutionary processes that are not reflected in current theory.For this thermodynamically-based program to progress, we believe that biological information should not be treated in isolation from energy flows, and that the ecological perspective must be given descriptive and explanatory primacy. Levels of the ecological hierarchy are relational parts of ecological systems in which there are stable, informed patterns of energy flow and entropic dissipation. Isomorphies between developmental patterns and ecological succession are revealing because they suggest that much of the encoded metabolic information in biological systems is internalized ecological information. The geneological hierarchy, to the extent that its information content reflects internalized ecological information, can therefore be redescribed as an ecological hierarchy. (shrink)
O objetivo do presente texto é repensar a aporia pela qual o livro “Dialética do Esclarecimento” é anunciado, a saber, a autodestruição do esclarecimento ou a procura da liberdade pela racionalidade, mas que culmina em uma regressão. Nossa argumentação perfaz dois caminhos: primeiramente, apresentamos a relação existente na obra entre um tipo de antropologia com bases freudianas e uma leitura da sociologia de Marx. Concebemos a noção de uma estrutura psíquica permeável às condições sócio-históricas do ser humano ocidental. Tal condição (...) é imprescindível para a saída da aporia intimamente relacionada a uma antropologia psíquica ligada a um modo histórico da cultura e sociedade. Na sequência, propomos ainda um paralelo entre a possibilidade de um esclarecimento efetivo por meio do resíduo mítico presente na racionalidade técnica apresentada por Horkheimer e Adorno e a assunção da situação humana de desamparo na visão de mundo religiosa, modo freudiano para se alcançar uma posição mais “científica” em relação à realidade. Nesse contexto, utilizaremos rapidamente parte da teoria de Weber como meio para relacionarmos o esclarecimento à religião no que ambos têm em comum, isto é, a defesa contra o sofrimento, a angústia e o desamparo. Talvez seja por meio da assunção do desamparo na racionalidade situada na visão religiosa de mundo, ou ainda, a assunção do mito na racionalidade técnica do esclarecimento, que permitirá o futuro desenvolvimento de uma “antropologia dialética”, o que resultaria na saída da aporia enquanto condição histórica da racionalidade humana. (shrink)
Two experiments examined how affective values from visual and auditory modalities are integrated. Experiment 1 paired music and videos drawn from three levels of valence while holding arousal constant. Experiment 2 included a parallel combination of three levels of arousal while holding valence constant. In each experiment, participants rated their affective states after unimodal and multimodal presentations. Experiment 1 revealed a congruency effect in which stimulus combinations of the same extreme valence resulted in more extreme state ratings than component stimuli (...) presented in isolation. An interaction between music and video valence reflected the greater influence of negative affect. Video valence was found to have a significantly greater effect on combined ratings than music valence. The pattern of data was explained by a five parameter differential weight averaging model that attributed greater weight to the visual modality and increased weight with decreasing values of valence. Experiment 2 revealed a congruency effect only for high arousal combinations and no interaction effects. This pattern was explained by a three parameter constant weight averaging model with greater weight for the auditory modality and a very low arousal value for the initial state. These results demonstrate key differences in audiovisual integration between valence and arousal. (shrink)
O artigo tem por objetivo investigar a apropriação rawlsiana do imperativo categórico de Kant. Entra no mérito da distinção entre o procedimento do imperativo categórico e o procedimento da posição original, adotado pela “justiça como equidade”. Procura explicitar e avaliar a interpretação das formulações do imperativo categórico kantiano, elaborado por Rawls. Por fim, investiga o âmbito do imperativo categórico enquanto procedimento de construção de normas morais.
Max Weber's distinction in "Politics as a Vocation" between the ethic of conviction and the ethic of responsibility is best understood as a distinction between mutually exclusive ethical worldviews. Interpretations that correlate the two ethics with Weber's distinction between value-rational social action and instrumental-rational social action are misleading since Weber assumes that both types of rational social action are present in both ethics. The ethic of conviction recognizes a given hierarchy of values as the context for moral (...) endeavor. The ethic of responsibility acknowledges value obligations, but assumes the absence of any given hierarchy of values and the inevitability of value conflict as the context for moral endeavor. When interpreted in the context of his multilayered understanding of value conflict, Weber's ethic of responsibility emerges as a coherent ethical perspective. (shrink)
This research replicates Weber's 1995 study of a large financial services firm that found that ethical subclimates exist within multi-departmental organizations, are influenced by the function of the department and the stakeholders served, and are relatively stable over time. Relying upon theoretical models developed by Thompson (1967) and Victor and Cullen (1998), hypotheses are developed that predict the ethical subclimate decision-making dimensions and type for diverse departments within a large steel manufacturing firm and that these ethical subclimate types will (...) be stable across the two periods of time when the data were collected. Employees were surveyed in 1995 and again in 1999 using Victor and Cullen's Ethical Climate Questionnaire. Response rates of 88 and 94 percent were achieved. Contrary to Weber's findings, our results imply that, in both samples, ethical subclimates may be determined by the strength of an organization's overall ethical climate, rather than the department's function. However, we did find support for Weber's earlier contention that these subclimates are relatively stable. Our results also suggest that differences may exist across industries, that is when comparing a large steel manufacturer, as we did in our study, with a large financial services organization, as Weber did in his 1995 study. (shrink)
O artigo aborda a discussão entre John Rawls e Jürgen Habermas no que diz respeito ao processo democrático e à neutralidade. Indica que a formação do processo democrático acontece de maneira distinta em uma perspectiva liberal e republicana e que ambos os autores assimilam essa questão de forma diferente. No que se refere à neutralidade, embora tanto Rawls quanto Habermas defendam uma prioridade do justo sobre o bem, o intuito é mostrar que as implicações derivadas de suas perspectivas também são (...) distintas. Trata-se de uma das críticas fundamentais de Habermas a Rawls e um dos principais pontos de desacordo entre as duas perspectivas sobre o liberalismo político. (shrink)
A comemoração dos 150 anos de nascimento de Max Weber foi considerada uma data promissora para novos debates sobre o pensamento deste intelectual, cuja obra representa um dos fundamentos do pensamento social contemporâneo. Com a realização do Colóquio Max Weber: 150 anos, foi possível reunir diferentes pesquisadores que têm estudado o seu pensamento ou investigado temas weberianos no Brasil. Uma das características marcantes do evento é que ele foi multidisciplinar e teria de sê-lo, uma vez que a obra (...) de Max Weber percorre diferentes áreas do saber. Por isso participaram do colóquio filósofos, historiadores, sociólogos, cientistas políticos e antropólogos. Este livro é resultado das contribuições de diferentes especialistas que participaram daquele encontro, e tem por escopo apresentar as pesquisas recentes no campo da crítica weberiana. (shrink)
Firms worldwide are increasingly required to disclose their carbon emissions due to the environmental damage associated with climate change. Because there has been no previous literature focusing on the determinants of corporate carbon disclosure integrating environmental legitimacy and green innovation, the present study attempted to develop an original framework to fill the research gap. This study explored the influence of environmental legitimacy on corporate carbon disclosure, and investigated the role of green innovation as a mediator. With the samples of Carbon (...) Disclosure Project in China from 2008 to 2012, the results demonstrate that environmental legitimacy significantly negatively influences the likelihood of corporate carbon disclosure, and that green process innovation mediates the relationship, while green product innovation has no significant mediating effect. It means that environmental legitimacy not only directly affects the likelihood of corporate carbon disclosure, but also indirectly affects it via green process innovation. Hence, companies must increase both informal and formal mechanisms, i.e., external environmental legitimacy and internal green process innovation, to engage in carbon information disclosure and ensure sustainability. (shrink)
In a controlled laboratory experiment, we found evidence for our predictions that participants who received fair distributive treatment were more likely to lie to give a supervisor a good performance evaluation than those treated unfairly, and those who received unfair distributive treatment were more likely to steal money from a supervisor than those treated fairly. We further proposed that the presence of an ethical code of conduct would moderate these relationships such that when the code was present these relationships would (...) be weaker than when the code was absent, but we failed to find support for these moderating effects. Our findings suggest that the relationship between distributive justice and unethical behavior is likely more complex than previously considered. Both researchers and managers may benefit from a broader understanding of the factors that motivate and inhibit unethical behaviors intended to benefit and harm supervisors and/or organizations. (shrink)
The essay identifies and analyses the main similarities between Weber’s and Foucault’s work. They concern the three main areas of their reflection: knowledge, power and the subject. These thematic axes are always firmly intertwined in their work. With regard to knowledge, both authors practice a form of historical knowledge in which both the “subject” of knowledge and the “object” known are radically called into question. Regarding power, they abandon the model of the state and sovereignty in order to analyse (...) the relations of power and domination that run through the entire social body and that “govern” the conduct of individuals. As for the subject, both elaborate ethical forms of subjectivity and “care of the self” that take on an ascetic significance. For Weber, however, it is a question of making objectivity itself a “vocation” for the subject, while Foucault proposes a resistance and a struggle for a new subjectivity. (shrink)
The essay is dedicated essentially to Max Weber’s Zwischenbetrachtung, a fundamental text for the comprehension of his whole sociology of religion. Marra focuses particularly on the theme, typical of Weber, of the tension between rationalization processes connected to the disenchantment and the original magical-religious foundations; he also discusses the relationships which the religions of redemption, according to Weber, develop with the spheres of economy and politics.
In international social science’s debate on power and rulership, Max Weber occupies a dominant position. There is hardly a study on power or rulership that does not refer to him, be it critical or affirmative. The sustainable success of Weber’s concept of power is based not least on the fact that he took up contemporary Nietzschean voluntaristic ideas and combined them with an action-related perspective. In doing so, he revolutionized the theory of power. This goes particularly for his (...) category of “chance”, with which he indicated power as a gradual and quantifiable phenomenon. The effect of this approach was so striking that it is still the most influential concept of power, shaping theorists like Hannah Arendt, Raymond Aron, and Heinrich Popitz. Furthermore, Weber moved the concept of rulership, as an institutionalised and reinforced form of power, into the focus of social sciences, providing a large-scale sociology of rule, which exposes the various types and motives of obedience. At the same time, however, the reception of the conceptual pair of power and rulership reveals a paradoxical phenomenon, since the two concepts are received worldwide, while they are still often used arbitrarily and regularly mixed up. (shrink)
Este estudo é uma reflexão sobre o discurso e a prática nas comunidades Eclesiais de Base no Brasil e na Itália. Buscamos demonstrar, a partir de uma pesquisa empírica e teórica, as relações entres duas Comunidades Eclesiais de Base, a Comunidade San Paolo (Roma-IT) e a Prelazia de São Félix (Mato Gross-BR), demonstrando que estas baseiam-se em dois elementos: resultam das discussões advindas do Concílio Vaticano II e estão fortemente ligadas a seus líderes. E, ainda, que tais comunidades ligam-se por (...) fortes laços simbólicos. Este fato permitiu-nos concluir que a Teologia da Libertação empenhou-se em promover mudanças sociais e em criar um corpo simbólico que a corroborasse. Tais análises foram sustentadas pela teoria da transformação social de Max Weber e, ainda, pelos estudos de Karl Mannheim e de Glock e Stark. Palavras-chaves : Transformação social, Teologia da Libertação, prática, discurso.This study is a reflection of the discourse and practice on the Basic Ecclesial communities in Brazil and Italy. We try to show, from an empirical and theoretical research, the relations between two Christian Base Communities: the San Paolo Community (Rome – IT) and the Prelature of São Félix (BR – Mato Grosso), based on two factors: the result of discussions arising out of Vatican II, and the strong link to its leaders. Such communities bind by strong symbolic ties that really allowed us to conclude that Liberation Theology endeavored to promote social changes and to create a symbolic body that corroborates it. Such analysis was supported by the theory of social transformation of Max Weber, by the studies of Karl Mannheim and Glock and Stark. Keywords : Social Transformation; Liberation Theology, Practice, Discourse. (shrink)
O artigo consiste num estudo comparativo entre as concepções de cultura de Friedrich Nietzsche e Max Weber, suas análises críticas da modernidade e as respostas éticas que as acompanham. Apesar das importantes afinidades encontradas entre os autores, o artigo procura mostrar que o caráter principal da comparação entre os seus pensamentos é o do desencontro e da incompatibilidade.
This paper presents the development andvalidation of new measurement tools to exploreself-efficacy toward service and toward civicparticipation. We developed and administereda survey to 851 students in an AACSB-accreditedcollege of business at a comprehensive publicuniversity located in the Midwest. Traditionalscale development methodologies plusconfirmatory factor analysis and simultaneousfactor analysis in several populations wereused to analyze both a primary sample and aholdback sample. Results strongly support thevalidity and reliability of the surveyinstrument. Future use for the instrumentincludes verification of the effectiveness ofpedagogies designed to (...) increase self-efficacytoward service and motivation for civicparticipation in business students. (shrink)
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