This research examines the association between attitudes on cheating and cognitive moral development. In this research, we use Rest's (1979a) Defining Issues Test, the Attitudes on Honesty Scale (Authors) and Academic Integrity Index (Authors); the last two are adaptations of the DIT. A total of 220 students from three universities participated in the study (66 psychology majors and 154 business majors). The data indicate that 66.4 percent of the students reported that they cheated in high school, college, or both high (...) school and college. Psychology majors scored higher than business majors on both the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1979a) and the Attitudes on Honesty Scale (AHS, Authors). Using factor analysis, we found significant associations between students' ratings of the importance considerations present in the three cheating scenarios and their estimates of whether cheating would occur (i.e., the Academic Integrity Index). Finally, using logistic regression, we found that the scores on the Attitudes on Honesty Scale and Academic Integrity Index associate with the self-reported cheating behavior of college students. (shrink)
There is little information about the content of ethics consultations in pediatrics. We sought to describe the reasons for consultation and ethical principles addressed during EC in pediatrics through retrospective review and directed content analysis of EC records at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Patient-based EC were highly complex and often involved evaluation of parental decision making, particularly consideration of the risks and benefits of a proposed medical intervention, and the physician's fiduciary responsibility to the patient. Nonpatient consultations provided guidance (...) in the development of institutional policies that would broadly affect patients and families. This is one of the few existing reviews of the content of pediatric EC and indicates that the distribution of ethical issues and reasons for moral distress are different than with adults. Pediatric EC often facilitates complex decision making among multiple stakeholders, and further prospective research is need.. (shrink)
Introduction While quizzing during informed consent for research to ensure understanding has become commonplace, it is unclear whether the quizzing itself is problematic for potential participants. In this study, we address this issue in a multinational HIV prevention research trial enrolling injection drug users in China and Thailand. Methods Enrolment procedures included an informed consent comprehension quiz. An informed consent survey followed. Results 525 participants completed the informed consent survey (Heng County, China=255, Xinjiang, China=229, Chiang Mai, Thailand=41). Mean age was (...) 33 and mean educational level was 8 yrs. While quizzing was felt to be a good way to determine if a person understands the nature of clinical trial participation (97%) and participants did not generally find the quiz to be problematic, minorities of respondents felt pressured (6%); anxious (5%); bored (5%); minded (5%); and did not find the questions easy (13%). In multivariate analysis, lower educational level was associated with not minding the quizzing (6–10 yrs vs 0–5 yrs: OR=0.27, p=0.03; more than 11 yrs vs 0–5 yrs: OR=0.18, p=0.03). There were also site differences (Heng County vs Xinjiang) in feeling anxious (OR=0.07; p=<0.01), not minding (OR=0.26; p=0.03), being bored (OR=0.25; p=0.01) and not finding the questions easy (OR=0.10; p=<0.01). Conclusions Quizzing during the informed consent process can be problematic for a minority of participants. These problems may be associated with the setting in which research takes place and educational level. Further research is needed to develop, test and implement alternative methods of ensuring comprehension of informed consent. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00270257. (shrink)
Dieser Aufsatz hat das Urteil Gottes über die Sünde im Kreuzestod Jesu Christi als konstitutiven Aspekt der Versöhnungslehre zum Thema. Die Erörterung orientiert sich an dem dreifachen Amt Jesu Christi als König, Priester und Prophet und versucht aus dieser Perspektive den Vollzug und die Wirklichkeit der Versöhnung als Herrlichkeit, Gnade und Motivation zur Dankbarkeit zu beschreiben. Dem entspricht ein Verständnis der Sünde als Stolz und Verzweiflung, das in personalen und nicht in moralistischen oder legalistischen Begriffen zu erfassen ist. Indem die (...) Erörterung der Versöhnung im Kontext trinitarischer Theologie entfaltet wird, soll einerseits versucht werden, die unterschiedlichen Metaphern der Versöhnungslehre als miteinander vereinbar darzustellen und andererseits die pesonalen , gemeinschaftsstiftenden und kosmischen Dimensionen des Versöhnungsgeschehens heraus-zuarbeiten. Sowohl der trinitarische Zugang zur Versöhnungslehre als auch der Versuch, ihre unterschiedlichen Metaphern als miteinander vereinbar und sich gegenseitig korrigierend zu erweisen, beruht auf Ansätzen, die Colin Gunton in seinen dogmatischen Werken zur Trinitätslehre und zur Soteriologie ausgearbeitet hat. (shrink)
This collection of essays, offered in honor of the distinguished career of prominent political philosophy professor Clifford Orwin, brings together internationally renowned scholars to provide a wide context and discuss various aspects of the virtue of “humanity” through the history of political philosophy.
Pour l’épistémologue, mais aussi pour le théoricien de l’éthique, la théorie thomienne des modèles présente un intérêt particulier. Elle établit que la connaissance, ainsi que toutes les catégorisations abstraites qui en résultent, sont façonnées en première instance par les morphologies d’événements qui s’offrent à nos sens. L’intérêt de cette approche épistémologique pour l’éthique est de répondre au problème de son universalisation. Alors que l’éthique traditionnelle fonde la justification sur des principes qui, linguistiquement ancrés, peinent à s’imposer au-delà des cultures particulières, (...) la théorie thomienne des modèles ouvre la voie à un nouveau type d’aide à la décision qui est fondé sur un mode de connaissance universel : la topologie. Cet article expose les fondements épistémologiques de la théorie thomienne, pour ensuite en proposer une application originale aux conflits éthiques.For both the epistemologist and the ethicist, René Thom’s model theory is of particular interest. It assumes that knowledge, as well as all forms of abstract categorizations, are shaped by the morphologies that we perceive. The benefit of Thom’s epistemological approach is then to contribute to the problem of universalization in ethics. Whereas traditional theories in ethics elaborate justification with language-based principles that cannot be applied universally, René Thom’s model theory leads to a new modeling of ethics based on a universal form of knowledge : topology. This paper sets forth the epistemological foundations of Thom’s theory, and then proposes an application to ethical conflicts. (shrink)
In On the Genealogy of Morality Nietzsche exposes christianity as the product of the slave morality and its resentment. Nietzsche’s exposure provoked different reactions. In Das Ressentiment im Aufbau der Moralen from 1913 Max Scheler shows, in contrast to Nietzsche, that the quintessence of christian ethics does not arise from resentment. More interesting than Scheler’s rebuttal of Nietzsche is the reaction from the French-American thinker René Girard. Girard does not only criticize Nietzsche’s analysis, but goes as well into the both (...) paradoxal and crucial point that resentment is, on the one hand, intertwined with christian culture and, on the other, is at odds with christian inspiration. I would like to present Girard’s rebuttal of Nietzsche in two steps. First, I outline the background of Girard’s view on the relation between myth and christianity, taking his interpretation of the function of the scapegoat mechanism in premodern mythical religions as a starting-point. According to Girard, christianity functions as the exposure of premodern mythical religions, rejecting as it does the foundational role of the scapegoat mechanism as a means of canalising violence, inherent to mimetic desire. It is not christianity’s intent to canalize violence by means of limited violence, but precisely to expose violence. By making obvious that christianity did not succeed in doing this – by giving a philosophical analysis of the role of christianity in Western culture Girard shows that christianity has succeeded only in wounding violence, not in eliminating it and, as a consequence, has cleared the way for resentment – he is able to demonstrate that resentment is the child of christianity, not its father. Subsequently I outline Girard’s view on the role of mimetic desire in modern culture. Instead of canalizing mimetic desire by means of the scapegoat mechanism, modern Western culture unchains mimetic desire by means of the free market principle of competition. External mediation, which is typical of premodern mythical-religious cultures, is now being replaced by internal mediation, which is guided by economic principles. As such, resentment is going to determine modern culture from within. Hence, christianity will, as an integral part of modern culture, be likely to fall a prey to this resentment. Finally, I conclude by going into the challenge christianity, squeezed as it were between religious claims on the one hand and modern presuppositions on the other, has to cope with: how can it overcome resentment, of which it undoubtedly bears the fruits and which it simultaneously radically rejects? (shrink)