Here we review 37 modern neuroimaging studies in an attempt to address this question posed by Halstead (1947) as he and other icons of the last century endeavored to understand how brain and behavior are linked through the expression of intelligence and reason. Reviewing studies from functional (i.e., functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography) and structural (i.e., magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, voxel-based morphometry) neuroimaging paradigms, we report a striking consensus suggesting that variations in a distributed network predict (...) individual differences found on intelligence and reasoning tasks. We describe this network as the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT). The P-FIT model includes, by Brodmann areas (BAs): the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BAs 6, 9, 10, 45, 46, 47), the inferior (BAs 39, 40) and superior (BA 7) parietal lobule, the anterior cingulate (BA 32), and regions within the temporal (BAs 21, 37) and occipital (BAs 18, 19) lobes. White matter regions (i.e., arcuate fasciculus) are also implicated. The P-FIT is examined in light of findings from human lesion studies, including missile wounds, frontal lobotomy/leukotomy, temporal lobectomy, and lesions resulting in damage to the language network (e.g., aphasia), as well as findings from imaging research identifying brain regions under significant genetic control. Overall, we conclude that modern neuroimaging techniques are beginning to articulate a biology of intelligence. We propose that the P-FIT provides a parsimonious account for many of the empirical observations, to date, which relate individual differences in intelligence test scores to variations in brain structure and function. Moreover, the model provides a framework for testing new hypotheses in future experimental designs. (shrink)
The commentaries address conceptual issues ranging from our narrow focus on neuroimaging to the various definitions of intelligence. The integration of the P-FIT and data from cognitive neuroscience is particularly important and considerable consistency is found. Overall, the commentaries affirm that advances in neuroscience techniques have caused intelligence research to enter a new phase. The P-FIT is recognized as a reasonable empirical framework to test hypotheses about the relationship of brain structure and function with intelligence and reasoning.
The essays in this 1987 volume are concerned with ideas of contrarity and other kinds of polar opposition in French literature of the eighteenth century. Originally these ideas were merely part of an impulse to undermine the establishment, but as the century progressed the desire to invert social values and question accepted norms merged with the main groundswell of the age to form part of the movement of Revolution. Professor Rex considers some of the major writers of the period: Diderot, (...) Rousseau, Voltaire, and Beaumarchais. He also explores minor genres such as opéras comiques, theatrical parodies, and erotic or pornographic pieces; these have been largely forgotten, but in their time they imbued the creative life of the era with vitality. In treating the literature in relation to the other arts, especially painting and music, these essays will be of interest to scholars of all aspects of eighteenth-century French culture. (shrink)
To many, Jung and Moreno seem to be on opposite sides in their theories and their practices of psychotherapy. Jung defines self as emerging inwardly in an intrapsychic process of individuation; Moreno defines self as enacted outwardly in psychosocial networks of relationships. _Jung and Moreno: Essays on the theatre of human nature_ shows how Jung and Moreno can be creatively combined to understand better and facilitate therapeutic work. Craig E. Stephenson and contributors write about how and why (...) they put together Jung and Moreno. They describe and discuss psychodrama sessions grounded in the fundamentals of Jung’s analytical psychology, as well as dream and fairy tale enactments and individual psychoanalytical sessions in which they employ psychodramatic techniques. The essays retheorize Jungian concepts of transference and complexes in the light of Moreno’s insights. They reframe and deepen traditional psychodramatic techniques by securing them within Jung’s archetypal context. Jung and Moreno challenges our understanding of healing practices and the integration of spontaneous unconscious processes, bringing these two ground breaking practitioners to meet collaboratively in the theatre of human nature. The contributions are original and insightful arguments by nine important thinkers. This book will be of interest to psychotherapists, analytical psychologists, psychoanalysts, psychodrama practitioners, drama therapists and students. (shrink)
Este artículo tiene como objetivo exponer algunas de las principales cuestiones que se debaten bajo el término de multiculturalismo en el marco de un contexto político de gran amplitud. Se centra tanto en el tema de las minorías nacionales y sus demandas de autonomía política como en las minorías étnicas inmigrantes y su establecimiento en el seno de los Estados de acogida. Ambos tipos de minorías son percibidos como fuente de problemas en la Europa Occidental, el sudeste de Europa y (...) la antigua Unión Soviética y los debates que emergen en cada una de estas zonas geográficas impactan sobre su gestión y gobierno en el resto de las áreas mencionadas. Por último, se reconoce que la naturaleza del debate ha sufrido un gran cambio como consecuencia del actual liderazgo estadounidense en la lucha contra el terrorismo. (shrink)
We propose that grounded procedures may help explain psychological variations across cultures. Here we offer a set of novel predictions based on the interplay between the social and physical ecology, chronic sensorimotor experience, and cultural norms.
A teoria do mercado religioso parte da constatação do pluralismo religioso e chega à conclusão que, em tal situação, religião se torna um assunto de escolha pessoal ou familiar e se estabelece uma situação de concorrência entre as religiões subordinada à lógica da economia de mercado. Assim, as religiões reduzidas à esfera da vida privada não podem mais realizar a função tradicional das religiões de legitimar a totalidade da ordem social. Este artigo analisa a tese da subordinação da religião à (...) lógica da economia de mercado e propõe como hipótese de que a tradicional função da religião de “absolutizar o relativo e legitimar o arbitrário” é exercida hoje pelo próprio sistema de mercado capitalista e que, por isso, a lógica da economia de mercado se tornou o modo de pensar “natural” nos dias de hoje, até mesmo para pensar a religião. Para isso, dialoga principalmente com o pensamento de P. Berger, P. Bourdieu, M. Weber, W. Benjamin, K. Marx, F. Hinkelammert, H. Assmann e mostra como o tema da fé no e sacralização do mercado aparece nos discursos dos economistas. Palavras-chaves : Mercado religioso. Capitalismo. Idolatria. Economia e religião. Teologia e economia.The theory of the religious market begins with the observation of religious pluralism and comes to the conclusion that, in this situation, religion becomes a matter of personal or family choice and it is established a situation of competition among religions subordinated to the logic of the market economy. Thus, religions reduced to the sphere of private life can no longer perform the traditional role of religions in legitimizing the whole social order. This article analyzes the thesis of the subordination of religion to the logic of the market economy and puts forward the hypothesis that the traditional function of the religion of "absolutizing the relative and legitimizing the arbitrary" is exercised today by the capitalist market system itself; and, because of that, the logic of the market economy has become the "natural” way of thinking today, even to think about religion. To this purpose, it dialogues mainly with the thought of P. Berger, P. Bourdieu, M. Weber, W. Benjamin, K. Marx, F. Hinkelammert and H. Assmann, showing how the theme of faith in and sacralization of market appears in discourses of economists. Keywords : Religious market. Capitalism. Idolatry. Economy and religion. Theology and economics. (shrink)
In his recent article Philosophy Inside Out, Philip Kitcher presents a metaphilosophical outlook that aims at nothing less than a renewal of philosophy. His idea is to draw philosophers’ attention away from “timeless questions” in the so-called “core areas” of philosophy. Instead, philosophers should address questions that matter to human lives. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to reconstruct Kitcher’s view of how philosophy should be renewed; second, to point out some difficulties relating to his position. These difficulties (...) concern the integration of his naturalism into the pragmatic vision of philosophy, the role of putative philosophical experts, and the ideal status of the program of well-ordered inquiry. (shrink)
Theories of relational concept acquisition based on structured intersection discovery predict that relational concepts with a probabilistic structure ought to be extremely difficult to learn. We report four experiments testing this prediction by investigating conditions hypothesized to facilitate the learning of such categories. Experiment 1 showed that changing the task from a category-learning task to choosing the “winning” object in each stimulus greatly facilitated participants' ability to learn probabilistic relational categories. Experiments 2 and 3 further investigated the mechanisms underlying this (...) “who's winning” effect. Experiment 4 replicated and generalized the “who's winning” effect with more natural stimuli. Together, our findings suggest that people learn relational concepts by a process of intersection discovery akin to schema induction, and that any task that encourages people to discover a higher order relation that remains invariant over members of a category will facilitate the learning of putatively probabilistic relational concepts. (shrink)