This paper examines college athletes’ perceived support for concussion reporting from coaches and teammates and its variation by year-in-school, finding significant differences in perceived coach support. It also examines the effects of perceived coach support on concussion reporting behaviors, finding that greater perceived coach support is associated with fewer undiagnosed concussions and returning to play while symptomatic less frequently in the two weeks preceding the survey. Coaches play a critical role in athlete concussion reporting.
John Hick’s theory concerning plurality of religions is an ontologic pluralism according to which all religions are authentic ways for man to attain the "real an sich". Gods of religions are real as perceived and veridical hallucinations; while the “real an sich” has ineffable substantial and trans-categorical properties. Hick’s view suffers from several problems. As a second order analysis of religions, Hick’s view is not a correct one. To reject naturalism, it falls into an epistemological circle, where distinction between formal (...) and substantial properties fades away. It seems that Hick is captured by a category mistake in the presentation of his own theory concerning authenticity of all religions to attain the "real an sich". (shrink)
There is a quotation in the Holly Quran from the book of Psalms in 21:105: “The righteous shall inherit the earth”. A similar sentence can be found in Psalm37:29: צַדִּיקִים יִֽירְשׁוּ־אָרֶץ וְיִשְׁכְּנוּ לָעַד עָלֶֽיהָ. A comparison between these verses would illustrate that “صالح” is the Quranic equivalent of the Hebrew word “צַדִּיקִ”. This equivalence would allow us to compare usages of “صالح” in Quran and “צַדִּיקִ” in the book of Psalms. This comparative study will show that: (a) on the one (...) hand, “צַדִּיקִ” has been used in Psalms either as an attribute of God or as a description of some peoples and on the other, “صالح” has been used in Quran for describing either some peoples or their acts, (b) These two words have similar usages in Psalms and Quran to the extent that they have been used for the description of some peoples and (c) the Quranopsalmic use of this notion can be linked with the concept of “divine selection(istifā)”. (shrink)
Robert Alexy’s theory of legal argumentation is among the notable contributions made to mainstream jurisprudence in the last three decades. Remaining true to its rational discursive mission, it engages with both analytical positivism and natural law theories. A recent collection of essays edited by George Pavlakos explores Alexy’s theory from a number of philosophical standpoints, revealing its theoretical potential and flaws. By doing so, this volume helps us to gain a better understanding of the implications of Alexy’s theory of legal (...) argumentation, but also to identify new areas of research within the discourse theory of law. Although this collection is concerned with a critical examination of various aspects of Alexy’s work, it nonetheless draws attention to the dual characteristics of positive law, that is, the problematic separation of facts from values, law from morality, legal certainty from justice, which continue to preoccupy legal theory. In what follows I shall attempt to examine the debate between Alexy and the contributors to Pavlakos’s volume in order to gain a deeper understanding of the role of dichotomies in legal theory. Part 1 starts by explaining the theoretical background against which I have read the debate on Alexy’s theory of legal argumentation. I have explored the role of dichotomies in socio-legal research elsewhere. However, in the following pages, I shall use Alan Norrie’s critical examination of antinomies to throw light on some of the shortcomings of Alexy’s theory and also to discuss the concerns of mainstream jurisprudence. In that sense, this essay presents both Norrie’s and Alexy’s works, using the former to critically assess the latter. In Part 2, I briefly sketch the layout of Pavlakos’s collection to provide an overview of the type of questions that are discussed by the various contributors. Parts 3 and 4 bring into focus two issues that loom large in the collection. The first issue is Alexy’s central thesis on law’s claim to correctness, while the second concerns the duality of law exemplified by the attempts of mainstream jurisprudence to cope with the tension between the positivist notion of law and the idea of justice. In Part 5, I conclude the essay by reflecting on some of the implications of Alexy’s thesis. (shrink)
This article is a study of the artisanship involved in the construction of Iranian Watermills, and the cultural aspects of a traditional architecture that incorporates an understanding of constructions that date back centuries. Expanding the existing knowledge of these heritage properties and explaining their current condition in order to express the need for the preservation of ancient artisanship as part of a sustainable conservation future are the other prominent concerns of this work. Herein, historical and contemporary documents and travel accounts (...) concerning the traditional buildings of the Iranian water-mills are studied to achieve a better understanding of the buildings background in the region. In addition, depending on the information accessibility and the existence of the constructions` remains, the authors chose some historical sites to be aware of the buildings` current condition and their exact functions based on observational studies. The article discusses that Iranian traditional Water mills represent knowledge of a highly developed technology which makes such ingenious use of natural resources without the consumption of additional power. Among different Iranian Traditional constructions, water-mills are the subject of the main body of this article. (shrink)
The purpose of this study is to examine the statements of Ibn al-ʿArabî regarding religions and beliefs through the perspectives of William Chittick and Reza Shah-Kazemi comparatively. Even though his expressions are occasionally elaborated in the light of the theory of the religious pluralism based on Western-Christian thought, by considering the universal message of the Qur’ān Chittick and Shah-Kazemi identify these expressions with “universalism.” This universalist approach bases on the distinction between “ontological will” and “religious will,” and “submission” which (...) is the substance of the term “islam.” While Chittick and Shah-Kazemi agree on issues mostly, it is possible to see that in some sense they differ from each other in their departure points and results. From this perspective, it is going to be seen that Ibn al-ʿArabî’s expressions encompass both the divine religions and other religions which do not have a revelation. To examine Ibn al-ʿArabî’s expressions by taking into account the propositions of the religious pluralism will be helpful to comprehend his outlook on the Qur’ān and the Prophet Muhammad. (shrink)
In the study of the history of Islamic philosophy, most researchers have focused on certain distinguished figures and/or periods during which some highly remarkable developments took place. It is probably for this reason that until very recently the period between Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī (597/1201–672/1274) and Mullā Ṣadrā (ca. 79/1571–1045/1636 or 1050/1640) attracted relatively little attention — it was almost commonly believed that, due to certain unfavorable historical circumstances, philosophical thought made few, if any, major breakthroughs during these three centuries. I (...) will not say that this opinion is absolutely wrong — after all, it is evident that this period did not produce any thinker comparable in status .. (shrink)
In this essay, Frederick Schmitt and Reza Lahroodi explore the value of curiosity for inquiry and knowledge. They defend an appetitive account of curiosity, viewing curiosity as a motivationally original desire to know that arises from having one’s attention drawn to the object and that in turn sustains one’s attention to it. Distinguishing curiosity from wonder, the authors explore several sources of the epistemic value of curiosity. First, curiosity is tenacious: curiosity whether a proposition is true leads to curiosity (...) about related issues, thereby deepening our knowledge. Second, it is to some extent biased in favor of topics in which we already have a practical or epistemic interest. Third, and most important, curiosity is largely independent of our interests: it fixes our attention on objects in which we have no antecedent interest, thereby broadening our knowledge. Schmitt and Lahroodi elucidate the value of curiosity by outlining its role in levels of development — an approach indebted to John Dewey’s explanation of the value of curiosity. Finally, they raise some questions about the implications of their account for educational practice. (shrink)
Publication date: 16 April 2018 Source: Author: Amjad Hedayat, Fatemeh Nemati Sogolitappeh, Reza Shakeri, Mohamad Abasifard, Mohamad Khaledian One of the concerns of the organization and management experts is to identify effective factors on organization performance and finding solutions to improve organization performance. The present study was done to analyse the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction in visiting lectures of Payam Nour University. Statistical population of this research includes visiting lectures of Ghorveh town who were teaching in (...) the academic year of 2016-2017. Sample size of 60 participants was selected by simple random sampling. To collect data, Meyer and Allen organizational commitment questionnaire and Field and Rothe job satisfaction questionnaire were used. The research method is correlation which is incorporated in the area of applied studies to analyse data, descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics were utilized. The findings show that there is positive and significant relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Regression coefficient shows that organizational commitment predicts 42.2 % of the job satisfaction changes. (shrink)
Reza Akbari Solving moral conflicts entails a decision-making process. So any suggested approach to moral conflicts is included in the domain of practical rationality. The practical rationality is based on theoretical rationality. Both the theoretical and practical rationality have a realistic kind of approach and an idealistic kind of approach. In the theoretical rationality, the idealistic approaches demand certainty in a strict sense, following epistemic guidelines; and in the practical rationality, they demand the best possible choice. Nevertheless, there are (...) some difficulties with the idealistic approaches. Concerning the realistic approaches, we can gain access to two truths: First, each situation is an individual circumstance and each person has certain epistemic features, and so it is not possible to present general, universalizable solutions to conflicts even in a particular scope. Second, the acceptance of some propositions is a voluntary act, and so cognitive space and previous beliefs of any individual have a role in the acceptance of a belief and the following universalizations. By attention to extensive emphasis of the religion on moral doctrines, it can be said that religious education through practical patterns has a positive role in solving moral conflicts. (shrink)
Fronto-parietal activity has been frequently observed in fMRI and PET studies of attention, working memory, and episodic memory retrieval. Several recent fMRI studies have also reported fronto-parietal activity during conscious visual perception. A major goal of this review was to assess the degree of anatomical overlap among activation patterns associated with these four functions. A second goal was to shed light on the possible cognitive relationship of processes that relate to common brain activity across functions. For all reviewed functions we (...) observed a consistent and overlapping pattern of brain activity. The overlap was most pronounced for the bilateral parietal cortex , and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex . The common fronto-parietal activity will be discussed in terms of processes related to integration of distributed representations in the brain. (shrink)
Turing does not provide an explanation for substituting the original question of his test – i.e., “Can machines think?” with “Can a machine pass the imitation game?” – resulting in an argumentative gap in his main thesis. In this article, I argue that a positive answer to the second question would mean attributing the ability of linguistic interactions to machines; while a positive answer to the original question would mean attributing the ability of thinking to machines. In such a situation, (...) defending the Turing Test requires establishing a relationship between thought and language. In this regard, Davidson's no-priority theory is presented as an approach for defending the test. (shrink)
At the intersection of social and virtue epistemology lies the important, yet so far entirely neglected, project of articulating the social dimensions of epistemic virtues. Perhaps the most obvious way in which epistemic virtues might be social is that they may be possessed by social collectives. We often speak of groups as if they could instantiate epistemic virtues. It is tempting to think of these expressions as ascribing virtues not to the groups themselves, but to their members. Adapting Margaret Gilbert's (...) arguments against individualist accounts of collective beliefs, I show that individualist accounts of group virtues are either too weak or too strong. I then formulate a non-individualist account modeled after Gilbert's influential account of collective beliefs. A crucial disanalogy between collective traits and beliefs, I argue, makes the success of this model unlikely. I conclude with some questions with which the future work on collective epistemic virtues should engage. (shrink)
In the article of Bueno titled “Davidson and Skepticism: How Not to Respond to the Skeptic,” he intends to demonstrate that although Davidson’s theory of Coherence holds many attractions, it does not entail a response to any kinds of skepticism including Global, Lottery, and Pyrrhonian. In this study, the goal is to criticize the work of Prof. Bueno in connection with two criticisms raised by him over Davidson’s anti-skeptical strategy. Further, by giving some reasons in favor of Davidson’s anti-skepticism argument, (...) it will be shown that neither the above stated criticisms nor the global skepticism response could undermine the validity of anti-skepticism argument. (shrink)
Corruption in the construction industry is a serious problem in China. As such, fighting this corruption has become a priority target of the Chinese government, with the main effort being to discover and prosecute its perpetrators. This study profiles the demographic characteristics of major incidences of corruption in construction. It draws on the database of the 83 complete recorded cases of construction related corruption held by the Chinese National Bureau of Corruption Prevention. Categorical variables were drawn from the database, and (...) ‘association rule mining analysis’ was used to identify associations between variables as a means of profiling perpetrators. Such profiling may be used as predictors of future incidences of corruption, and consequently to inform policy makers in their fight against corruption. The results signal corruption within the Chinese construction industry to be correlated with age, with incidences rising as managers’ approach retirement age. Moreover, a majority of perpetrators operate within government agencies, are department deputies in direct contact with projects, and extort the greatest amounts per case from second tier cities. The relatively lengthy average 6.4-year period before cases come to public attention corroborates the view that current efforts at fighting corruption remain inadequate. (shrink)
El presente artículo estudia la relación entre la obra latinoamericanista de Justo Arosemena y el Segundo Congreso americano de Lima de 1864-1865, por un lado, y el lugar que ocupa esta contribución en la doctrina constitucionalista del panameño. Ambos objetivos muestran la importancia de Arosemena para el logro de la asamblea americana, al tiempo que substancian la conjetura de su importancia para la comprensión de la obra de Arosemena en el bicentenario de su natalicio.