El Foro Global de Bioética en Investigación (GFBR por sus siglas en inglés) se reunió el 3 y 4 de noviembre en Buenos Aires, Argentina, con el objetivo de discutir la ética de la investigación con mujeres embarazadas. El GFBR es una plataforma mundial que congrega a actores clave con el objetivo de promover la investigación realizada de manera ética, fortalecer la ética de la investigación en salud, particularmente en países de ingresos bajos y medios, y promover colaboración entre países (...) del norte y del sur.a Los participantes en el GFBR provenientes de Latinoamérica incluyeron a eticistas, investigadores, miembros de comités de ética y representantes de autoridades sanitarias provenientes de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panamá, Perú, Nicaragua y la República Dominicana. Una legítima preocupación por la protección de las mujeres embarazadas y sus embriones o fetos ha llevado a la mayoría de los países de la Región de las Américas a limitar la realización de estudios con mujeres embarazadas exclusivamente a aquellos estudios específicos sobre el embarazo, y a requerir la exclusión sistemática de las mujeres embarazadas o de las mujeres que quedan embarazadas en el curso del estudio. Ciertamente, a lo largo de la historia de la ética de la investigación, se ha creído erróneamente que proteger a una población es sinónimo de excluirla de los estudios. Se sabe ahora que proceder así implica exponer a riesgos mucho mayores a la población que se busca proteger. El embarazo implica cambios fisiológicos sustantivos e impacta profundamente la manera como el cuerpo metaboliza los medicamentos. Sin embargo, por evitar hacer investigación con mujeres embarazadas, no se ha producido la evidencia científica necesaria para tomar decisiones sobre tratamientos e intervenciones preventivas con dosis eficaces y seguras para ellas y sus embriones o fetos. A manera de ilustración, en el 2001 había en los Estados Unidos apenas más de una docena de medicamentos aprobados para uso en el embarazo (1) y en el 2011 la Food and Drug Administration (FDA) aprobó por primera vez en 15 años un medicamento para su uso en el embarazo (2). Como consecuencia de no haber producido la evidencia necesaria, se pone en riesgo la salud de las mujeres embarazadas cada vez que se les da atención médica. Las mujeres embarazadas se enferman y las mujeres enfermas se embarazan, y no se sabe si los medicamentos que se les da son eficaces o siquiera seguros para ellas y sus embriones o fetos. (shrink)
Reichenbachian approaches to indexicality contend that indexicals are "token-reflexives": semantic rules associated with any given indexical-type determine the truth-conditional import of properly produced tokens of that type relative to certain relational properties of those tokens. Such a view may be understood as sharing the main tenets of Kaplan's well-known theory regarding content, or truth-conditions, but differs from it regarding the nature of the linguistic meaning of indexicals and also regarding the bearers of truth-conditional import and truth-conditions. Kaplan has criticized these (...) approaches on different counts, the most damaging of which is that they make impossible a "logic of demonstratives". The reason for this is that the token-reflexive approach entails that not two tokens of the same sentential type including indexicals are guaranteed to have the same truth-conditions. In this paper I rebut this and other criticisms of the Reichenbachian approach. Additionally, I point out that Kaplan's original theory of "true demonstratives" is empirically inadequate, and claim that any modification capable of accurately handling the linguistic data would have similar problems to those attributed to the Reichenbachian approach. This is intended to show that the difficulties, no matter how real, are not caused by idiosincracies of the "token-reflexive" view, but by deep facts about indexicality. (shrink)
The paper examines an alleged distinction claimed to exist by Van Gelder between two different, but equally acceptable ways of accounting for the systematicity of cognitive output (two “varieties of compositionality”): “concatenative compositionality” vs. “functional compositionality.” The second is supposed to provide an explanation alternative to the Language of Thought Hypothesis. I contend that, if the definition of “concatenative compositionality” is taken in a different way from the official one given by Van Gelder (but one suggested by some of his (...) formulations) then there is indeed a different sort of compositionality; however, the second variety is not an alternative to the language of thought in that case. On the other hand, if the concept of concatenative compositionality is taken in a different way, along the lines of Van Gelder's explicit definition, then there is no reason to think that there is an alternative way of explaining systematicity. (shrink)
Descriptive semantic theories purport to characterize the meanings of the expressions of languages in whatever complexity they might have. Foundational semantics purports to identify the kind of considerations relevant to establish that a given descriptive semantics accurately characterizes the language used by a given individual or community. Foundational Semantics I presents three contrasting approaches to the foundational matters, and the main considerations relevant to appraise their merits. These approaches contend that we should look at the contents of speakers’ intuitions; at (...) the deep psychology of users and its evolutionary history, as revealed by our best empirical theories; or at the personal-level rational psychology of those subjects. Foundational Semantics II examines a fourth view, according to which we should look instead at norms enforced among speakers. The two papers aim to determine in addition the extent to which the approaches are really rival, or rather complementary. (shrink)
Espino, Santamaria, and Garcia-Madruga (2000) report three results on the time taken to respond to a probe word occurring as end term in the premises of a syllogistic argument. They argue that these results can only be predicted by the theory of mental models. It is argued that two of these results, on differential reaction times to end-terms occurring in different premises and in different figures, are consistent with Chater and Oaksford's (1999) probability heuristics model (PHM). It is argued that (...) the third finding, on different reaction times between figures, does not address the issue of processing difficulty where PHM predicts no differences between figures. It is concluded that Espino et al.'s results do not discriminate between theories of syllogistic reasoning as effectively as they propose. (shrink)
The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims at introducing the ontological argument through the analysis of five historical developments: Anselm’s argument found in the second chapter of his Proslogion, Gaunilo’s criticism of it, Descartes’ version of the ontological argument found in his Meditations on First Philosophy, Leibniz’s contribution to the debate on the ontological argument and his demonstration of the possibility of God, and Kant’s famous criticisms against the (cartesian) ontological argument. Second, it intends to critically examine (...) the enterprise of formally analyzing philosophical arguments and, as such, contribute in a small degree to the debate on the role of formalization in philosophy. My focus will be mainly on the drawbacks and limitations of such enterprise; as a guideline, I shall refer to a Carnapian, or Carnapian-like theory of argument analysis. (shrink)
For over 20 years, the notion of ‘management of care’ has been foregrounded as key in the jurisdiction of the nursing profession, with the aim of detaching itself from the wider medical umbrella. A number of voices have advocated such centrality. These include juridical, academic and occupational perspectives. Critical stances, although peripheral, have also been voiced. These have been received, at best, with a ‘polite silence’ in mainstream circles.By looking at the arguments surrounding the ‘management of care’ circulated in these (...) two decades, this article reports the various forms of discursive practice that participate in the political process of autonomy building. Particularly, we focus on the validity of the arguments as well as the cohesion across arguments within the knowledge system. In doing so, we evaluate its main premises and foundations, the reach of the conceptualisation and its disjointed, differing and incomplete bases. Similarly, we used an inferential technique for the reconstruction of omitted and unexpressed assertions.The article introduces an approach of the humanities that is seldom seen in healthcare. It also proposes a research agenda in regard to management of care for the upcoming decades. (shrink)
When an English translation of Being and Event appeared in 2005, Alain Badiou took the opportunity to reminisce about the initial French publication some twenty years before: “at that moment I was quite aware of having written a ‘great’ book of philosophy.” He located that greatness in four “affirmations” and one “radical thesis.”.
O presente artigo objetiva discutir a interpretação da filosofia de Nietzsche empreendida por Hans Vaihinger na obra Philosophie des Als Ob. De acordo com Vaihinger, ao longo de sua obra Nietzsche desenvolve uma “teoria da aparência valor das ficções frente à vida prática, na trilha deixada por Kant e Lange. Em virtude disso, a filosofia de Nietzsche pode ser considerada como o esboço da metafísica do “como se”, postura ficcionalista e pragmática desenvolvida por Vaihinger.
RESUMENEste artículo es un intento de pensar lo que es el cuerpo a la luz de las filosofías de Gilles Deleuze y de Xavier Zubiri. Ambos pensadores han sido muy radicales en sus posiciones respecto al papel del sentir. A veces es más conocido, para algunos, el pensamiento deleuziano en torno al cuerpo y las sensaciones, pero la reflexión zubiriana es también una filosofía del cuerpo que a veces no ha sido atendida en su profundidad. Además, vemos que ambos pensadores (...) tienen muchos puntos en común; uno de ellos es el denominado «Cuerpo sin órganos». Desde esta categoría deleuziana se indicará la proximidad con la filosofía zubiriana y con ello la importancia que cobra el cuerpo en una filosofía para los tiempos actuales.PALABRAS CLAVEDELEUZE, ZUBIRI, LÓGICA, IMPRESIÓN, SENSACIÓN, CUERPO SIN ÓRGANOS, INTELIGENCIA SENTIENTE.ABSTRACTThis article attempts to think what the body is from the perspective of the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze and also from Xavier Zubiri. Both thinkers have been totally radicals in their positions concerning the role of sensations. It may sound more natural, for some, to associate Deleuze’s thought on body and sensations than that of Zubiri; but we have to acknowledge that the latter’s thought is also a philosophy of the body and, therefore, we shall attend it in its whole depth. Moreover, we have to recognize that both thinkers have lots of common points, one of them the so-called «Body without organs». From this deleuzian category will be indicated the proximity between deleuzian and zubirian philosophy; and with that the importance that acquires the body in a philosophy worth of our times.KEY WORDSDELEUZE, ZUBIRI, LOGIC, IMPRESSION, SENSATION, BODY WITHOUT ORGANS, SENTIENT INTELLIGENCE. (shrink)
O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a relação entre Filosofia política e democracia na obra de Michael Walzer, a partir da influência exercida sobre ele por John Rawls. Para fazer isto, será feita uma breve apresentação das visões de Rawls sobre aquela relação. Após, será mostrado que Walzer corrobora e amplia a concepção de Rawls. Por último, será descrito o papel de crítica imanente que Walzer atribui à Filosofia política nas democracias contemporâneas, trazendo-a da pretensão de guia da política, baseada (...) na contemplação privilegiada de qualquer suposta ordem transcendente e vinculante, para um papel de engajamento comprometido apenas com a própria ordem democrática. (shrink)
For more than a century the notion of a pre-established harmony between the mathematical and physical sciences has played an important role not only in the rhetoric of mathematicians and theoretical physicists, but also as a doctrine guiding much of their research. Strongly mathematized branches of physics, such as the vortex theory of atoms popular in Victorian Britain, were not unknown in the nineteenth century, but it was only in the environment of fin-de-siècle Germany that the idea of a pre-established (...) harmony really took off and became part of the mathematicians’ ideology. Important historical figures were in this respect David Hilbert, Hermann Minkowski and, somewhat later, Albert Einstein. Roughly similar ideas can be found also among British theorists, among whom Arthur Eddington, Arthur Milne, and Paul Dirac are singled out. Although largely limited to the period 1870–1940, the paper also considers Max Tegmark’s recent hypothesis of the universe being a one-to-one reflection of mathematical structures. (shrink)
Blanchette and Dunbar have claimed that when participants are allowed to draw on their own source analogs in the service of analogical argumentation, retrieval is less constrained by surface similarity than traditional experiments suggest. In two studies, we adapted this production paradigm to control for the potentially distorting effects of analogy fabrication and uneven availability of close and distant sources in memory. Experiment 1 assessed whether participants were reminded of central episodes from popular movies while generating analogies for superficially similar (...) versus superficially dissimilar target situations. In Experiment 2, we modified this procedure to assess the retrieval of autobiographic memories, more familiar to participants than fictional episodes. Both studies revealed a strong effect of surface similarity on the retrieval of participants' own sources, thus suggesting that the superficial bias typically observed in experimental studies—and simulated by most computational models—does not originate in a lack of ecological validity. (shrink)
Se nos juízos científicos ou empíricos a objetividade é possível pela existência de entidades independentes, que tipo de fatos poderiam assegurar a objetividade de julgamentos ético-morais? Tanto para Habermas como para Putnam os valores éticos têm uma certa objetividade que emana do “reconhecimento intersubjetivo de standars de avaliação para os quais podemos encontrar boas razões” no contexto de um estilo de vida particular. No entanto, para Habermas, essa validade não é mais suficiente na situação das sociedades contemporâneas, onde é preciso (...) regular os conflitos e as relações entre diversos grupos com ideais muitas vezes conflitantes. Os objetivos deste trabalho são: 1) reconstruir os argumentos básicos desta controversia 2) adotar uma concepção sobre alguns dos pontos em questão, indicando uma forma de integrar os aspectos de ambas as visões, à qual poderia chegar ao alvo que eles compartilham, a saber, fundar a possibilidade de uma ética cognitivista que contorna os problemas do relativismo sem cair nas dificuldades de realismo metafísico. (shrink)
To contribute to the organizational turn in research on participatory democracy, this paper examines the effects of organizational hierarchy on individual thinking. Power corrupts, but neither political scientists nor psychologists can really tell us how. To identify mechanisms by which it does so, the paper introduces recent advances in the field of cognitive psychology, here to suspicious political theorists. The study of cognition shows that we actively make meaning, and that we do so with a discernable neurological apparatus. The paper (...) presents hierarchy as a social construct that 'fits' this apparatus in such a way as to assist the capture of meaning by the interests of power. This process of capture takes place beneath individual awareness. For this reason, the concern here amounts to ideology critique: specifically, using cognitive psychology to reveal the ideological propagation of hierarchy. The fact that hierarchy has hidden cognitive costs has important implications for the prospects of a more participatory democracy. Any democratization of organizational life is seen to turn on the capacity of participants to selectively use and manage hierarchy and to minimize its cognitive costs. This entails, among other things, a recovery of our own thinking from the knowledge processing requirements of power saturated hierarchic organizations. In its examination of the personal effects of power, the paper seeks to reveal psychological mechanisms by which power corrupts, and by which, inadvertently, we come to serve the interests of power in the very way we think. (shrink)
We discuss in this paper the scope of abduction in Economics. The literature on this type of inference shows that it can be interpreted in different ways, according to the role and nature of its outcome. We present a formal model that allows to capture these various meanings in different economic contexts.
The compliance-based approach and the integrity approach have been the mainstream responses to corporate scandals. This paper proposes that, despite each approach comprising necessary elements, neither offers a comprehensive solution. Compliance and integrity, far from being mutually exclusive, reinforce each other. Working together, in a correct relationship, they build a harmonized system that yields positive synergies and which also advocates prudence. It enables the generation of a culture of compliance that tends to minimize the technical and ethical errors in decision (...) making. In order to explore an applied harmonized approach, we analyze the audit committee, a specific and broadly accepted regulatory instrument. Formed by non-executive members, regulation requires these members to be dedicated, qualified, and independent as a guarantee of efficiency. We show how the compound of those elements produces positive effects in a context of solid governance. We conclude that it is the strong relationship between efficiency and prudence, in the creation of a culture of compliance, which enables the minimization of errors. (shrink)
O curso de filosofia deve desenvolver no aluno uma habilidade técnica na interpretação de diferentes modalidades discursivas – análoga ao “exercício de escuta”, no sentido psicanalítico – que lhe permita a experiência da “dominação intelectual”: da posse, ainda que provisória, de uma “língua da segurança” que coloque em “suspensão” os “lugares de conversa ção”. Quebrando a barreira entre os gêneros dos discursos, entre as diferentes disciplinas, e entre os diversos interlocutores, o curso de filosofia – seja na universidade, no ensino (...) médio e mesmo fora dos cursos regulares – poderá, desse modo, estimular a produção de um diálogo intenso, laicizado, entre múltiplos sujeitos de enunciação, contribuindo para a constituição do “espaço público”. Somente assim a filosofia conquistará definitivamente entre nós, sua madureza. (shrink)
Este trabajo discute la aproximación que Burkhardt Lindner establece entre las concepciones del arte de Walter Benjamin y Martin Heidegger. Reexaminando las tesis de "Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit" y "Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes", contrapone los argumentos por medio de los cuales en estos textos se rechaza la autonomía del arte, mostrando las distintas constelaciones teóricas que componen en ellos los conceptos de estética y arte, tékhne y phýsis, Erfahrung y Erlebnis. Finalmente, amplía su análisis a otros textos (...) de Benjamin y Heidegger y compara las interpretaciones divergentes que ambos autores ofrecen acerca de algunos fenómenos artísticos. This paper discusses the approach Burkhardt Lindner established between the conceptions of art of Walter Benjamin and Martin Heidegger. Revisiting the ideas of "Das Kunstwerk im technischen Zeitalter seiner Reproduzierbarkeit" and "Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes", it contrasts the arguments by which each of these texts reject the autonomy of art, showing the different theoretical constellations that compose the concepts of aesthetics and art, tékhne and phýsis, Erfahrung and Erlebnis. Finally, it extends its analysis to other texts of Benjamin and Heidegger and compares the diverging interpretations both authors offer about some artistic phenomena. (shrink)