The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims at introducing the ontological argument through the analysis of five historical developments: Anselm’s argument found in the second chapter of his Proslogion, Gaunilo’s criticism of it, Descartes’ version of the ontological argument found in his Meditations on First Philosophy, Leibniz’s contribution to the debate on the ontological argument and his demonstration of the possibility of God, and Kant’s famous criticisms against the (cartesian) ontological argument. Second, it intends to critically examine (...) the enterprise of formally analyzing philosophical arguments and, as such, contribute in a small degree to the debate on the role of formalization in philosophy. My focus will be mainly on the drawbacks and limitations of such enterprise; as a guideline, I shall refer to a Carnapian, or Carnapian-like theory of argument analysis. (shrink)
For over 20 years, the notion of ‘management of care’ has been foregrounded as key in the jurisdiction of the nursing profession, with the aim of detaching itself from the wider medical umbrella. A number of voices have advocated such centrality. These include juridical, academic and occupational perspectives. Critical stances, although peripheral, have also been voiced. These have been received, at best, with a ‘polite silence’ in mainstream circles.By looking at the arguments surrounding the ‘management of care’ circulated in these (...) two decades, this article reports the various forms of discursive practice that participate in the political process of autonomy building. Particularly, we focus on the validity of the arguments as well as the cohesion across arguments within the knowledge system. In doing so, we evaluate its main premises and foundations, the reach of the conceptualisation and its disjointed, differing and incomplete bases. Similarly, we used an inferential technique for the reconstruction of omitted and unexpressed assertions.The article introduces an approach of the humanities that is seldom seen in healthcare. It also proposes a research agenda in regard to management of care for the upcoming decades. (shrink)
At a time when democracy appears to be universally acclaimed as the only acceptable form of government, it is all the more necessary to be clear about what democracy means. _Democracy: A Reader_ provides a range of pivotal statements on this important topic from supporters and defenders as well as critics and skeptics.
When an English translation of Being and Event appeared in 2005, Alain Badiou took the opportunity to reminisce about the initial French publication some twenty years before: “at that moment I was quite aware of having written a ‘great’ book of philosophy.” He located that greatness in four “affirmations” and one “radical thesis.”.
O presente artigo objetiva discutir a interpretação da filosofia de Nietzsche empreendida por Hans Vaihinger na obra Philosophie des Als Ob. De acordo com Vaihinger, ao longo de sua obra Nietzsche desenvolve uma “teoria da aparência valor das ficções frente à vida prática, na trilha deixada por Kant e Lange. Em virtude disso, a filosofia de Nietzsche pode ser considerada como o esboço da metafísica do “como se”, postura ficcionalista e pragmática desenvolvida por Vaihinger.
The paper discusses Ricardo's relationship to Mill and Bentham. It discusses first the origins of the myth of Ricardo's dependence from Bentham through Mill, and Halévy's contribution to the freezing of such a myth. The paper reconstructs what were their shared political commitments and activities and the kind of specific political views and agenda that may be ascribed to Ricardo himself. The paper discusses then the question of Ricardo's adhesion to Benthamite ethics. It examines fragments in (...)Ricardo's correspondence with Maria Edgeworth and Francis Place, and adds fresh light on the issue by highlighting the partial overlapping between Bentham's ethics and the kind of intuitionism with theological consequentialism that Ricardo had learned from the Unitarian minister Thomas Belsham. (shrink)
O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o conceito de yoga da Bhagavad-gītā. Cinco concepções de yoga encontradas no texto são descritas: yoga enquanto disciplina ou prática, yoga enquanto disciplina qualificada, yoga enquanto estado mental de equanimidade e renúncia, yoga enquanto estado de união e yoga enquanto poder místico. As relações existentes entre essas concepções são explicitadas e o que podemos chamar de a estrutura do yoga na Bhagavad-gītā é pormenorizada.
Neste trabalho, é apresentada uma investigação do que poderia ser chamado de formalização lógica do processo de mudança de teorias devido a anomalias. Por anomalia entende-se um fato observado que faz parte do escopo explanatório de uma teoria, mas que vai de encontro à previsão da mesma. Uma abordagem clássica para restaurar o poder explicativo de uma teoria ameaçada por uma anomalia é a postulação de hipóteses novas e provisórias que, em conjunto com as demais hipóteses auxiliares originais, sejam capazes (...) de resolver a anomalia. Após chegar à algumas conclusões sobre a estrutura de tal processo, propomos um framework lógico multimodal e não-monotônico capaz de representar alguns aspectos-chave dessa faceta importante da dinâmica de teorias científicas. Devido à necessidade de acomodar hipóteses provisórias incompatíveis, esse framework incorpora uma forma fraca de paraconsistência. Como um estudo de caso, analisamos o comportamento anômalo do planeta Urano que ameaçou a mecânica celeste Newtoniana por mais de meio século e ensejou a descoberta do planeta Netuno. (shrink)
Se nos juízos científicos ou empíricos a objetividade é possível pela existência de entidades independentes, que tipo de fatos poderiam assegurar a objetividade de julgamentos ético-morais? Tanto para Habermas como para Putnam os valores éticos têm uma certa objetividade que emana do “reconhecimento intersubjetivo de standars de avaliação para os quais podemos encontrar boas razões” no contexto de um estilo de vida particular. No entanto, para Habermas, essa validade não é mais suficiente na situação das sociedades contemporâneas, onde é preciso (...) regular os conflitos e as relações entre diversos grupos com ideais muitas vezes conflitantes. Os objetivos deste trabalho são: 1) reconstruir os argumentos básicos desta controversia 2) adotar uma concepção sobre alguns dos pontos em questão, indicando uma forma de integrar os aspectos de ambas as visões, à qual poderia chegar ao alvo que eles compartilham, a saber, fundar a possibilidade de uma ética cognitivista que contorna os problemas do relativismo sem cair nas dificuldades de realismo metafísico. (shrink)
We discuss in this paper the scope of abduction in Economics. The literature on this type of inference shows that it can be interpreted in different ways, according to the role and nature of its outcome. We present a formal model that allows to capture these various meanings in different economic contexts.
Blanchette and Dunbar have claimed that when participants are allowed to draw on their own source analogs in the service of analogical argumentation, retrieval is less constrained by surface similarity than traditional experiments suggest. In two studies, we adapted this production paradigm to control for the potentially distorting effects of analogy fabrication and uneven availability of close and distant sources in memory. Experiment 1 assessed whether participants were reminded of central episodes from popular movies while generating analogies for superficially similar (...) versus superficially dissimilar target situations. In Experiment 2, we modified this procedure to assess the retrieval of autobiographic memories, more familiar to participants than fictional episodes. Both studies revealed a strong effect of surface similarity on the retrieval of participants' own sources, thus suggesting that the superficial bias typically observed in experimental studies—and simulated by most computational models—does not originate in a lack of ecological validity. (shrink)
For more than a century the notion of a pre-established harmony between the mathematical and physical sciences has played an important role not only in the rhetoric of mathematicians and theoretical physicists, but also as a doctrine guiding much of their research. Strongly mathematized branches of physics, such as the vortex theory of atoms popular in Victorian Britain, were not unknown in the nineteenth century, but it was only in the environment of fin-de-siècle Germany that the idea of a pre-established (...) harmony really took off and became part of the mathematicians’ ideology. Important historical figures were in this respect David Hilbert, Hermann Minkowski and, somewhat later, Albert Einstein. Roughly similar ideas can be found also among British theorists, among whom Arthur Eddington, Arthur Milne, and Paul Dirac are singled out. Although largely limited to the period 1870–1940, the paper also considers Max Tegmark’s recent hypothesis of the universe being a one-to-one reflection of mathematical structures. (shrink)
In this paper we consider the modal logic with both \ and \ arising from Kripke models with a crisp accessibility and whose propositions are valued over the standard Gödel algebra \. We provide an axiomatic system extending the one from Caicedo and Rodriguez :37–55, 2015) for models with a valued accessibility with Dunn axiom from positive modal logics, and show it is strongly complete with respect to the intended semantics. The axiomatizations of the most usual frame restrictions are given (...) too. We also prove that in the studied logic it is not possible to get \ as an abbreviation of \, nor vice-versa, showing that indeed the axiomatic system we present does not coincide with any of the mono-modal fragments previously axiomatized in the literature. (shrink)
The compliance-based approach and the integrity approach have been the mainstream responses to corporate scandals. This paper proposes that, despite each approach comprising necessary elements, neither offers a comprehensive solution. Compliance and integrity, far from being mutually exclusive, reinforce each other. Working together, in a correct relationship, they build a harmonized system that yields positive synergies and which also advocates prudence. It enables the generation of a culture of compliance that tends to minimize the technical and ethical errors in decision (...) making. In order to explore an applied harmonized approach, we analyze the audit committee, a specific and broadly accepted regulatory instrument. Formed by non-executive members, regulation requires these members to be dedicated, qualified, and independent as a guarantee of efficiency. We show how the compound of those elements produces positive effects in a context of solid governance. We conclude that it is the strong relationship between efficiency and prudence, in the creation of a culture of compliance, which enables the minimization of errors. (shrink)
To contribute to the organizational turn in research on participatory democracy, this paper examines the effects of organizational hierarchy on individual thinking. Power corrupts, but neither political scientists nor psychologists can really tell us how. To identify mechanisms by which it does so, the paper introduces recent advances in the field of cognitive psychology, here to suspicious political theorists. The study of cognition shows that we actively make meaning, and that we do so with a discernable neurological apparatus. The paper (...) presents hierarchy as a social construct that 'fits' this apparatus in such a way as to assist the capture of meaning by the interests of power. This process of capture takes place beneath individual awareness. For this reason, the concern here amounts to ideology critique: specifically, using cognitive psychology to reveal the ideological propagation of hierarchy. The fact that hierarchy has hidden cognitive costs has important implications for the prospects of a more participatory democracy. Any democratization of organizational life is seen to turn on the capacity of participants to selectively use and manage hierarchy and to minimize its cognitive costs. This entails, among other things, a recovery of our own thinking from the knowledge processing requirements of power saturated hierarchic organizations. In its examination of the personal effects of power, the paper seeks to reveal psychological mechanisms by which power corrupts, and by which, inadvertently, we come to serve the interests of power in the very way we think. (shrink)
The purpose of this study is to examine how faith-led practices in family firms affect organizational stewardship. Current studies highlight the relevance of religious adherence for family businesses, yet provide limited understanding of how this shapes the key traits of these organizations. Drawing on six autobiographies of family business leaders who openly express their adherence to their faith, and adopting an open-systems analysis of these autobiographies, we demonstrate that faith-led values influence organizational and leadership practices. Overall, our study suggests that (...) the influence of religious beliefs in the organizational practices of family businesses have greater repercussions than previously thought. By introducing a faith-led approach to stewardship, we enrich the theoretical discussion around stewardship and the relevance of religion in family business. (shrink)
Este trabajo discute la aproximación que Burkhardt Lindner establece entre las concepciones del arte de Walter Benjamin y Martin Heidegger. Reexaminando las tesis de "Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit" y "Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes", contrapone los argumentos por medio de los cuales en estos textos se rechaza la autonomía del arte, mostrando las distintas constelaciones teóricas que componen en ellos los conceptos de estética y arte, tékhne y phýsis, Erfahrung y Erlebnis. Finalmente, amplía su análisis a otros textos (...) de Benjamin y Heidegger y compara las interpretaciones divergentes que ambos autores ofrecen acerca de algunos fenómenos artísticos. This paper discusses the approach Burkhardt Lindner established between the conceptions of art of Walter Benjamin and Martin Heidegger. Revisiting the ideas of "Das Kunstwerk im technischen Zeitalter seiner Reproduzierbarkeit" and "Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes", it contrasts the arguments by which each of these texts reject the autonomy of art, showing the different theoretical constellations that compose the concepts of aesthetics and art, tékhne and phýsis, Erfahrung and Erlebnis. Finally, it extends its analysis to other texts of Benjamin and Heidegger and compares the diverging interpretations both authors offer about some artistic phenomena. (shrink)
O curso de filosofia deve desenvolver no aluno uma habilidade técnica na interpretação de diferentes modalidades discursivas – análoga ao “exercício de escuta”, no sentido psicanalítico – que lhe permita a experiência da “dominação intelectual”: da posse, ainda que provisória, de uma “língua da segurança” que coloque em “suspensão” os “lugares de conversa ção”. Quebrando a barreira entre os gêneros dos discursos, entre as diferentes disciplinas, e entre os diversos interlocutores, o curso de filosofia – seja na universidade, no ensino (...) médio e mesmo fora dos cursos regulares – poderá, desse modo, estimular a produção de um diálogo intenso, laicizado, entre múltiplos sujeitos de enunciação, contribuindo para a constituição do “espaço público”. Somente assim a filosofia conquistará definitivamente entre nós, sua madureza. (shrink)
Introduction: Physical distancing under the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic had a significant impact on lifestyles, including exercise routines. In this study, we examined the relationship between mental health and addictive behaviors, such as excessive exercise and the use of image and performance enhancing drugs across 12 sport disciplines.Materials and methods: A large cross-sectional sample of the adult population was surveyed. The mean age was 33.09. The number of male participants was 668. The use of IPEDs was assessed in conjunction with (...) psychometric measures such as the Exercise Addiction Inventory and the Appearance Anxiety Inventory. The participants were grouped into activity group and non-activity group according to the presence or absence of their exercise habits. The results were compared between these groups, as well as across sport disciplines, while taking into account the relationship between different psychological measures and IPEDs consumption.Results: The frequency of IPEDs use was higher among AG than NAG, although AG participants reported less history of addictions than NAG. The logistic regression analysis revealed that scores equal to or above cutoff points, in both the EAI and AAI, predicted the IPEDs use. Regarding the differences across the various sport disciplines, those who were involved in practicing Weight Lifting and Cross Fit were found to be more at risk of excessive exercising and more inclined to use a wide range of IPEDs.Conclusions: Although exercise could help to increase well-being and prevent addictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, our results show that those in the AG are particularly vulnerable to excessive IPEDs use. Sport disciplines associated with higher EAI and AAI scores have also shown a higher tendency to excessive IPEDs use. Furthermore, the factor of having above the cutoff scores in EAI or AAI in each sport could indicate larger IPEDs consumption regardless of the discipline. In light of the current findings, it is necessary to better define the “non-excessive” levels of exercise in various sport disciplines and an adequate intake of IPEDs to ensure the safety and well-being of people during a pandemic. (shrink)
O Uruguai é talvez um dos poucos países no mundo onde os estudantes têm três cursos básicos de Filosofia na sua educação pré-universitária. Além disso, vários docentes uruguaios têm hoje dez anos de experiência no ensino da Teoria do Conhecimento no Programa de Diploma do Bacharelado Internacional. Deste ponto de partida, eu quero refletir sobre as possibilidades, as conquistas e as deficiências desses cursos, como uma das contribuições centrais para educar os alunos em uma mente cosmopolita em um mundo globalizado. (...) Parece-me que a educação cosmopolita deve ser pensada para permitir que os alunos aprendam a informação o equipamento conceitual e as ferramentas metodológicas para entender que "as condições de vida em qualquer lugar na Terra são profundamente afetadas por interações internacionais de vários tipos".Summary: Uruguay is perhaps one of the few countries in the world where students have three core courses of Philosophy in their pre-university education. Besides we have now ten years experience teaching Theory of Knowledge in the Diploma Program of International Baccalaureate. From this start point, I want to reflect on the possibilities, the achievements and the deficiencies of these courses, as one of the central contributions to educate students in a cosmopolitan mind for a globalized world. It seems that cosmopolitan education should be designed to put the students in conditions of learning information, conceptual equipment and methodological tools to understand that “the living conditions anywhere on earth are deeply affected by international interactions of various kinds".Keywords: Philosophy, Teaching, Globalization. (shrink)
En esta investigación se busca analizar, a través de un texto fundamental de la obra Ciencia de la Lógica de Hegel, que versa sobre la línea nodal de relaciones de medida, un modo distinto tanto de hacer filosofía como de comprender la relación que se da entre la naturaleza y el espíritu.
No es posible seguir pensando a Zubiri desde su gran libro "Sobre la esencia" sin tener en cuenta la inmensa obra que levantó al final de su vida: "Inteligencia sentiente". Desde esta última obra, el filósofo español nos muestra la Noología y desde ella podemos ver no solamente las grandes posibilidades que nos ofrece el pensamiento último de Zubiri para resolver grandes problemas que las filosofías del siglo XX intentaron resolver, sino también para tomar distancia total de la Fenomenología de (...) Husserl y de las filosofías que nacieron de ella. Este artículo busca introducirse en esas cuestiones y señalar cómo la Fenomenología fue un espejismo necesario para el siglo pasado y cómo Zubiri desde ella y contra ella fue constituyendo su propia obra de madurez. (shrink)
This article discusses the role of mathematics during physics lessons in upper-secondary school. Mathematics is an inherent part of theoretical models in physics and makes powerful predictions of natural phenomena possible. Ability to use both theoretical models and mathematics is central in physics. This paper takes as a starting point that the relations made during physics lessons between the three entities Reality, Theoretical models and Mathematics are of the outmost importance. A framework has been developed to sustain analyses of the (...) communication during physics lessons. The study described in this article has explored the role of mathematics for physics teaching and learning in upper-secondary school during different kinds of physics lessons. Observations are from three physics classes led by one teacher. The developed analytical framework is described together with results from the analysis of the 7 lessons. The results show that there are some relations made by students and teacher between theoretical models and reality, but the bulk of the discussion in the classroom is concerning the relation between theoretical models and mathematics. The results reported on here indicate that this also holds true for all the investigated organizational forms lectures, problem solving in groups and labwork. (shrink)
Este artigo apresenta a teoria supervalorativista da vagueza e discute a objecção, que frequentemente lhe é dirigida, segundo a qual essa teoria não consegue dar conta do fenómeno da vagueza de ordem superior.
A proposta deste trabalho é analisar a concepção filosófica depresciência em Santo Tomás de Aquino e Ramon Llull, nas obrasSuma Teológicae O Livro da Contemplação. Para isso, discorremos previamente sobre o conceito deciência, base aristotélica tomista. Por fim, apresentamos a tradução de um extrato doLivro da Contemplação, como base documental para a segunda parte do trabalho. The purpose of this article is to analyze the philosophical conception of prescience in St. Thomas Aquinas in the Summa Theologica and Ramon Llull and (...) the Book of Contemplation. To do so, we first discuss the Aristotelian-Thomist concept of science. We then present a translation of an extract from the Book of Contemplation as a documentary basis for the second part of the article. (shrink)
We have developed a new method to assess the movement of particles in different steps of a well-calibrated sequential kinematic restoration. Calibration included correct assessment of amounts of overburden, sedimentation, erosion, and thermal behavior through time. Our method allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of deformation and uplift in different geologic provinces. In our pilot case study in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera, we have used movement vectors in balanced cross sections to document an initial phase of dominant vertical uplift (...) and a final phase of dominant tangential horizontal shortening. Our findings challenged the common assumptions related to folding and deformation mechanisms in fold-and-thrust belts used for cross-section balancing and palinspastic reconstructions. Thus, we found that the movement vectors in cross sections can be used to test and validate a complete procedure to obtain calibrated sequential kinematic restorations and represent a powerful tool to better understand deformation mechanisms in different settings. (shrink)
This paper introduces the special issue on Logic and Religion of the journal Logica Universalis (Springer). The issue contains the following articles: Logic and Religion, by Jean-Yves Beziau and Ricardo Silvestre; Thinking Negation in Early Hinduism and Classical Indian Philosophy, by Purushottama Bilimoria; Karma Theory, Determinism, Fatalism and Freedom of Will, by Ricardo Sousa Silvestre; From Logic in Islam to Islamic Logic, by Musa Akrami; Leibniz’s Ontological Proof of the Existence of God and the Problem of Impossible Objects, (...) by Wolfgang Lenzen; A Logical Analysis of the Anselm’s Unum Argumentum (from Proslogion), by Jean-Pierre Desclés; Monotonic and Non-monotonic Embeddings of Anselm’s Proof, by Jacob Archambault; Computer-Assisted Analysis of the Anderson–Hájek Ontological Controversy, by C. Benzmüller, L. Weber and B. Woltzenlogel Paleo. (shrink)
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