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Richard Brown [47]Richard Harvey Brown [22]Richard H. Brown [7]Richard S. G. Brown [4]
Richard Sg Brown [3]Richard J. Brown [2]Richard A. Brown [2]Richard G. Brown [1]

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Richard Brown
LaGuardia Community College (CUNY)
Richard Brown
Nottingham University
  1. Understanding the Higher-Order Approach to Consciousness.Richard Brown, Hakwan Lau & Joseph E. LeDoux - 2019 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 23 (9):754-768.
    Critics have often misunderstood the higher-order theory (HOT) of consciousness. Here we clarify its position on several issues, and distinguish it from other views such as the global The higher-order theory (HOT) of consciousness has often been misunderstood by critics. Here we clarify its position on several issues, and distinguish it from other views such as the global workspace theory (GWT) and early sensory models (e.g. first-order local recurrency theories). For example, HOT has been criticized for over-intellectualizing consciousness. We show (...)
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  2. The Emperor's New Phenomenology? The Empirical Case for Conscious Experience Without First-Order Representations.Hakwan Lau & Richard Brown - 2019 - In Adam Pautz & Daniel Stoljar (eds.), Blockheads! Essays on Ned Block's Philosophy of Mind and Consciousness. MIT Press.
    We discuss cases where subjects seem to enjoy conscious experience when the relevant first-order perceptual representations are either missing or too weak to account for the experience. Though these cases are originally considered to be theoretical possibilities that may be problematical for the higher-order view of consciousness, careful considerations of actual empirical examples suggest that this strategy may backfire; these cases may cause more trouble for first-order theories instead. Specifically, these cases suggest that (I) recurrent feedback loops to V1 are (...)
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  3. A Higher-Order Theory of Emotional Consciousness.Richard Brown & Joseph LeDoux - 2017 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
    Emotional states of consciousness, or what are typically called emotional feelings, are traditionally viewed as being innately programed in subcortical areas of the brain, and are often treated as different from cognitive states of consciousness, such as those related to the perception of external stimuli. We argue that conscious experiences, regardless of their content, arise from one system in the brain. On this view, what differs in emotional and non-emotional states is the kind of inputs that are processed by a (...)
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  4. The HOROR Theory of Phenomenal Consciousness.Richard Brown - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (7):1783-1794.
    One popular approach to theorizing about phenomenal consciousness has been to connect it to representations of a certain kind. Representational theories of consciousness can be further sub-divided into first-order and higher-order theories. Higher-order theories are often interpreted as invoking a special relation between the first-order state and the higher-order state. However there is another way to interpret higher-order theories that rejects this relational requirement. On this alternative view phenomenal consciousness consists in having suitable higher-order representations. I call this ‘HOROR’ (‘Higher-Order (...)
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  5. Rosenthal's Representationalism.Jacob Berger & Richard Brown - forthcoming - In Josh Weisberg (ed.), Qualitative Consciousness: Themes from the Philosophy of David Rosenthal. Cambridge.
    David Rosenthal explains conscious mentality in terms of two independent, though complementary, theories—the higher-order thought (“HOT”) theory of consciousness and quality-space theory (“QST”) about mental qualities. It is natural to understand this combination of views as constituting a kind of representationalism about experience—that is, a version of the view that an experience’s conscious character is identical with certain of its representational properties. At times, however, Rosenthal seems to resist this characterization of his view. We explore here whether and to what (...)
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  6. The Myth of Phenomenological Overflow.Richard Brown - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):599-604.
    In this paper I examine the dispute between Hakwan Lau, Ned Block, and David Rosenthal over the extent to which empirical results can help us decide between first-order and higher-order theories of consciousness. What emerges from this is an overall argument to the best explanation against the first-order view of consciousness and the dispelling of the mythological notion of phenomenological overflow that comes with it.
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  7. Deprioritizing the A Priori Arguments Against Physicalism.Richard Brown - 2010 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 17 (3-4):47-69.
    In this paper I argue that a priori arguments fail to present any real problem for physicalism. They beg the question against physicalism in the sense that the argument will only seem compelling if one is already assuming that qualitative properties are nonphysical. To show this I will present the reverse-zombie and reverse-knowledge arguments. The only evidence against physicalism is a priori arguments, but there are also a priori arguments against dualism of exactly the same variety. Each of these parity (...)
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  8.  29
    Evaluation of a Behavioral Measure of Risk Taking: The Balloon Analogue Risk Task.C. W. Lejuez, Jennifer P. Read, Christopher W. Kahler, Jerry B. Richards, Susan E. Ramsey, Gregory L. Stuart, David R. Strong & Richard A. Brown - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 8 (2):75-84.
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  9. The Brain and its States.Richard Brown - 2012 - In Shimon Edelman, Tomer Fekete & Neta Zach (eds.), Being in Time: Dynamical Models of Phenomenal Experience. John Benjamins. pp. 211-238.
    In recent times we have seen an explosion in the amount of attention paid to the conscious brain from scientists and philosophers alike. One message that has emerged loud and clear from scientific work is that the brain is a dynamical system whose operations unfold in time. Any theory of consciousness that is going to be physically realistic must take account of the intrinsic nature of neurons and brain activity. At the same time a long discussion on consciousness among philosophers (...)
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  10. Consciousness Doesn't Overflow Cognition.Richard Brown - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01399.
    Theories of consciousness can be separated into those that see it as cognitive in nature, or as an aspect of cognitive functioning, and those that see consciousness as importantly distinct from any kind of cognitive functioning. One version of the former kind of theory is the higher-order-thought theory of consciousness. This family of theories posits a fundamental role for cognitive states, higher-order thought-like intentional states, in the explanation of conscious experience. These states are higher-order in that they represent the subject (...)
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  11.  33
    Brief Body-Scan Meditation Practice Improves Somatosensory Perceptual Decision Making.Laura Mirams, Ellen Poliakoff, Richard J. Brown & Donna M. Lloyd - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):348-359.
    We have previously found that attention to internal somatic sensations during a heart beat perception task increases the misperception of external touch on a somatic signal detection task , during which healthy participants erroneously report feeling near-threshold vibrations presented to their fingertip in the absence of a stimulus. However, it has been suggested that mindful interoceptive attention should result in more accurate somatic perception, due to its non-evaluative and controlled nature. To investigate this possibility, 62 participants completed the SSDT before (...)
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  12. On Whether the Higher-Order Thought Theory of Consciousness Entails Cognitive Phenomenology, Or: What is It Like to Think That One Thinks That P?Richard Brown & Pete Mandik - 2012 - Philosophical Topics 40 (2):1-12.
    Among our conscious states are conscious thoughts. The question at the center of the recent growing literature on cognitive phenomenology is this: In consciously thinking P, is there thereby any phenomenology—is there something it’s like? One way of clarifying the question is to say that it concerns whether there is any proprietary phenomenology associated with conscious thought. Is there any phenomenology due to thinking, as opposed to phenomenology that is due to some co-occurring sensation or mental image? In this paper (...)
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  13.  47
    Anosognosia in Alzheimer’s Disease – The Petrified Self.Daniel C. Mograbi, Richard G. Brown & Robin G. Morris - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):989-1003.
    This paper reviews the literature concerning the neural correlates of the self, the relationship between self and memory and the profile of memory impairments in Alzheimer’s disease and explores the relationship between the preservation of the self and anosognosia in this condition. It concludes that a potential explanation for anosognosia in AD is a lack of updating of personal information due to the memory impairments characteristic of this disease. We put forward the hypothesis that anosognosia is due in part to (...)
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  14.  62
    Know Thyself: Well-Being and Subjective Experience.Joseph LeDoux, Richard Brown, Daniel S. Pine & Stefan G. Hofmann - 2018 - Cerebrum (2018).
  15. What is a Brain State?Richard Brown - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (6):729-742.
    Philosophers have been talking about brain states for almost 50 years and as of yet no one has articulated a theoretical account of what one is. In fact this issue has received almost no attention and cognitive scientists still use meaningless phrases like 'C-fiber firing' and 'neuronal activity' when theorizing about the relation of the mind to the brain. To date when theorists do discuss brain states they usually do so in the context of making some other argument with the (...)
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  16.  16
    Japanese Society.Richard H. Brown & Chie Nakane - 1972 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 92 (4):546.
  17.  13
    Society as Text: Essays on Rhetoric, Reason, and Reality.Richard Harvey Brown - 1992 - University of Chicago Press.
    Brown makes elegant use of sociological theory and of insights from language philosophy, literary criticism, and rhetoric to articulate a new theory of the human sciences, using the powerful metaphor of society as text.
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  18. The Mark of the Mental.Richard Brown - 2007 - Southwest Philosophy Review 23 (1):117-124.
    [written in 2005/2006 while I was a graduate student at CUNY. This version was awarded The Southwestern Philosophical Society Presidential Prize for an outstanding paper by a graduate student or recent PhD and was subsequently published in Southwest Philosophy Review] The idea that there is something that it is like to have a thought is gaining acceptance in the philosophical community and has been argued for recently by several philosophers. Now, within this camp there is a debate about which component (...)
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  19.  86
    Review of 'The Consciousness Paradox: Consciousness, Concepts, and Higher-Order Thoughts' by Rocco J. Gennaro. [REVIEW]Richard Brown - 2012 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
    There is much that is interesting in Gennaro's discussion of concepts and concept acquisition, and in general I am very sympathetic to the goals of his book, even if not with every detail (for another account of these issues that I don't fully agree with see Rosenthal 2005, chapter 7). I agree that we have good reason to think that some version of a higher-order thought theory of consciousness could be true and that this is consistent with animals and infants (...)
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  20. The Making of Memory: The Politics of Archives, Libraries and Museums in the Construction of National Consciousness.Richard Harvey Brown & Beth Davis-Brown - 1998 - History of the Human Sciences 11 (4):17-32.
    An archive is a repository - that is, a place or space in which materials of historic interest or social significance are stored and ordered. A national archive is the storing and ordering place of the collective memory of that nation or people(s). This article provides a brief his torical/theoretical introduction to the politics of the archive in late capi talist societies and discusses this politics of memory via the performance of ordinary daily activities of librarians and archivists. Some relevant (...)
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  21. Rhetoric, Textuality, and the Postmodern Turn in Sociological Theory.Richard Harvey Brown - 1990 - Sociological Theory 8 (2):188-197.
  22.  28
    Social Theory as Metaphor On the Logic of Discovery for the Sciences of Conduct.Richard H. Brown - 1976 - Theory and Society 3 (2):169-197.
  23.  3
    The Postmodern in Sociological Theory, a Special Section Of.Richard Harvey Brown - 1990 - Sociological Theory 8 (2):188.
  24. Consciousness Inside and Out: Phenomenology, Neuroscience, and the Nature of Experience.Richard Brown (ed.) - 2013 - Springer Studies in Brain and Mind.
    This volume is product of the third online consciousness conference, held at http:// consciousnessonline. com in February and March 2011. Chapters range over epistemological issues in the science and philosophy of perception, what neuroscience can do to help us solve philosophical issues in the philosophy of mind, what the true nature of black and white vision, pain, auditory, olfactory, or multi-modal experiences are, to higher-order theories of consciousness, synesthesia, among others. Each chapter includes a target article, commentaries, and in most (...)
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  25.  37
    Reviews. [REVIEW]Franklin Scott, Jonathan Y. Tsou, Mark A. Schmuckler & Richard Brown - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (1):129 – 147.
  26.  24
    Social Science as Civic Discourse: Essays on the Invention, Legitimation, and Uses of Social Theory.Richard Harvey Brown - 1989 - University of Chicago Press.
    Richard Harvey Brown's pioneering explorations in the philosophy of social science and the theory of rhetoric reach a culmination in Social Science as Civic Discourse. In his earlier works, he argued for a logic of discovery and explanation in social science by showing that science and art both depend on metaphoric thinking, and he has applied that logic to society as a narrative text in which significant action by moral agents is possible. This new work is at once a philosophical (...)
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  27. Poetics, Politics and Professionalism in the Rise of American Psychology.Richard Harvey Brown - 1992 - History of the Human Sciences 5 (1):47-61.
  28.  96
    Knowledge, Education and Cultural Change: Papers in the Sociology of Education.Richard Brown - 1973 - British Journal of Educational Studies 21 (3):335-336.
  29.  57
    Dialectic and Structure in Jean-Paul Sartre and Claude Lévi-Strauss.Richard Harvey Brown - 1979 - Human Studies 2 (1):1-19.
    The things themselves, which only the limited brains of men and animals believe fixed and stationary, have no real existence at all. They are the flashing and sparks of drawn swords, the glow of victory in the conflict of opposing qualities. SummaryThe conflicts between the eristentialism of Jean‐Paul Sartre and the structuralism of Claude Lévi‐Strauss present a privileged site for illuminating larger conflicts in the human studies as a whole. The present paper argues that a method for addressing and perhaps (...)
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  30.  9
    Nietzsche and Kant on Permanence.Richard S. G. Brown - 1980 - Man and World 13 (1):39-52.
  31.  7
    Varieties of Argument in Indian Thought.Richard S. G. Brown - unknown
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  32.  5
    Economic Worth of Preventing Death at Different Ages in Developing Countries.Stephen Enke & Richard A. Brown - 1972 - Journal of Biosocial Science 4 (3):299-306.
  33.  95
    Conceptualizing Consciousness.Jacob Berger & Richard Brown - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-23.
    One of the most promising theories of consciousness currently available is higher-order thought (“HOT”) theory, according to which consciousness consists in having suitable HOTs regarding one’s mental life. But critiques of HOT theory abound. We explore here three recent objections to the theory, which we argue at bottom founder for the same reason. While many theorists today assume that consciousness is a feature of the actually existing mental states in virtue of which one has experiences, this assumption is in tension (...)
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  34. Book Review. [REVIEW]Richard Brown - 1976 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 96 (3):445.
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  35.  4
    Communlcatlre Actlon: An Lncomplete Pro] Ect.Richard Harvey Brown & Douglas Goodman - 2001 - In Barry Smart & George Ritzer (eds.), Handbook of Social Theory. Sage Publications.
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  36. Chalmers' “Unholy Stew”: Review of 'Constructing the World' by David Chalmers. [REVIEW]Richard Brown - 2013 - The Philosophers' Magazine 61 (61):115-118.
    This highly technical book is densely packed with arguments and is an important addition to the literature. Even if one ultimately disagrees with Chalmers there is much to be gained in his exhaustive study, and he goes out of his way to show how one can accept limited or modified versions of scrutability. It is impossible for me to do justice to his argumentative rigor and comprehensive coverage of possible views in the space I have here. In the end I (...)
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  37.  24
    Dialectic and Structure in Jean‐Paul Sartre and Claude Levi‐Strauss.Richard H. Brown - 1978 - Dialectica 32 (2):165-184.
    The things themselves, which only the limited brains of men and animals believe fixed and stationary, have no real existence at all. They are the flashing and sparks of drawn swords, the glow of victory in the conflict of opposing qualities. SummaryThe conflicts between the eristentialism of Jean‐Paul Sartre and the structuralism of Claude Lévi‐Strauss present a privileged site for illuminating larger conflicts in the human studies as a whole. The present paper argues that a method for addressing and perhaps (...)
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  38. David Chalmers on Mind and Consciousness.Richard Brown - 2014 - In Andrew Bailey (ed.), Philosophy of Mind: The Key Thinkers. Continuum. pp. 283-292.
  39.  3
    Editor's Introduction.Richard Harvey Brown - 1997 - Argumentation 11 (1):3-7.
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  40.  6
    For and Against Method: Including Lakatos's Lectures on Scientific Method and the Lakatos-Feyerabend Correspondence by Imre Lakatos; Paul Feyerabend; Matteo Motterlini. [REVIEW]Richard Brown - 2001 - Isis 92:643-643.
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  41.  13
    For and Against Method: Including Lakatos's Lectures on Scientific Method and the Lakatos-Feyerabend Correspondence. Imre Lakatos, Paul Feyerabend, Matteo Motterlini. [REVIEW]Richard Brown - 2001 - Isis 92 (3):643-643.
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  42. Greeks in Assyria: Some Overlooked Evidence.Richard B. Brown - 1984 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 77 (5):295.
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  43. Higher-Order Memory Schema and Conscious Experience.Richard Brown & Joseph LeDoux - 2020 - Cognitive Neuropsychology 37 (3-4):213-215.
    In the interesting and thought-provoking article Grazziano and colleagues argue for their Attention Schema Theory (AST) of consciousness. They present AST as a unification of Global Workspace Theory (GWT), Illusionism, and the Higher-Order Thought (HOT) theory. We argue it is a mistake to equate 'subjective experience,' ad related terms, with dualism. They simply denote experience. Also, as presented, AST does not accurately capture the essence of HOT for two reasons. HOT is presented as a version of strong illusionism, which it (...)
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  44.  36
    Historical Science as Linguistic Figuration.Richard Harvey Brown - 1985 - Theory and Society 14 (5):677-703.
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  45. Jürgen Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action: An Incomplete Project.Richard H. Brown & D. Goodman - 2001 - In Barry Smart & George Ritzer (eds.), Handbook of Social Theory. Sage Publications. pp. 201--216.
     
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  46.  33
    Jarmolych’s ”Nietzsche’s Concept of Consciousness”: A Commentary.Richard S. G. Brown - 1985 - International Studies in Philosophy 17 (2):79-82.
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  47.  6
    Japanese Society Today.Richard H. Brown & Tadashi Fukutake - 1976 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 96 (3):445.
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  48. Kant, Polysolipsism, and the Real Unity of Experience.Richard Brown - manuscript
    [written in 2002/2003 while I was a graduate student at the University of Connecticut and ultimately submitted as part of my qualifying exam for the Masters of Philosophy] The question I am interested in revolves around Kant’s notion of the unity of experience. My central claim will be that, apart from the unity of experiencings and the unity of individual substances, there is a third unity: the unity of Experience. I will argue that this third unity can be conceived of (...)
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  49. Language, Thought, Logic, and Existence.Richard Brown - 2007 - CALIPSO (Conference Addresses of the Long Island Philosophical Society Online) 1 (2):http://myweb.brooklyn.liu.edu/mc.
    As is well known, we can prove that everything that exists necessarily exists in S5. Perhaps as well known is Kripke’s two-part solution. First we forbid axioms with free variables and second we forbid the use of singular terms. One way to do the latter is via Nominal Description Theory (NDT): a name N is semantically equivalent to the description that mentions the name, e.g. ‘the-bearer-of-“N”’. But how do we reconcile NDT with the thesis of rigid designation? I argue that (...)
     
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  50. Moogles, and Chocobos, and Kripke? Oh My! Some Basic Issues in Contemporary Philosophy of Language, Kupo!Richard Brown - manuscript
    [originally written for Final Fantasy and Philosophy but I was not happy with editorial decisions and decided to let it remain unpublished] Everyone knows that moogles are disgustingly cute. I know people who would kill to be able to have one in real life, but could there really be moogles? Say, for instance, that archeologists discovered a species of animal in some remote land that completely resembled the chocobo in every way. Would that count as discovering that the beloved Final (...)
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