Results for 'Richard E. Michod'

999 found
Order:
  1.  54
    On the transfer of fitness from the cell to the multicellular organism.Richard E. Michod - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):967-987.
    The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic components: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness components drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ–soma specialization and the emergence of individuality at the cell group (or organism) level are also consequences of trade-offs between the two basic fitness (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   37 citations  
  2.  30
    Evolutionary transitions in individuality: multicellularity and sex.Richard E. Michod - 2011 - In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press. pp. 169--198.
    This chapter combines formal models of how the fitness of a collective can become decoupled from the fitness with more empirical work on the volvocine algae. It uses the Volvox clade as a model system. It describes the evolution of altruism in the volvocine green algae. This chapter suggests that altruism may evolve from genes involved in life-history trade-offs. It shows the several cooperation, conflict, and conflict mediation cycles in the volvocine green algae. This cycle of cooperation, conflict, and conflict (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  3.  33
    Positive heuristics in evolutionary biology.Richard E. Michod - 1981 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (1):1-36.
  4.  19
    On fitness and adaptedness and their role in evolutionary explanation.Richard E. Michod - 1986 - Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):289-302.
  5.  7
    Biology and the origin of values.Richard E. Michod - 1993 - In R. Michod, L. Nadel & M. Hechter (eds.), The Origin of Values. Aldine de Gruyer. pp. 261--271.
  6. On the Transfer of Fitness from the Cell to the Organism.Richard E. Michod - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy.(Forthcoming).
  7.  55
    Group Selection and Group Adaptation During a Major Evolutionary Transition: Insights from the Evolution of Multicellularity in the Volvocine Algae.Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):452-469.
    Adaptations can occur at different hierarchical levels (e.g., cells and multicellular organisms), but it can be difficult to identify the level(s) of adaptation in specific cases. A major problem is that selection at a lower level can filter up, creating the illusion of selection at a higher level. We use optimality modeling of the volvocine algae to explore the emergence of genuine group (i.e., colony-level) adaptations. We find that it is helpful to develop an explicit model for what group fitness (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  8.  9
    The role of metaphor in shaping scientific inquiry: Andrew Reynolds: The third lens: Metaphor and the creation of modern cell biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2018, 272 pp, $30.00 PB. [REVIEW]Richard E. Michod & Dinah R. Davison - 2023 - Metascience 32 (3):313-316.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  41
    Levels of selection and the formal Darwinism project.Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):217-224.
    Understanding good design requires addressing the question of what units undergo natural selection, thereby becoming adapted. There is, therefore, a natural connection between the formal Darwinism project (which aims to connect population genetics with the evolution of design and fitness maximization) and levels of selection issues. We argue that the formal Darwinism project offers contradictory and confusing lines of thinking concerning level(s) of selection. The project favors multicellular organisms over both the lower (cell) and higher (social group) levels as the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  10.  90
    Philosophical foundations for the hierarchy of life.Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):391-403.
    We review Evolution and the Levels of Selection by Samir Okasha. This important book provides a cohesive philosophical framework for understanding levels-of-selections problems in biology. Concerning evolutionary transitions, Okasha proposes that three stages characterize the shift from a lower level of selection to a higher one. We discuss the application of Okasha’s three-stage concept to the evolutionary transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in the volvocine green algae. Okasha’s concepts are a provocative step towards a more general understanding of the major (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  11.  13
    Stress Responses Co‐Opted for Specialized Cell Types During the Early Evolution of Multicellularity.Aurora M. Nedelcu & Richard E. Michod - 2020 - Bioessays 42 (5):2000029.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  15
    The role of metaphor in shaping scientific inquiry.Dinah R. Davison & Richard E. Michod - forthcoming - Metascience:1-4.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13. Fitness and evolutionary explanation. [REVIEW]Henry C. Byerly & Richard E. Michod - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):45-53.
    Recent philosophical discussions have failed to clarify the roles of the concept fitness in evolutionary theory. Neither the propensity interpretation of fitness nor the construal of fitness as a primitive theoretical term succeed in explicating the empirical content and explanatory power of the theory of natural selection. By appealing to the structure of simple mathematical models of natural selection, we separate out different contrasts which have tended to confuse discussions of fitness: the distinction between what fitness is defined as versus (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  14. Evolution of Individuality: A Case Study in the Volvocine Green Algae.Erik R. Hanschen, Dinah R. Davison, Zachariah I. Grochau-Wright & Richard E. Michod - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (3).
    All disciplines must define their basic units and core processes. In evolutionary biology, the core process is natural selection and the basic unit of selection and adaptation is the individual. To operationalize the theory of natural selection we must count individuals, as they are the bearers of fitness. While canonical individuals have often been taken to be multicellular organisms, the hierarchy of life shows that new kinds of individuals have evolved. A variety of criteria have been used to define biological (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  15.  21
    Did Human Culture Emerge in a Cultural Evolutionary Transition in Individuality?Dinah R. Davison, Claes Andersson, Richard E. Michod & Steven L. Kuhn - 2021 - Biological Theory 16 (4):213-236.
    Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality have been responsible for the major transitions in levels of selection and individuality in natural history, such as the origins of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms, and eusocial insects. The integrated hierarchical organization of life thereby emerged as groups of individuals repeatedly evolved into new and more complex kinds of individuals. The Social Protocell Hypothesis proposes that the integrated hierarchical organization of human culture can also be understood as the outcome of an ETI—one that produced (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16.  60
    Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes.Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy D. Wilson - 1977 - Psychological Review; Psychological Review 84 (3):231.
  17. Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgment.Richard E. Nisbett & Lee Ross - 1980 - Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.
  18. Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes.Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy D. Wilson - 1977 - Psychological Review 84 (3):231-59.
    Reviews evidence which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Ss are sometimes unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, unaware of the existence of the response, and unaware that the stimulus has affected the response. It is proposed that when people attempt to report on their cognitive processes, that is, on the processes mediating the effects of a stimulus on a response, they do not do (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1508 citations  
  19.  86
    Culture and systems of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition.Richard E. Nisbett, Kaiping Peng, Incheol Choi & Ara Norenzayan - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (2):291-310.
    The authors find East Asians to be holistic, attending to the entire field and assigning causality to it, making relatively little use of categories and formal logic, and relying on "dialectical" reasoning, whereas Westerners, are more analytic, paying attention primarily to the object and the categories to which it belongs and using rules, including formal logic, to understand its behavior. The 2 types of cognitive processes are embedded in different naive metaphysical systems and tacit epistemologies. The authors speculate that the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   280 citations  
  20.  25
    Socrates' alleged suicide.Richard E. Walton - 1980 - Journal of Value Inquiry 14 (3-4):287-299.
  21.  23
    The Mercy Argument for Euthanasia: Some Logical Considerations.Richard E. Walton - 1993 - Public Affairs Quarterly 7 (1):71-84.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22.  61
    Intentionality: An Essay in the Philosophy of Mind.Richard E. Aquila - 1985 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 46 (1):159-170.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   199 citations  
  23.  23
    Depth-first iterative-deepening.Richard E. Korf - 1985 - Artificial Intelligence 27 (1):97-109.
  24. Artifacts: Parts and principles.Richard E. Grandy - 2007 - In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), Creations of the Mind: Theories of Artifacts and Their Representaion. Oxford University Press. pp. 18--32.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  25.  72
    The halo effect: Evidence for unconscious alteration of judgments.Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy D. Wilson - 1977 - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35 (4):250-256.
    Staged 2 different videotaped interviews with the same individual—a college instructor who spoke English with a European accent. In one of the interviews the instructor was warm and friendly, in the other, cold and distant. 118 undergraduates were asked to evaluate the instructor. Ss who saw the warm instructor rated his appearance, mannerisms, and accent as appealing, whereas those who saw the cold instructor rated these attributes as irritating. Results indicate that global evaluations of a person can induce altered evaluations (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   153 citations  
  26.  27
    The weak truth table degrees of recursively enumerable sets.Richard E. Ladner & Leonard P. Sasso - 1975 - Annals of Mathematical Logic 8 (4):429-448.
  27. Rules for reasoning.Richard E. Nisbett (ed.) - 1993 - Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.
    This book examines two questions: Do people make use of abstract rules such as logical and statistical rules when making inferences in everyday life? Can such abstract rules be changed by training? Contrary to the spirit of reductionist theories from behaviorism to connectionism, there is ample evidence that people do make use of abstract rules of inference -- including rules of logic, statistics, causal deduction, and cost-benefit analysis. Such rules, moreover, are easily alterable by instruction as it occurs in classrooms (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  28.  28
    Hermeneutics.Richard E. Palmer - 1969 - Northwestern University Press.
    This classic, first published in 1969, introduces to English-speaking readers a field which is of increasing importance in contemporary philosophy and theology--hermeneutics, the theory of understanding, or interpretation. Richard E. Palmer, utilizing largely untranslated sources, treats principally of the conception of hermeneutics enunciated by Heidegger and developed into a "philosophical hermeneutics" by Hans-Georg Gadamer. He provides a brief overview of the field by surveying some half-dozen alternate definitions of the term and by examining in detail the contributions of Friedrich (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   34 citations  
  29.  17
    Real-time heuristic search.Richard E. Korf - 1990 - Artificial Intelligence 42 (2-3):189-211.
  30. The Evolutionary Origin of Complex Features.Richard E. Lenski - 2003 - 423 (May):139–144.
    A long-standing challenge to evolutionary theory has been whether it can explain the origin of complex organismal features. We examined this issue using digital organisms—computer programs that self-replicate, mutate, compete and evolve. Populations of digital organisms often evolved the ability to perform complex logic functions requiring the coordinated execution of many genomic instructions. Complex functions evolved by building on simpler functions that had evolved earlier, provided that these were also selectively favoured. However, no particular intermediate stage was essential for evolving (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   27 citations  
  31.  15
    Linear-space best-first search.Richard E. Korf - 1993 - Artificial Intelligence 62 (1):41-78.
  32.  8
    Planning as search: A quantitative approach.Richard E. Korf - 1987 - Artificial Intelligence 33 (1):65-88.
  33. Sartre's Other and The Field of Consciousness: A ‘Husserlian’ Reading.Richard E. Aquila - 2002 - European Journal of Philosophy 6 (3):253-276.
  34.  46
    The use of statistical heuristics in everyday inductive reasoning.Richard E. Nisbett, David H. Krantz, Christopher Jepson & Ziva Kunda - 1983 - Psychological Review 90 (4):339-363.
  35.  58
    Sortals.Richard E. Grandy - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   27 citations  
  36.  16
    Evolutionary causation: how proximate is ultimate?Richard E. Whalen - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):202-203.
  37.  73
    Philosophical grounds of rationality: intentions, categories, ends.Richard E. Grandy & Richard Warner (eds.) - 1986 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    H.P. Grice is known principally for his influential contributions to the philosophy of language, but his work also includes treatises on the philosophy of mind, ethics, and metaphysics--much of which is unpublished to date. This collection of original essays by such philosophers as Nancy Cartwright, Donald Davidson, Gilbert Harman, and P.F. Strawson demonstrates the unified and powerful character of Grice's thoughts on being, mind, meaning, and morals. An introductory essay by the editors provides the first overview of Grice's work.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
  38. An information processing framework for research on human reasoning.Richard E. Mayer & Russell Revlin - 1978 - In Russell Revlin & Richard E. Mayer (eds.), Human Reasoning. Distributed Solely by Halsted Press.
  39.  28
    Strips: A new approach to the application of theorem proving to problem solving.Richard E. Fikes & Nils J. Nilsson - 1971 - Artificial Intelligence 2 (3-4):189-208.
  40. Principles of health care ethics.Richard E. Ashcroft (ed.) - 2007 - Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    Edited by four leading members of the new generation of medical and healthcare ethicists working in the UK, respected worldwide for their work in medical ethics, Principles of Health Care Ethics, Second Edition_is a standard resource for students, professionals, and academics wishing to understand current and future issues in healthcare ethics. With a distinguished international panel of contributors working at the leading edge of academia, this volume presents a comprehensive guide to the field, with state of the art introductions to (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  41.  12
    Mindware: tools for smart thinking.Richard E. Nisbett - 2015 - New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    Thinking about thought -- Everything's an inference -- Out of context or the situation -- The rational unconscious -- The formerly dismal science -- Should you think like an economist? -- Spilt milk and free lunch -- Foiling foibles -- Coding, counting, correlation, and causality -- Odds and Ns -- Linked up -- Experiments -- Ignore the hippo -- Experiments natural and experiments proper -- Eekonomics -- Don't ask, can't tell -- Thinking, straight and curved -- Logic -- Dialecticism -- (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  42. Implications of Socio-Cultural Contexts for the Ethics of Clinical Trials.Richard E. Ashcroft, D. Chadwick, S. Clark, Richard H. T. Edwards & Lucy Frith - 1997 - Core Research.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  43.  9
    Macro-operators: A weak method for learning.Richard E. Korf - 1985 - Artificial Intelligence 26 (1):35-77.
  44. Improving inductive inference.Richard E. Nisbett, David H. Krantz, Christopher Jepson & Geoffrey T. Fong - 1982 - In Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic & Amos Tversky (eds.), Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Cambridge University Press.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  45.  29
    Child Workers, Globalization, and International Business Ethics.Richard E. Wokutch - 2005 - Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (4):615-640.
    Disputes regarding the ethics of work by children have intensified in recent years, with little resolution. The impasses stem from failure to recognize the diverse forms of child work and a lack of empirical research regarding its causes and consequences. We report on data gathered in Brazil’s export-oriented shoe industry, which is notorious for the employment of children. Central findings are: 1) the causes of child work have less to do with backwardness and more to do with how shoe workers (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  46.  18
    Reinforcement, extinction, and spontaneous recovery in a non-Pavlovian reaction.Richard E. P. Youtz - 1938 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 (4):305.
  47.  24
    The change with time of a Thorndikian response in the rat.Richard E. P. Youtz - 1938 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 23 (2):128.
  48.  15
    Autobiographical memory in dysphoric and non‐dysphoric college students using a computerised version of the AMT.Richard E. Zinbarg, Kathleen Newcomb Rekart & Susan Mineka - 2006 - Cognition and Emotion 20 (3-4):506-515.
  49.  66
    Medial frontal cortex: from self-generated action to reflection on one's own performance.Richard E. Passingham, Sara L. Bengtsson & Hakwan C. Lau - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (1):16-21.
  50.  11
    Disjoint pattern database heuristics.Richard E. Korf & Ariel Felner - 2002 - Artificial Intelligence 134 (1-2):9-22.
1 — 50 / 999