Results for 'Richard E. Michod'

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  1.  45
    On the Transfer of Fitness From the Cell to the Multicellular Organism.Richard E. Michod - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):967-987.
    The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic components: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness components drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ–soma specialization and the emergence of individuality at the cell group (or organism) level are also consequences of trade-offs between the two basic fitness (...)
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  2.  19
    Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality: Multicellularity and Sex.Richard E. Michod - 2011 - In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press. pp. 169--198.
    This chapter combines formal models of how the fitness of a collective can become decoupled from the fitness with more empirical work on the volvocine algae. It uses the Volvox clade as a model system. It describes the evolution of altruism in the volvocine green algae. This chapter suggests that altruism may evolve from genes involved in life-history trade-offs. It shows the several cooperation, conflict, and conflict mediation cycles in the volvocine green algae. This cycle of cooperation, conflict, and conflict (...)
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  3.  20
    Positive Heuristics in Evolutionary Biology.Richard E. Michod - 1981 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (1):1-36.
  4. Darwinian Dynamics: Evolutionary Transitions in Fitness and Individuality. By Richard E. Michod.P. S. Timiras - 2002 - The European Legacy 7 (4):532-532.
  5.  16
    On Fitness and Adaptedness and Their Role in Evolutionary Explanation.Richard E. Michod - 1986 - Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):289-302.
  6.  31
    Group Selection and Group Adaptation During a Major Evolutionary Transition: Insights From the Evolution of Multicellularity in the Volvocine Algae.Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):452-469.
    Adaptations can occur at different hierarchical levels, but it can be difficult to identify the level of adaptation in specific cases. A major problem is that selection at a lower level can filter up, creating the illusion of selection at a higher level. We use optimality modeling of the volvocine algae to explore the emergence of genuine group adaptations. We find that it is helpful to develop an explicit model for what group fitness would be in the absence of group-level (...)
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  7.  27
    Levels of Selection and the Formal Darwinism Project.Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):217-224.
    Understanding good design requires addressing the question of what units undergo natural selection, thereby becoming adapted. There is, therefore, a natural connection between the formal Darwinism project (which aims to connect population genetics with the evolution of design and fitness maximization) and levels of selection issues. We argue that the formal Darwinism project offers contradictory and confusing lines of thinking concerning level(s) of selection. The project favors multicellular organisms over both the lower (cell) and higher (social group) levels as the (...)
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  8.  84
    Philosophical Foundations for the Hierarchy of Life.Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):391-403.
    We review Evolution and the Levels of Selection by Samir Okasha. This important book provides a cohesive philosophical framework for understanding levels-of-selections problems in biology. Concerning evolutionary transitions, Okasha proposes that three stages characterize the shift from a lower level of selection to a higher one. We discuss the application of Okasha’s three-stage concept to the evolutionary transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in the volvocine green algae. Okasha’s concepts are a provocative step towards a more general understanding of the major (...)
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  9.  85
    Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation. [REVIEW]Henry C. Byerly & Richard E. Michod - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):45-53.
    Recent philosophical discussions have failed to clarify the roles of the concept fitness in evolutionary theory. Neither the propensity interpretation of fitness nor the construal of fitness as a primitive theoretical term succeed in explicating the empirical content and explanatory power of the theory of natural selection. By appealing to the structure of simple mathematical models of natural selection, we separate out different contrasts which have tended to confuse discussions of fitness: the distinction between what fitness is defined as versus (...)
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  10. Evolution of Individuality: A Case Study in the Volvocine Green Algae.Erik R. Hanschen, Dinah R. Davison, Zachariah I. Grochau-Wright & Richard E. Michod - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (3).
    All disciplines must define their basic units and core processes. In evolutionary biology, the core process is natural selection and the basic unit of selection and adaptation is the individual. To operationalize the theory of natural selection we must count individuals, as they are the bearers of fitness. While canonical individuals have often been taken to be multicellular organisms, the hierarchy of life shows that new kinds of individuals have evolved. A variety of criteria have been used to define biological (...)
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  11.  11
    Darwinian Dynamics: Evolutionary Transitions in Fitness and Individuality by Richard E. Michod.Jeffrey Ihara - 1999 - Complexity 5 (1):42-43.
  12.  1
    Biology and the Origin of Values.Richard E. Michod - 1993 - In R. Michod, L. Nadel & M. Hechter (eds.), The Origin of Values. Aldine de Gruyer. pp. 261--271.
  13. On the Transfer of Fitness From the Cell to the Organism.Richard E. Michod - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy.(Forthcoming).
  14.  5
    Stress Responses Co‐Opted for Specialized Cell Types During the Early Evolution of Multicellularity.Aurora M. Nedelcu & Richard E. Michod - 2020 - Bioessays 42 (5):2000029.
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  15. Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgment.Richard E. Nisbett & Lee Ross - 1980 - Prentice-Hall.
  16.  88
    A Response to Richard Wolin on Gadamer and the Nazis.Richard E. Palmer - 2002 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 10 (4):467 – 482.
    Richard Wolin, in his article 'Nazism and the Complicities of Hans-Georg Gadamer: Untruth and Method' ( New Republic , 15 May 2000, pp. 36-45), wrongly accuses Gadamer of being 'in complicity' with the Nazis. The present article in reply was rejected by the New Republic , but is printed here to show that Wolin in his article is misinformed and unfair. First, Wolin makes elementary factual errors, such as stating that Gadamer was born in Breslau instead of Marburg. He (...)
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  17. Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes.Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy D. Wilson~ - 1977 - Psychological Review 84 (3):231-59.
    Reviews evidence which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Ss are sometimes unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, unaware of the existence of the response, and unaware that the stimulus has affected the response. It is proposed that when people attempt to report on their cognitive processes, that is, on the processes mediating the effects of a stimulus on a response, they do not do (...)
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  18.  7
    Evolutionary Causation: How Proximate is Ultimate?Richard E. Whalen - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):202-203.
  19.  31
    Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes.Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy D. Wilson - 1977 - Psychological Review; Psychological Review 84 (3):231.
  20. The Geography of Thought How Asians and Westerners Think Differently--And Why.Richard E. Nisbett - 2003
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  21.  25
    Child Workers, Globalization, and International Business Ethics: A Case Study in Brazil’s Export-Oriented Shoe Industry.Richard E. Wokutch - 2005 - Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (4):615-640.
    Disputes regarding the ethics of work by children have intensified in recent years, with little resolution. The impasses stem from failure to recognize the diverse forms of child work and a lack of empirical research regarding its causes and consequences. We report on data gathered in Brazil’s export-oriented shoe industry, which is notorious for the employment of children. Central findings are: 1) the causes of child work have less to do with backwardness and more to do with how shoe workers (...)
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  22.  42
    Culture and Systems of Thought: Holistic Versus Analytic Cognition.Richard E. Nisbett, Kaiping Peng, Incheol Choi & Ara Norenzayan - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (2):291-310.
    The authors find East Asians to be holistic, attending to the entire field and assigning causality to it, making relatively little use of categories and formal logic, and relying on "dialectical" reasoning, whereas Westerners, are more analytic, paying attention primarily to the object and the categories to which it belongs and using rules, including formal logic, to understand its behavior. The 2 types of cognitive processes are embedded in different naive metaphysical systems and tacit epistemologies. The authors speculate that the (...)
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  23.  15
    Language, Mind, and Knowledge.Richard E. Grandy - 1978 - Philosophical Review 87 (4):644-648.
  24.  38
    Intentionality: An Essay in the Philosophy of Mind.Richard E. Aquila - 1985 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 46 (1):159-170.
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  25.  28
    Atheism and Freedom: A Response to Sartre and Baier: RICHARD E. CREEL.Richard E. Creel - 1984 - Religious Studies 20 (2):281-291.
    A few years ago I ran across a statement by Jean-Paul Sartre which seemed to imply that if there is a God, then there can be no human freedom. That thesis struck me as questionable, but at the time I did not pause to examine it. More recently I ran across a similar, more explicit statement by Kurt Baier, and I decided the time to pause had come. My knee-jerk response to Baier – and I confess it was probably nothing (...)
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  26.  22
    The Halo Effect: Evidence for Unconscious Alteration of Judgments.Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy D. Wilson - 1977 - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35 (4):250-256.
    Staged 2 different videotaped interviews with the same individual—a college instructor who spoke English with a European accent. In one of the interviews the instructor was warm and friendly, in the other, cold and distant. 118 undergraduates were asked to evaluate the instructor. Ss who saw the warm instructor rated his appearance, mannerisms, and accent as appealing, whereas those who saw the cold instructor rated these attributes as irritating. Results indicate that global evaluations of a person can induce altered evaluations (...)
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  27.  34
    Can God Know That He Is God?: RICHARD E. CREEL.Richard E. Creel - 1980 - Religious Studies 16 (2):195-201.
    While reflecting one day on the enormous difficulties that men have in knowing that there is a God, a completely unexpected and unfamiliar question drifted into my purview – perhaps as a kind of ultimate expression of my philosophical frustration. ‘Indeed’, the question asked, ‘can even God know that he is God?’ At first I thought this query merely amusing. ‘Wouldn't it be funny if God cannot know that he is God! But of course he can.’ So my mind wandered (...)
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  28.  23
    Happiness and Resurrection: A Reply to Morreall: RICHARD E. CREEL.Richard E. Creel - 1981 - Religious Studies 17 (3):387-393.
  29.  47
    Rationality and Charity.Paul Thagard & Richard E. Nisbett - 1983 - Philosophy of Science 50 (2):250-267.
    Quine and others have recommended principles of charity which discourage judgments of irrationality. Such principles have been proposed to govern translation, psychology, and economics. After comparing principles of charity of different degrees of severity, we argue that the stronger principles are likely to block understanding of human behavior and impede progress toward improving it. We support a moderate principle of charity which leaves room for empirically justified judgments of irrationality.
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  30.  19
    Convention: A Philosophical Study.Richard E. Grandy - 1977 - Journal of Philosophy 74 (2):129-139.
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  31.  22
    The Use of Statistical Heuristics in Everyday Inductive Reasoning.Richard E. Nisbett, David H. Krantz, Christopher Jepson & Ziva Kunda - 1983 - Psychological Review 90 (4):339-363.
  32. The Influence of Culture: Holistic Versus Analytic Perception.Richard E. Nisbett & Yuri Miyamoto - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (10):467-473.
  33.  7
    Realizing Brouwer's Sequences.Richard E. Vesley - 1996 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 81 (1-3):25-74.
    When Kleene extended his recursive realizability interpretation from intuitionistic arithmetic to analysis, he was forced to use more than recursive functions to interpret sequences and conditional constructions. In fact, he used what classically appears to be the full continuum. We describe here a generalization to higher type of Kleene's realizability, one case of which, -realizability, uses general recursive functions throughout, both to realize theorems and to interpret choice sequences. -realizability validates a version of the bar theorem and the usual continuity (...)
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  34.  58
    The Circle of Acquaintance. Perception, Consciousness and Empathy.Richard E. Aquila - 1992 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (4):994-997.
  35.  36
    On Schiffer’s Desires.Richard E. Grandy & Stephen L. Darwall - 1979 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 17 (2):193-198.
  36.  35
    Variability and Confirmation.Paul Thagard & Richard E. Nisbett - 1982 - Philosophical Studies 42 (3):379-394.
  37.  14
    Politics, Central Banking, and Economic Order.Richard E. Wagner - 1989 - Critical Review 3 (3-4):505-517.
    SECRETS OF THE TEMPLE : HOW THE FEDERAL RESERVE RUNS THE COUNTRY by William Greider New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987. 798 pp., $24.95 Greider pursues the theme that the Federal Reserve System promotes the interests of Wall Street?banks and bondholders?over those of Main Street?the rest of society. The wealth of fascinating observations he makes are, unfortunately, organized by a 1950s?style Keynesianism and a faith in unlimited, majoritarian democracy. Neither of these beliefs are at all adequate for remedying the deficiencies (...)
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  38.  82
    Kant’s Phenomenalism.Richard E. Aquila - 1975 - Idealistic Studies 5 (2):108-126.
    I want to state as clearly as I can the sense in which Kant is, and the sense in which he is not, a phenomenalist. And I also want to state the argument which Kant presents, in the Transcendental Deduction, for his particular version of phenomenalism. Since that doctrine has been stated by Kant himself as the view that we have knowledge of “appearances” only, and not of things in themselves, or that material objects are nothing but a species of (...)
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  39.  92
    The Evolutionary Origin of Complex Features.Richard E. Lenski - unknown
    A long-standing challenge to evolutionary theory has been whether it can explain the origin of complex organismal features. We examined this issue using digital organisms—computer programs that self-replicate, mutate, compete and evolve. Populations of digital organisms often evolved the ability to perform complex logic functions requiring the coordinated execution of many genomic instructions. Complex functions evolved by building on simpler functions that had evolved earlier, provided that these were also selectively favoured. However, no particular intermediate stage was essential for evolving (...)
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  40.  42
    Medial Frontal Cortex: From Self-Generated Action to Reflection on One's Own Performance.Richard E. Passingham, Sara L. Bengtsson & Hakwan C. Lau - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (1):16-21.
  41.  26
    Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism.Richard E. Flathman - 1965 - Ethics 76 (4):309-317.
  42.  46
    Philosophical Grounds of Rationality: Intentions, Categories, Ends.Richard E. Grandy & Richard Warner (eds.) - 1986 - Oxford University Press.
    H.P. Grice is known principally for his influential contributions to the philosophy of language, but his work also includes treatises on the philosophy of mind, ethics, and metaphysics--much of which is unpublished to date. This collection of original essays by such philosophers as Nancy Cartwright, Donald Davidson, Gilbert Harman, and P.F. Strawson demonstrates the unified and powerful character of Grice's thoughts on being, mind, meaning, and morals. An introductory essay by the editors provides the first overview of Grice's work.
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  43.  18
    The Carolingian Missionary and the Pagan.Richard E. Sullivan - 1953 - Speculum 28 (4):705-740.
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  44.  38
    Unity of Organism, Unity of Thought, and the Unity of the Critique of Judgment.Richard E. Aquila - 1992 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 30 (S1):139-155.
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  45.  25
    Antagonistic Neural Networks Underlying Differentiated Leadership Roles.Richard E. Boyatzis, Kylie Rochford & Anthony I. Jack - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  46.  2
    Psychological Processes Underlying Persuasion: A Social Psychological Approach.Richard E. Petty & Pablo Briñol - 2008 - Diogenes 55 (1):52-67.
    In this article, the authors review a contemporary social psychological perspective on persuasion with an emphasis on explicating the psychological processes that underlie successful attitude change. Those mechanisms by which variables in the persuasion setting can influence attitude change are: affect the amount of information processing; bias the thoughts that are generated or one’s confidence in those thoughts ; serve as persuasive arguments or evidence or affect attitudes by serving as simple cues and heuristics. By grouping the persuasion processes into (...)
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  47.  7
    Challenging the Challengers of Szasz's Psychiatric Will.Richard E. Vatz, Lee S. Weinberg, Nathaniel Laor, Paul Chodoff & Roger Peele - 1983 - Hastings Center Report 13 (6):44.
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  48.  11
    Sexual Motivation.Richard E. Whalen - 1966 - Psychological Review 73 (2):151-163.
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  49.  77
    Rules for Reasoning.Richard E. Nisbett (ed.) - 1993 - L. Erlbaum Associates.
    This book examines two questions: Do people make use of abstract rules such as logical and statistical rules when making inferences in everyday life? Can such abstract rules be changed by training? Contrary to the spirit of reductionist theories from behaviorism to connectionism, there is ample evidence that people do make use of abstract rules of inference -- including rules of logic, statistics, causal deduction, and cost-benefit analysis. Such rules, moreover, are easily alterable by instruction as it occurs in classrooms (...)
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  50.  30
    Medial Frontal Cortex: From Self-Generated Action to Reflection on One's Own Performance.Hakwan C. Lau Richard E. Passingham, Sara L. Bengtsson - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (1):16.
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