This study examines the impact of Islamic Work Ethic on organizational citizenship behaviors and knowledge-sharing behaviors among university employees in Pakistan. A total of 215 respondents from public sector educational institutions participated in this research. The findings suggest that IWE has a positive effect on OCBs. In other words, individuals with high IWE demonstrate more citizenship behaviors than those with low IWE. The findings also suggest a positive effect of IWE on KSBs. Individuals with high IWE exhibit more KSBs than (...) those with low IWE. The paper also discusses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. (shrink)
Liberal peacebuilding, a dominant form of peacebuilding since the post-Cold War era, has involved multifaceted approaches, countless resources, multiple actors and significant efforts and yet, because of its standardized model and exclusion of local culture, resources and actors it has failed to achieve sustainable peace and development. Local peacebuilding practices, on the other hand, are mostly inclusive and culturally relevant but are not immune to power abuse, exclusion and inhumane practices. This essay explores the possibility of utilizing hybrid peacebuilding—collaboration of (...) local and international actors and resources—to attain sustainable peace in conflict-ridden countries. It commences with a critique of liberal peacebuilding. It then analyzes the notion of hybridity and hybrid peacebuilding, and seeks to answer why hybrid peacebuilding seems to be an emancipatory alternative to liberal peacebuilding. (shrink)
Jama’at-i-Islami is one of the most prominent religious parties of Pakistan that also take active part in the politics of the country. The party is credited with the introduction of Islamic element in the political and constitutional set up of Pakistan. This paper highlights the efforts of the party for the enforcement of Islamic Constitution soon after the creation of Pakistan up to the enforcement of the Constitution of 1956. The style, ideas and politics of the party regarding the Islamic (...) Constitution in Pakistan from 1947 to 1956 are the main focus of the discussion. The second part of the paper deals with the contribution of the Jama’at in the Ahmadiyah issue. How reluctantly the party was involved in the issue and in what way could it win the sympathy of the people as a main leading force of the campaign against Ahmadiya influence in 1953 have been examined in the course of the discussion. (shrink)
This paper is an attempt to analyze the impact of micro financing to induce empowerment to those women who avail the facility of micro-credit in Pakistani society. The study examines the various business activities of women in Karachi who got capital through micro-financing and their socioeconomic status in family as well as society. The women empowerment as dependent variable has been used with three explanatory variables which are amount of micro-finance credit, age of the women and her family support to (...) run her business. Logit Model is applied to assess the level of women empowerment because of binary dependent variable. Primary data has been collected through a questionnaire and in this way this is the first study in this research area using this methodology. Findings of the study indicates a positive correlation of all the variables to cause empowerment of women while family support to a woman has statistically significant impact to a woman. The study indicates the possibility of an improvement of society wellbeing and women empowerment if the direction of micro finance is focused towards women while the study is limited to Karachi region. (shrink)
Biometrics is essentially a pattern recognition system that recognizes an individual using their unique anatomical or behavioral patterns such as face, fingerprint, iris, signature etc. Recent researches have shown that many biometric traits are vulnerable to spoof attacks. Moreover, recent works showed that, contrary to a common belief, multimodal biometric systems in parallel fusion mode can be intruded even if only one trait is spoofed. However, most of the results were obtained using simulated spoof attacks, under the assumption that the (...) spoofed and genuine samples are indistinguishable, which may not be true for all biometric traits. In addition, so far vulnerability of multimodal biometric systems in serial fusion mode against spoof attacks has not been investigated. These issues raise a demand to investigate the robustness of multimodal systems under realistic spoof attacks. In this paper, we empirically investigate the performance of serial and parallel biometric fusion modes under realistic spoof attacks. Preliminary empirical results on real biometric systems made up of face, fingerprint and iris confirm that multimodal biometric systems in both fusion modes are not intrinsically robust against spoof attacks as believed so far. In particular, multimodal biometric systems in serial fusion mode can be even less robust than systems in parallel mode. We also experimentally found that incorporating the biometric sample quality in biometric fusion increases the robustness of the multimodal systems against spoof attacks. In the end, we study the trade-off between performance and robustness of the biometric systems under spoof attacks. (shrink)
Errors have been the concern of providers and consumers of health care services. However, consumers' perception of medical errors in developing countries is rarely explored. The aim of this study is to assess community members' perceptions about medical errors and to analyse the factors affecting this perception in one Middle East country, Oman.