Results for 'Robert A. Kowalski'

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  1.  62
    Abstract argumentation.Robert A. Kowalski & Francesca Toni - 1996 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 4 (3-4):275-296.
    In this paper we explore the thesis that the role of argumentation in practical reasoning in general and legal reasoning in particular is to justify the use of defeasible rules to derive a conclusion in preference to the use of other defeasible rules to derive a conflicting conclusion. The defeasibility of rules is expressed by means of non-provability claims as additional conditions of the rules.We outline an abstract approach to defeasible reasoning and argumentation which includes many existing formalisms, including default (...)
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  2.  9
    Computational Logic: Logic Programming and Beyond: Essays in Honour of Robert A. Kowalski, Part I.Antonis C. Kakas & Robert Kowalski - 2002 - Springer.
    Alan Robinson This set of essays pays tribute to Bob Kowalski on his 60th birthday, an anniversary which gives his friends and colleagues an excuse to celebrate his career as an original thinker, a charismatic communicator, and a forceful intellectual leader. The logic programming community hereby and herein conveys its respect and thanks to him for his pivotal role in creating and fostering the conceptual paradigm which is its raison d’Œtre. The diversity of interests covered here reflects the variety (...)
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  3.  14
    The Power of a Propositional Constant.Robert Goldblatt & Tomasz Kowalski - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (1):133-152.
    Monomodal logic has exactly two maximally normal logics, which are also the only quasi-normal logics that are Post complete, and they are complete for validity in Kripke frames. Here we show that addition of a propositional constant to monomodal logic allows the construction of continuum many maximally normal logics that are not valid in any Kripke frame, or even in any complete modal algebra. We also construct continuum many quasi-normal Post complete logics that are not normal. The set of extensions (...)
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  4.  61
    The Power of a Propositional Constant.Robert Goldblatt & Tomasz Kowalski - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic (1):1-20.
    Monomodal logic has exactly two maximally normal logics, which are also the only quasi-normal logics that are Post complete, and they are complete for validity in Kripke frames. Here we show that addition of a propositional constant to monomodal logic allows the construction of continuum many maximally normal logics that are not valid in any Kripke frame, or even in any complete modal algebra. We also construct continuum many quasi-normal Post complete logics that are not normal. The set of extensions (...)
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  5.  57
    The Use of Logical Models in Legal Problem Solving.Robert Kowalski & Marek Sergot - 1990 - Ratio Juris 3 (2):201-218.
    The authors describe a logic programming approach to the representation of legislative texts. They consider the potential uses of simple systems which incorporate a single, fixed interpretation of a text. These include assisting in the routine administration of complex areas of the law. The authors also consider the possibility of constructing more complex systems which incorporate several, possibly conflicting interpretations. Such systems are needed for dealing with ambiguity and vagueness in the law. Moreover, they are more suitable than single interpretation (...)
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  6.  10
    Logic Programming: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference and Symposium.Robert Kowalski & Kenneth A. Bowen - 1988 - MIT Press (MA).
    These two volumes collect papers presented at the first joint meeting of the two principal logic programming conferences, held in August of 1988. The more than fifty contributions cover all aspects of the field, including applications (particularly those that exploit the unique character of logic programming), the role of logic programming in artificial intelligence, deductive databases, relations to other computational paradigms, language issues, methodology, implementations on sequential and parallel architectures, and theory.Logic Programming is included in the Logic Programming series Research (...)
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  7.  32
    Logical English meets legal English for swaps and derivatives.Robert Kowalski & Akber Datoo - 2022 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 30 (2):163-197.
    In this paper, we present an informal introduction to Logical English and illustrate its use to standardise the legal wording of the Automatic Early Termination clauses of International Swaps and Derivatives Association Agreements. LE can be viewed both as an alternative to conventional legal English for expressing legal documents, and as an alternative to conventional computer languages for automating legal documents. LE is a controlled natural language, which is designed both to be computer-executable and to be readable by English speakers (...)
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  8. On terrorism and the politics of compulsion.Robert Kowalski - 2005 - World Futures 61 (3):188 – 198.
    The concept of "terrorism" is problematized and argued to be at one end of a continuum of behavior that can be characterized as "compulsion." This approach to conflict is explained in terms of Transactional Analysis and the inadequacy of compulsion as a means of managing human affairs (politics) is explored in relation to the use of power that it requires, and to the responses it generates. An alternative behavior, based on "turning the other cheek" and Satyagraha (confronting), is advocated in (...)
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  9.  37
    Obligation as Optimal Goal Satisfaction.Robert Kowalski & Ken Satoh - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 47 (4):579-609.
    Formalising deontic concepts, such as obligation, prohibition and permission, is normally carried out in a modal logic with a possible world semantics, in which some worlds are better than others. The main focus in these logics is on inferring logical consequences, for example inferring that the obligation O q is a logical consequence of the obligations O p and O. In this paper we propose a non-modal approach in which obligations are preferred ways of satisfying goals expressed in first-order logic. (...)
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  10.  12
    The Epigenic Paradox within Social Development.Robert Kowalski - 2013 - ProtoSociology 30:281-307.
    The paper explores the Epigenic Paradox wherein agents of development are inextricable tangled up in the social systems that they both inhabit and co-create. Furthermore, Paulo Freire had maintained that the oppressed should be self-emancipated, which generates a most perplexing paradox of development; the primacy of the individual agent or the social structure? Thus an individual or agent is momentarily able to act in ways that maintain the social structures or indeed that call their existence into question, but then has (...)
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  11.  16
    International Development, Paradox and Phronesis.Robert Kowalski - 2012 - ProtoSociology 29:183-205.
    Three out of five paradoxes previously identified within international development are considered to be the core challenges to professional practice and congruence. The first, that of fostering autonomy, is considered from the perspective of the role that language plays in maintaining inappropriate donor ascendancy taking the concept of participation as an exemplar. The second, based in determinism and free will, is discussed in terms of the gap between practitioners’ espoused theory and theory-in-use that creates a syndrome of dissonance that undermines (...)
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  12.  23
    Development – Paradox, Paralysis and Praxis.Robert Kowalski - 2004 - ProtoSociology 20:390-411.
    Development is permeated by paradoxes. These are primarily the result of a confusion of logical types that characterises human communication. When these paradoxes are turned into double binds they have a distinctly disabling impact upon the partners and the processes of development. The two main causes of double binds are an inability to withdraw from the no win choices of paradox, and an interdiction against discussing the existence of the paradox. A number of examples of double binds in development and (...)
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  13.  30
    Some Friendly Molinist Amendments.Dean A. Kowalski - 2003 - Philosophy and Theology 15 (2):385-401.
    Attempting to reconcile a robust sense of human freedom with entrenched Church doctrines, Luis de Molina espoused for the first time a complete formulation of the doctrine of divine middle knowledge. However, it immediately sparked vigorous theological and philosophical debate. The debate has been revived, with Robert Adams as the original leading opponent. Adams’s objection is that the doctrine cannot be true since its (alleged) propositional objects lack the requisite metaphysical grounds for their being true. Breaking with many contemporary (...)
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  14.  52
    Michael Gelfond and Vladimir Lifschitz. The stable model semantics for logic programming. Logic programming, Proceedings of the fifth international conference and symposium, Volume 2, edited by Robert A. Kowalski and Kenneth A. Bowen, Series in logic programming, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1988, pp. 1070–1080. - Kit Fine. The justification of negation as failure. Logic, methodology and philosophy of science VIII, Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Moscow, 1987, edited by Jens Erik Fenstad, Ivan T. Frolov, and Risto Hilpinen, Studies in logic and the foundations of mathematics, vol. 126, North-Holland, Amsterdam etc. 1989, pp. 263–301. [REVIEW]Melvin Fitting - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (1):274-277.
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  15. Review: Michael Gelfond, Vladimir Lifschitz, Robert A. Kowalski, Kenneth A. Bowen, The Stable Model Semantics for Logic Programming; Kit Fine, Jens Erik Fenstad, Ivan T. Frolov, Risto Hilpinen, The Justification of Negation as Failure. [REVIEW]Melvin Fitting - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (1):274-277.
  16.  25
    "Moral Theory at the Movies: An Introduction to Ethics," Dean A. Kowalski[REVIEW]Robert Sharp - 2014 - Teaching Philosophy 37 (2):284-286.
  17. Boundaries of the Mind: The Individual in the Fragile Sciences - Cognition.Robert A. Wilson - 2004 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Where does the mind begin and end? Most philosophers and cognitive scientists take the view that the mind is bounded by the skull or skin of the individual. Robert Wilson, in this provocative and challenging 2004 book, provides the foundations for the view that the mind extends beyond the boundary of the individual. The approach adopted offers a unique blend of traditional philosophical analysis, cognitive science, and the history of psychology and the human sciences. The companion volume, Genes and (...)
  18.  25
    Signaling intertrial shocks attenuates their negative effect on conditioned suppression.Robert A. Rescorla - 1984 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22 (3):225-228.
  19.  24
    Social License and Environmental Protection: Why Businesses Go Beyond Compliance.Neil Gunningham, Robert A. Kagan & Dorothy Thornton - 2004 - Law and Social Inquiry 29 (2).
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  20.  14
    Kant’s Transcendental Deduction: An Analysis of Main Themes in His Critical Philosophy.R. C. Howell & Robert A. Howell - 1992 - Springer Verlag.
    The argument of the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories in the Critique of Pure Reason is the deepest and most far-reaching in philosophy. In his new book, Robert Howell interprets main themes of the Deduction using ideas from contemporary philosophy and intensional logic, thereby providing a keener grasp of Kant's many subtleties than has hitherto been available. No other work pursues Kant's argument through every twist and turn with the careful, logically detailed attention maintained here. Surprising new accounts of (...)
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  21.  45
    Problematic aspects of embodied memory.Aaron S. Benjamin & Robert A. Bjork - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):20-20.
    Glenberg's theory is rich and provocative, in our view, but we find fault with the premise that all memory representations are embodied. We cite instances in which that premise mispredicts empirical results or underestimates human capabilities, and we suggest that the motivation for the embodiment idea – to avoid the symbol-grounding problem – should not, ultimately, constrain psychological theorizing.
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  22.  21
    A shifting terrain: a brief history of the adaptive landscape.Michael R. Dietrich & Robert A. Skipper Jr - 2012 - In Erik Svensson & Ryan Calsbeek (eds.), The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press.
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  23.  23
    Questions of Miracle.Robert A. H. Larmer (ed.) - 1996 - Carleton University Press.
    Questions of Miracle will be a valuable reference book and teaching tool for scholars and students of theology, religious studies, and philosophy. Contents The Logic of Probabilities in Hume's Argument against Miracles - Fred Wilson David Hume and the Miraculous - Robert Larmer Miracles and the Laws of Nature - Robert Larmer Against Miracles - John Collier Against "Against Miracles" - Robert Larmer Miracles and Conservation Laws - Neil MacGill Miracles and Conservation Laws: A Reply to Professor (...)
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  24.  38
    A concurrent validity study of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised and Columbia Mental Maturity Scale.Howard H. Carvajal, Cherri S. Parks, James P. Parks, Robert A. Logan & Gregory L. Page - 1993 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 31 (1):33-34.
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  25.  39
    The black–white factor is g.Robert A. Gordon - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (2):229-231.
  26. Perceptual symbols in language comprehension: Can an empirical case be made?Rolf A. Zwaan, Robert A. Stanfield & Carol J. Madden - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):636-637.
    Perceptual symbol systems form a theoretically plausible alternative to amodal symbol systems. At this point it is unclear whether there is any truly diagnostic empirical evidence to decide between these systems. We outline some possible avenues of research in the domain of language comprehension that might yield such evidence. Language comprehension will be an important arena for tests of the two types of symbol systems.
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  27.  15
    The Dead Sea Scrolls at FiftyBeyond the Essene Hypothesis: The Parting of the Ways between Qumran and Enochic Judaism.Wido van Peursen, Robert A. Kugler, Eileen M. Schuller & Gabrielle Boccaccini - 2001 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 121 (2):300.
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  28.  12
    Superconductivity of Thorium below l°k.Norman M. Wolcott & Robert A. Hein - 1958 - Philosophical Magazine 3 (30):591-596.
  29. Special Issue on" The Accountable Corporation": Guest Editors' Introduction.Shawn L. Berman & Robert A. Phillips - forthcoming - Business and Professional Ethics Journal.
     
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  30.  14
    Case Studies: When Opportunity Knocks.Robert A. Berenson & David A. Hyman - 1990 - Hastings Center Report 20 (6):33.
  31.  79
    Cultural Symbolism in Literature.Robert A. Hall - 1964 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 22 (3):344-345.
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  32.  23
    "Appropriateness" of the stimulus-reinforcement contingency in instrumental differential conditioning of the eyelid response to the arithmetic concepts of "right" and "wrong".Robert A. Fleming, Louise E. Cerekwicki & David A. Grant - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (2):295.
  33.  32
    Extended artistic appreciation.Robert A. Wilson - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):162-163.
    I propose that in at least some cases, objects of artistic appreciation are best thought of not simply as causes of artistic appreciation, but as parts of the cognitive machinery that drives aesthetic appreciation. In effect, this is to say that aesthetic appreciation operates via extended cognitive systems.
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  34. The place of religion in modernity.Robert A. Segal - 2004 - History of the Human Sciences 17 (4):131-149.
  35.  29
    Incentive conditions which influence visual exploration.Robert A. Butler - 1954 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (1):19.
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  36.  17
    Smooth operators. The molecular mechanics of smooth muscle contraction.Robert A. Cross - 1989 - Bioessays 11 (1):18-21.
    Smooth muscle cells squeeze the blood back to your heart, raise the hackles on your neck and change the F‐stop of your eyes. The past year has provided penetrating new insights into their mechanism of contraction.
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  37. An evolutionary and chronological framework for human social behaviour.Robert A. Foley - 1996 - In Foley Robert A. (ed.), Evolution of Social Behaviour Patterns in Primates and Man. pp. 95-117.
     
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  38.  20
    Has learning been shown to be attractor modification within reinforcement modelling?Robert A. M. Gregson - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):140-141.
  39.  26
    Interpreting the Sermon on the Mount.Robert A. Guelich - 1987 - Interpretation 41 (2):117-130.
    Although interpreters have been occupied with the Sermon on the Mount for nearly two millenia, and have produced widely differing results, the challenge of these verses for Christians remains undiluted.
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  40.  13
    Luminance and reinforcement delay in probability learning.Robert A. Lakota & Harry L. Madison - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (2):277.
  41.  14
    Recency judgments as measures of temporal coding.Robert A. Malmi, Arnold M. Lund & Benton J. Underwood - 1978 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 12 (1):67-68.
  42.  10
    The influence of harm characteristics on endorsement of actions that cause harm.Robert A. McDonald & Irene Jacobsohn Norsworthy - 2000 - Teaching Business Ethics 4 (1):57-68.
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  43.  16
    Nature devours history: National socialism and the death of romanticism.Robert A. Pois - 1993 - History of European Ideas 16 (1-3):315-321.
  44.  11
    Self-evaluation maintenance in sports team rivalries.Robert A. Reeves & Abraham Tesser - 1985 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 23 (4):329-331.
  45.  19
    Jvcä cL not.Robert A. Wilson - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71:3.
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  46.  30
    A randomized trial of peer review: the UK National Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Resources and Outcomes Project: three‐year evaluation.Christopher M. Roberts, Robert A. Stone, Rhona J. Buckingham, Nancy A. Pursey, Derek Lowe & Jonathan M. Potter - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (3):599-605.
  47.  13
    The Ethical Environment Facing Purchasing and Supply Management Professionals: A Multinational Perspective.Robert W. Cooper, Garry L. Frank & Robert A. Kemp - 1996 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 15 (3):65-89.
  48.  8
    5 The Impact of Institutional Review Boards on Research.Bradford Gray & Robert A. Cooke - 1980 - Hastings Center Report 10 (1):36-41.
  49.  7
    Human Choice Predicted by Obtained Reinforcers, Not by Reinforcement Predictors.Jessica P. Stagner, Vincent M. Edwards, Sara R. Bond, Jeremy A. Jasmer, Robert A. Southern & Kent D. Bodily - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  50.  12
    Asia and the Road Ahead: Issues for the Major Powers.Richard H. Minear & Robert A. Scalapino - 1976 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 96 (3):440.
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