72 found
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  1. Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology.Robert Arp, Barry Smith & Andrew D. Spear - 2015 - Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    In the era of “big data,” science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of (...)
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  2. Function, role and disposition in Basic Formal Ontology.Robert Arp & Barry Smith - 2008 - Proceedings of Bio-Ontologies Workshop, Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB), Toronto.
    Numerous research groups are now utilizing Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level framework to assist in the organization and integration of biomedical information. This paper provides elucidation of the three existing BFO subcategories of realizable entity, namely function, role, and disposition. It proposes one further sub-category of tendency, and considers the merits of recognizing two sub-categories of function for domain ontologies, namely, artifactual and biological function. The motivation is to help advance the coherent ontological treatment of functions, roles, and dispositions, (...)
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  3.  63
    Contemporary debates in philosophy of biology.Francisco José Ayala & Robert Arp (eds.) - 2009 - Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    This collection of specially commissioned essays puts top scholars head to head to debate the central issues in the lively and fast growing field of philosophy ...
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  4.  47
    Scenario Visualization: An Evolutionary Account of Creative Problem Solving.Robert Arp - 2008 - Bradford.
    In order to solve problems, humans are able to synthesize apparently unrelated concepts, take advantage of serendipitous opportunities, hypothesize, invent, and engage in other similarly abstract and creative activities, primarily through the use of their visual systems. In _Scenario Visualization_, Robert Arp offers an evolutionary account of the unique human ability to solve nonroutine vision-related problems. He argues that by the close of the Pleistocene epoch, humans evolved a conscious creative problem-solving capacity, which he terms scenario visualization, that enabled them (...)
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  5.  56
    Scenario visualization: One explanation of creative problem solving.Robert Arp - 2005 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (3):31-60.
    In this paper, I first present the ideas and arguments put forward by evolutionary psychologists that humans evolved certain capacities to creatively problem solve. Specifically, Steven Mithen thinks that creative problem solving is possible because the mind has evolved a conscious capacity he calls cognitive fluidity, the flexible exchange of information between and among mental modules. While I agree with Mithen that cognitive fluidity acts as a necessary condition for creative problem solving, I disagree that cognitive fluidity alone will suffice (...)
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  6.  69
    Evolution and Two Popular Proposals for the Definition of Function.Robert Arp - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):19-30.
    In the biological realm, a complete explanation of a trait seems to include an explanation in terms of function. It is natural to ask of some trait, "What is its function?" or "What purpose in the organism does the particular trait serve?" or "What is the goal of its activity?" There are several views concerning the appropriate definition of function for biological matters. Two popular views of function with respect to living things are Cummins' organizational account and the Griffiths/Godfrey-Smith modern (...)
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  7. Selectivity, integration, and the psycho-neuro-biological continuum.Robert Arp - 2005 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 26 (1-2):35-64.
    An important insight derived from Kant about the workings of the mind is that conscious activity involves both the selection of relevant information, and the integration of that information, so as to form mental coherency. The conscious mind can then utilize this coherent information to solve problems, invent tools, synthesize concepts, produce works of art, and the like. In this paper, it will be suggested that just as biological processes, in general, exhibit selective and integrative functions, and just as visual (...)
     
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  8. The pragmatic value of Frege's platonism for the pragmatist.Robert Arp - 2005 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 19 (1):22-41.
  9.  4
    What's Good on Tv: Understanding Ethics Through Television.Jamie Carlin Watson & Robert Arp - 2011 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    What's Good on TV? Understanding Ethics Through Television presents an introduction to the basic theories and concepts of moral philosophy using concrete examples from classic and contemporary television shows. Utilizes clear examples from popular contemporary and classic television shows, such as The Office, Law and Order, Star Trek and Family Guy, to illustrate complex philosophical concepts Designed to be used as a stand-alone or supplementary introductory ethics text Features case studies, study questions, and suggested readings Episodes mentioned are from a (...)
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  10.  97
    Frege, as-if Platonism, and Pragmatism.Robert Arp - 2005 - Journal of Critical Realism 4 (1):1-27.
    This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first, I attempt to show that the characterization of Frege as a redundancy theorist is not accurate. Using one of Wolfgang Carl's recent works as a foil, I argue that Frege countenances a realm of abstract objects including truth, and that Frege's Platonist commitments inform his epistemology and embolden his antipsychologistic project. In the second section, contrasting Frege's Platonism with pragmatism, I show that even though Frege's metaphysical position concerning truth (...)
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  11.  47
    Re-thinking Hobbes's Materialistic and Mechanistic Projects.Robert Arp - 2002 - Hobbes Studies 15 (1):3-31.
  12.  28
    The "Quinque Viae" of Thomas Hobbes.Robert Arp - 1999 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 16 (4):367 - 394.
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  13. Creating a Controlled Vocabulary for the Ethics of Human Research: Towards a biomedical ethics ontology.David Koepsell, Robert Arp, Jennifer Fostel & Barry Smith - 2009 - Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics 4 (1):43-58.
    Ontologies describe reality in specific domains in ways that can bridge various disciplines and languages. They allow easier access and integration of information that is collected by different groups. Ontologies are currently used in the biomedical sciences, geography, and law. A Biomedical Ethics Ontology would benefit members of ethics committees who deal with protocols and consent forms spanning numerous fields of inquiry. There already exists the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI); the proposed BMEO would interoperate with OBI, creating a powerful (...)
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  14.  94
    Husserl and the penetrability of the transcendental and mundane spheres.Robert Arp - 2004 - Human Studies 27 (3):221-239.
    There is a two-fold problem the phenomenologist must face: the first has to do with thinking like a phenomenologist given that one is always already steeped in the mundane sphere; the second has to do with the phenomenologist entering into dialogue with those scientists, psychologists, sociologists and other laypersons who still remain in the mundane sphere. I address the first problem by giving an Husserlian-inspired account of the movement from the mundane to the transcendental, and show that there are decent (...)
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  15. Contemporary debates in bioethics.Arthur L. Caplan & Robert Arp (eds.) - 2013 - Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Are there universal ethical principles that should govern the conduct of medicine and research worldwide? -- Is it morally acceptable to buy and sell organs for human transplantation? -- Were it physically safe, would human reproductive cloning be acceptable? -- Is the deliberately induced abortion of a human pregnancy ethically justifiable? -- Is it ethical to patent or copyright genes, embryos, or their parts? -- Should minors have the right to refuse treatment, even when against the will of their parents (...)
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  16.  81
    Hume’s Mitigated Skepticism and the Design Argument.Robert Arp - 1998 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 72 (4):539-558.
  17. Tattoos – Philosophy for Everyone.Fritz Allhoff & Robert Arp (eds.) - 2012-04-06 - Wiley‐Blackwell.
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  18. 基于基本形式化本体的本体构建.Robert Arp, Barry Smith & Andrew D. Spear - 2020 - Beijing: People's Medical Publishing House.
    In the era of “big data,” science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of (...)
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  19.  2
    An Atheist and a Theist Discuss a Cross Tattoo and God's Existence.Robert Arp - 2012-04-06 - In Fritz Allhoff & Robert Arp (eds.), Tattoos – Philosophy for Everyone. Wiley‐Blackwell. pp. 242–260.
    This chapter contains sections titled: The Belief in Jesus Christ, and Other Religious Beliefs and Disbeliefs Tattoos, Tea, and Testing Faith Unmoved Mover and Uncaused Cause Interaction of the Supernatural and the Natural The ‘Three Ms’ Meaning Morality.
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  20.  39
    An Analysis of Freedom in the Political Doctrines of Suárez and Filmer.Robert Arp - 2004 - Philosophical Inquiry 26 (1-2):53-82.
  21. “And They Have a Plan”: Cylons as Persons.Robert Arp & Tracie Mahaffey - 2008 - In Jason T. Eberl (ed.), Battlestar Galactica and Philosophy: Knowledge Here Begins Out There. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 55--63.
     
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  22.  2
    “And They Have a Plan”: Cylons as Persons.Robert Arp & Tracie Mahaffey - 2007-11-16 - In Jason T. Eberl (ed.), Battlestar Galactica and Philosophy. Blackwell. pp. 55–63.
    This chapter contains section titled: Cylons and the Capacity for Reason Cylons and Mental States Cylons and Language Cylons and Social Relationships Do We Have a Plan? Notes.
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  23.  31
    Bad Arguments: 100 of the Most Important Fallacies in Western Philosophy.Robert Arp, Steven Barbone & Michael Bruce (eds.) - 2018 - Maldon, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    100+ logical, both formal and informal, fallacies explained and illustrated by important and famous arguments made in the history of philosophy.
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  24. Bad Arguments.Robert Arp, Steven Barbone & Michael Bruce (eds.) - 2018-05-09 - Wiley.
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  25.  71
    Consciousness and awareness - switched-on rheostats: A response to de Quincey.Robert Arp - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (3):101-106.
    I question whether it is completely accurate to think of the philosophical meaning of consciousness as being switched-on or switched-off. It may be that, once consciousness is switched-on, it is then found in degrees in animals we deem conscious. In which case, consciousness is more like a switched-on rheostat, rather than a simple on-off switch. Christian de Quincey (2006) gives a list of what would be considered the marks of consciousness, including 'experience, subjectivity, sentience, feeling, or mentality of any kind'. (...)
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  26. Critical thinking in the gaming and real worlds.Robert Arp & Dennis Milarker - 2009 - In Luke Cuddy (ed.), The Legend of Zelda and Philosophy: I Link Thereforei Am. Open Court.
     
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  27. Dude, Listen to Reason!Robert Arp - 2013 - In Robert Arp & Kevin S. Decker (eds.), The Ultimate South Park and Philosophy: Respect My Philosophah! Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 41--52.
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  28.  1
    Dude, Listen to Reason!Robert Arp - 2013-08-26 - In Robert Arp & Kevin S. Decker (eds.), The Ultimate South Park and Philosophy. Wiley. pp. 41–52.
    This chapter offers a short logic lesson as an introduction to what philosophers and other critical thinkers do when they offer and criticize arguments. Logic is the study of the principles of correct reasoning associated with the formation and analysis of arguments. The creators of South Park, for the most part, know these logical principles. They purposely violate them, though, to show the absurdities contained in certain beliefs, opinions, ideas, and arguments. In fact, much of South Park's humor concerns logical (...)
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  29.  2
    Die Philosophie bei Batman: Eine Reise in die Seele des Dark Knight.Robert Arp, William Irwin & Brigitte D.öbert (eds.) - 2013 - Wiley.
    Batman ist einer der komplexesten und ambivalentesten Charaktere der Comic-Welt. Um ihn und sein Tun drehen sich eine Menge Fragen: Welchen philosophischen Belastungen und Herausforderungen muss er sich beim Schutz von Gotham City stellen? Was treibt seine Gegenspieler an? Ist Batman in seiner Menschlichkeit besser als Superman? Die Philosophie bei Batman bietet unterhaltsame Antworten und Einblicke in Batmans Welt. Das Buch zeigt wie der Dark Knight zum Beispiel mit ethischen Fragen, moralischer Verantwortung, seinem Wunsch nach Rache an den Mördern seiner (...)
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  30. For l'amour : love and friendship in The office (US).Robert Arp & Jamie Watson - 2008 - In Jeremy Wisnewski (ed.), The Office and Philosophy: Scenes From the Unexamined Life. Blackwell.
     
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  31.  41
    Freud’s Wretched Makeshift and Scheler’s Religious Act.Robert Arp - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Research 25:405-429.
    Freud finds it impossible to accept the existence of a Supreme Being because he thinks that there is no way to scientifically demonstrate or prove the existence of a being so defined. Consequently, Freud maintains that individuals who claim to have a religious experience of God suffer from a delusion. Such individuals remain in an infantile state of neurotic denial, fooling themselves about the reality of extramental existence.In contradistinction, Max Scheler, a student of Husserlian phenomenology, can accept the existence of (...)
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  32.  16
    Freud’s Wretched Makeshift and Scheler’s Religious Act.Robert Arp - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Research 25:405-429.
    Freud finds it impossible to accept the existence of a Supreme Being because he thinks that there is no way to scientifically demonstrate or prove the existence of a being so defined. Consequently, Freud maintains that individuals who claim to have a religious experience of God suffer from a delusion. Such individuals remain in an infantile state of neurotic denial, fooling themselves about the reality of extramental existence.In contradistinction, Max Scheler, a student of Husserlian phenomenology, can accept the existence of (...)
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  33. Hegel and the prospect of perpetual peace.Robert Arp - 1999 - Diálogos. Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad de Puerto Rico 34 (74):71-100.
     
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  34.  31
    Homeostatic organization, emergence, and reduction in biological phenomena.Robert Arp - 2007 - Philosophia Naturalis 44 (2):238-270.
    In this paper, I argue that starting with the organelles that constitute a cell - and continuing up the hierarchy of components in processes and subsystems of an organism - there exist clear instances of emergent biological phenomena that can be considered,,living" entities. These components and their attending processes are living emergent phenomena because of the way in which the components are organized to maintain homeostasis of the organism at the various levels in the hierarchy. I call this view the (...)
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  35.  17
    Hegel's prospect of Perpetual Peace.Robert Arp - 1999 - Diálogos. Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad de Puerto Rico 34 (74):71-100.
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  36.  10
    " I Give Them What They Want-Either an Orphan or an Abortion".Robert Arp - 2009 - In Sandra Shapshay (ed.), Bioethics at the Movies. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 15.
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  37.  7
    1001 Ideas That Changed the Way We Think.Robert Arp & Arthur Caplan (eds.) - 2021 - San Diego, California: Thunder Bay Press.
    The mind is, without doubt, humanity's most powerful asset. Our view of the world today has come about through the questions, theories, speculations, and hypotheses raised by many brilliant individuals over millennia. Drawing on a wide spectrum of topics-- including politics, cosmology, the arts, philisophy, and religious beliefs-- 1001 ideas that changed the way we think traces the exponential growth of human knowledge. This woderfully diverse book with more than 700 illustrations and photographs celebrates history's most groundbreaking ideas and is (...)
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  38. Introduction “Well, I'm Afraid It's About to Happen Again”.Robert Arp & Kevin S. Decker - 2013 - In Robert Arp & Kevin S. Decker (eds.), The Ultimate South Park and Philosophy: Respect My Philosophah! Wiley-Blackwell.
     
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  39.  3
    Introduction “Well, I'm Afraid It's About to Happen Again”.Robert Arp & Kevin S. Decker - 2013-08-26 - In Robert Arp & Kevin S. Decker (eds.), The Ultimate South Park and Philosophy. Wiley. pp. 1–4.
    This chapter provides an introduction to The Ultimate South Park and Philosophy. South Park is one of the most important series on TV, because the show isn't afraid to lampoon the extremist fanatics that are associated with any social, ethical, economical, or religious position. This is extremely important and necessary in our diverse society of free and autonomous persons who hold a plurality of beliefs and values. Fanatics usually stop thinking issues through and, ultimately, they're primed to cause harm to (...)
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  40.  35
    Life and the homeostatic organization view of biological phenomena.Robert Arp - 2008 - Cosmos and History 4 (1-2):260-285.
    In this paper, I argue that starting with the organelles that constitute a cell – and continuing up the hierarchy of components in processes and subsystems of an organism – there are clear instances of emergent biological phenomena that can be considered “living” entities. These components and their attending processes are living emergent phenomena because of the way in which the components are organized to maintain homeostasis of the organism at the various levels in the hierarchy. I call this view (...)
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  41.  35
    Memetics does provide a useful way of understanding cultural evolution.Robert Arp - unknown
    Imagine a planet on which a self-replicating molecule appears, is copied with variation and selection, and evolves to build itself living creatures that protect and propagate it; those creatures eventually spread all over the planet, changing its atmosphere and environment as they do so. Now imagine that one of those creatures begins to copy behaviours from one individual to another, and this information gets copied with variation and selection. In other words, a second kind of replicator emerges. This transforms the (...)
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  42.  52
    Philosophical Approaches to the Devil.Benjamin W. McCraw & Robert Arp (eds.) - 2015 - New York: Routledge.
    This collection brings together new papers addressing the philosophical challenges that the concept of a Devil presents, bringing philosophical rigor to treatments of the Devil. Contributors approach the idea of the Devil from a variety of philosophical traditions, methodologies, and styles, providing a comprehensive philosophical overview that contemplates the existence, nature, and purpose of the Devil. While some papers take a classical approach to the Devil, drawing on biblical exegesis, other contributors approach the topic of the Devil from epistemological, metaphysical, (...)
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  43.  32
    Resolving A Few Conflicts in Evolutionary Psychology with Cognitive Fluidity.Robert Arp - 2007 - Southwest Philosophy Review 23 (1):105-115.
  44.  8
    Revisiting Aquinas’ Proofs for the Existence of God.Robert Arp (ed.) - 2016 - Leiden: Brill | Rodopi.
    Edited and introduced by Robert Arp, _Revisiting Aquinas’ Proofs for the Existence of God_ is a collection of new papers written by scholars focusing on the famous Five Proofs or Ways for the existence of God put forward by St. Thomas Aquinas near the beginning of his unfinished tome, _Summa Theologica_.
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  45.  7
    Scott Adams and Philosophy: A Hole in the Fabric of Reality.Robert Arp, Dan Yim & Galen Foresman (eds.) - 2018 - Chicago: Popular Culture and Philosophy.
    A team of philosophical writers examines the startling ideas and arguments of this pundit of persuasion.
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  46.  13
    Suárez and Filmer on Freedom.Robert Arp - 2008 - Philosophical Frontiers: A Journal of Emerging Thought 3 (2).
  47.  3
    Sunk Cost.Robert Arp - 2018-05-09 - In Robert Arp, Steven Barbone & Michael Bruce (eds.), Bad Arguments. Wiley. pp. 227–229.
    This chapter focuses on one of the common fallacies in Western philosophy called 'sunk cost'. In economics, a sunk cost is an investment that can never be recovered. Prime examples include money spent on research and development or advertising for a product. However, there is a way to think of cost in terms of time, energy, and even emotion. The way to avoid this fallacy is to not allow the fear of losing what was already invested in something to influence (...)
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  48.  6
    South Park and Philosophy: You Know, I Learned Something Today.Robert Arp (ed.) - 2006 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    If you think Saddam and Satan make a kinky couple, wait till you get a load of _South Park and Philosophy_. Get your Big Wheels ready, because we’re going for a ride, as 22 philosophers take us down the road to understanding the big-picture issues in this small mountain town. A smart and candid look at one of television’s most subversive and controversial shows, celebrating its 10th anniversary this year Draws close parallels between the irreverent nature of _South Park_ and (...)
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  49.  5
    South Park and Philosophy: You Know, I Learned Something Today.Robert Arp (ed.) - 2006 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    If you think Saddam and Satan make a kinky couple, wait till you get a load of _South Park and Philosophy_. Get your Big Wheels ready, because we’re going for a ride, as 22 philosophers take us down the road to understanding the big-picture issues in this small mountain town. A smart and candid look at one of television’s most subversive and controversial shows, celebrating its 10th anniversary this year Draws close parallels between the irreverent nature of _South Park_ and (...)
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  50. Stop Stereotyping Sabbath.Robert Arp - 2013 - In William Irwin (ed.), Black Sabbath and Philosophy: Mastering Reality. Wiley. pp. 182--189.
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