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Robert Baker [60]Robert J. Baker [6]Robert A. Baker [4]Robert B. Baker [3]
Robert S. Baker [3]Robert C. Baker [2]Robert E. Baker [1]Robert Morris Baker [1]

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Robert Baker
George Washington University
  1. Before Bioethics: A History of American Medical Ethics From the Colonial Period to the Bioethics Revolution.Robert Baker - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    The first history of American medical ethics published in more than a half century, Before Bioethics tracks the evolution of American medical ethics from colonial midwives and physicians' oaths to current bioethical controversies over abortion, AIDS, animal rights, and physician-assisted suicide.
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  2.  63
    The American Medical Ethics Revolution: How the Ama's Code of Ethics has Transformed Physicians' Relationships to Patients, Professionals, and Society.Robert A. Baker (ed.) - 1999 - Johns Hopkins University Press.
    The American Medical Association enacted its Code of Ethics in 1847, the first such national codification. In this volume, a distinguished group of experts from the fields of medicine, bioethics, and history of medicine reflect on the development of medical ethics in the United States, using historical analyses as a springboard for discussions of the problems of the present, including what the editors call "a sense of moral crisis precipitated by the shift from a system of fee-for-service medicine to a (...)
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  3.  33
    A Draft Model Aggregated Code of Ethics for Bioethicists.Robert Baker - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (5):33 – 41.
    Bioethicists function in an environment in which their peers - healthcare executives, lawyers, nurses, physicians - assert the integrity of their fields through codes of professional ethics. Is it time for bioethics to assert its integrity by developing a code of ethics? Answering in the affirmative, this paper lays out a case by reviewing the historical nature and function of professional codes of ethics. Arguing that professional codes are aggregative enterprises growing in response to a field's historical experiences, it asserts (...)
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  4.  62
    Bioethics and History.Robert Baker - 2002 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (4):447 – 474.
    Standard bioethics textbooks present the field to students and non-experts as a form of "applied ethics." This ahistoric and rationalistic presentation is similar to that used in philosophy of science textbooks until three decades ago. Thomas Kuhn famously critiqued this self-conception of the philosophy of science, persuading the field that it would become deeper, richer, and more philosophical, if it integrated the history of science, especially the history of scientific change, into its self-conception. This essay urges a similar reconceptualization for (...)
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  5. Triage and Equality: An Historical Reassessment of Utilitarian Analyses of Triage.Robert Baker & Martin Strosberg - 1992 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 2 (2):103-123.
  6.  62
    A Theory of International Bioethics: Multiculturalism, Postmodernism, and the Bankruptcy of Fundamentalism.Robert Baker - 1998 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (3):201-231.
  7.  13
    Ethics Across the Curriculum—Pedagogical Perspectives.Elaine E. Englehardt, Michael S. Pritchard, Robert Baker, Michael D. Burroughs, José A. Cruz-Cruz, Randall Curren, Michael Davis, Aine Donovan, Deni Elliott, Karin D. Ellison, Challie Facemire, William J. Frey, Joseph R. Herkert, Karlana June, Robert F. Ladenson, Christopher Meyers, Glen Miller, Deborah S. Mower, Lisa H. Newton, David T. Ozar, Alan A. Preti, Wade L. Robison, Brian Schrag, Alan Tomhave, Phyllis Vandenberg, Mark Vopat, Sandy Woodson, Daniel E. Wueste & Qin Zhu - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
    Late in 1990, the Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at Illinois Institute of Technology (lIT) received a grant of more than $200,000 from the National Science Foundation to try a campus-wide approach to integrating professional ethics into its technical curriculum.! Enough has now been accomplished to draw some tentative conclusions. I am the grant's principal investigator. In this paper, I shall describe what we at lIT did, what we learned, and what others, especially philosophers, can learn (...)
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  8.  14
    Race and Bioethics: Bioethical Engagement With a Four-Letter Subject.Robert Baker - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (4):16-18.
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  9.  96
    Medical Ethics' Appropriation of Moral Philosophy: The Case of the Sympathetic and the Unsympathetic Physician.Robert Baker & Laurence B. McCullough - 2007 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 17 (1):3-22.
    Philosophy textbooks typically treat bioethics as a form of "applied ethics"-i.e., an attempt to apply a moral theory, like utilitarianism, to controversial ethical issues in biology and medicine. Historians, however, can find virtually no cases in which applied philosophical moral theory influenced ethical practice in biology or medicine. In light of the absence of historical evidence, the authors of this paper advance an alternative model of the historical relationship between philosophical ethics and medical ethics, the appropriation model. They offer two (...)
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  10.  19
    In Defense of Bioethics.Robert Baker - 2009 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (1):83-92.
    Although bioethics societies are developing standards for clinical ethicists and a code of ethics, they have been castigated in this journal as “a moral, if not an ethics, disaster” for not having completed this task. Compared with the development of codes of ethics and educational standards in law and medicine, however, the pace of pro-fessionalization in bioethics appears appropriate. Assessed by this metric, none of the charges leveled against bioethics are justified. The specific charges leveled against the American Society for (...)
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  11.  21
    A Theory of International Bioethics: The Negotiable and the Non-Negotiable.Robert Baker - 1998 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (3):233-273.
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  12.  47
    Philosophy and Sex.Robert Baker & Frederick Elliston - 1979 - Noûs 13 (1):91-94.
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  13. Particulars: Bare, Naked, and Nude.Robert Baker - 1967 - Noûs 1 (2):211-212.
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  14.  50
    Bioethics and Human Rights: A Historical Perspective.Robert Baker - 2001 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 10 (3):241-252.
    Bioethics and human rights were conceived in the aftermath of the Holocaust, when moral outrage reenergized the outmoded concepts of and renaming them and to give them new purpose. Originally, the principles of bioethics were a means for protecting human rights, but through a historical accident, bioethical principles came to be considered as fundamental. In this paper I reflect on the parallel development and accidental divorce of bioethics and human rights to urge their reconciliation.
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  15.  4
    Erasing Blackness From Bioethics.Robert Baker - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (3):33-35.
    February is Black History Month and so healthcare practitioners will soon rummage history books for information about famous African Americans, like Onesimus, the African slave who...
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  16. A History of Codes of Ethics for Bioethicists.Robert Baker - 2007 - In Lisa A. Eckenwiler & Felicia Cohn (eds.), The Ethics of Bioethics: Mapping the Moral Landscape. Johns Hopkins University Press.
     
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  17.  15
    The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics.Robert B. Baker & Laurence B. McCullough (eds.) - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics is the first comprehensive scholarly account of the global history of medical ethics. Offering original interpretations of the field by leading bioethicists and historians of medicine, it will serve as the essential point of departure for future scholarship in the field. The volumes reconceptualize the history of medical ethics through the creation of new categories, including the life cycle; discourses of religion, philosophy, and bioethics; and the relationship between medical ethics and the state, (...)
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  18.  7
    The Significance of the ASBH's Code of Ethics for Healthcare Ethics Consultants.Robert Baker - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (5):52-54.
  19.  35
    Conscience and the Unconscionable.Robert Baker - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (5):ii-iv.
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  20.  17
    Balkanizing Bioethics.Robert Baker - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2):13 – 14.
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  21.  38
    Visibility and the Just Allocation of Health Care: A Study of Age-Rationing in the British National Health Service.Robert Baker - 1993 - Health Care Analysis 1 (2):139-150.
    The British National Health Service (BNHS) was founded, to quote Minister of Health Aneurin Bevan, to ‘universalise the best’. Over time, however, financial constraints forced the BNHS to turn to incrementalist budgeting, to rationalise care and to ask its practitioners to act as gatekeepers. Seeking a way to ration scarce tertiary care resources, BNHS gatekeepers began to use chronological age as a rationing criterion. Age-rationing became the ‘done thing’ without explicit policy directives and in a manner largely invisible to patients, (...)
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  22.  83
    From Metaethicist to Bioethicist.Robert Baker - 2002 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 11 (4):369-379.
    I was the graduate student that Albert Jonsen so aptly describes. Bronx born and educated at the City College of New York, I emigrated to the Midwest to study at the Minnesota Center for the Philosophy of Science, where May Brodbeck, Herbert Feigl and other “logical positivists” were engaging in an ongoing dialogue with postpositivists like Paul Feyerabend and Karl Popper. In this environment, I studied philosophy of science, epistemology, and metaethics—the epistemology and logic of ethical concepts and language. I (...)
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  23.  19
    Philosophers' Invasion of Clinical Ethics: Historical and Personal Reflections.Robert Baker - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (6):51-54.
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  24.  16
    Negotiating International Bioethics: A Response to Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin.Robert Baker - 1998 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (4):423-453.
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  25.  37
    The Efficacy of Professional Ethics The AMA Code of Ethis in Historical and Current Perspective.Robert Baker & Linda Emanuel - 2000 - Hastings Center Report 30 (4):S13.
  26. The Discourses of Practitioners in Nineteenth-and Twentieth-Century Britain and the United States.Robert B. Baker - 2009 - In Robert Baker & Laurence B. McCullough (eds.), The Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 2009--446.
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  27.  72
    Confidentiality in Professional Medical Ethics.Robert Baker - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (2):39 – 41.
  28.  15
    Bias in Journalistic Accounts of Embryo Research Reconsidered.Robert Baker - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):15 – 16.
  29.  31
    The Story of Bioethics: From Seminal Works to Contemporary Explorations. [REVIEW]Robert Baker, Jennifer K. Walter & Eran P. Klein - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (3):50.
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  30. Union College’s Rapaport Everyday Ethics Across the Curriculum Initiative.Anastasia Pease & Robert Baker - 2009 - Teaching Ethics 9 (2):5-24.
  31.  4
    Fine‐Tuning the Future.Robert Baker - 2010 - Hastings Center Report 40 (3):6-7.
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  32. Brave New World: History, Science, and Dystopia.Robert S. Baker - 1991 - Utopian Studies 2 (1):159-161.
  33. Natural Law, Human Sexuality, and Forde's "Acid Test".Robert C. Baker - 2011 - In Robert C. Baker & Roland Cap Ehlke (eds.), Natural Law: A Lutheran Reappraisal. Concordia Pub. House.
     
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  34.  61
    Professional Integrity and Global Budgeting: A Study of Physician Gatekeeping in the British National Health Service.Robert Baker - 1993 - Professional Ethics, a Multidisciplinary Journal 2 (1/2):3-34.
  35.  16
    Stem Cell Rhetoric and the Pragmatics of Naming.Robert Baker - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (1):52-53.
  36.  77
    The Relationship Between Moral Philosophy and Medical Ethics Reconsidered.Robert Baker & Laurence B. McCullough - 2007 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 17 (3):271-276.
    : Medical ethics often is treated as applied ethics, that is, the application of moral philosophy to ethical issues in medicine. In an earlier paper, we examined instances of moral philosophy's influence on medical ethics. We found the applied ethics model inadequate and sketched an alternative model. On this model, practitioners seeking to change morality "appropriate" concepts and theory fragments from moral philosophy to valorize and justify their innovations. Goldilocks-like, five commentators tasted our offerings. Some found them too cold, since (...)
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  37.  60
    On Being a Bioethicist: A Review of John H. Evans Playing God?: Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationalization of Public Bioethical Debate. [REVIEW]Robert Baker - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):65-69.
    (2002). On Being a Bioethicist: A Review of John H. Evans Playing God?: Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationalization of Public Bioethical Debate. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 65-69.
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  38. Aldous Huxley, Complete Essays. Volume I: 1920-1925.Robert S. Baker & James Sexton - 2001 - Utopian Studies 12 (2):234-245.
  39.  2
    Global Bioethics and Human Rights: Contemporary Issues.Robert Baker, Tom L. Beauchamp, Michael Boylan, Bernard Gert, Lawrence O. Gostin, Akiko Ito, Peter Tan & Rosemarie Tong - 2014 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Editors Wanda Teays, John-Stewart Gordon, and Alison Dundes Renteln have assembled the works of an interdisciplinary, international team of experts in bioethics into a comprehensive, innovative and accessible book. Topics covered range from torture and lethal injection to euthanasia, sex selection, vulnerable human subjects, to health equity, safety and public health, and environmental disasters like Bhopal, Fukushima, and more.
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  40. In Dark Again in Wonder: The Poetry of René Char and George Oppen.Robert Baker - 2012 - University of Notre Dame Press.
    At the center of_ In Dark Again in Wonder_ are readings of René Char and George Oppen. Both of these poets achieved recognition at a young age, Char among the French surrealists in the 1930s, Oppen among the American objectivists in the same decade. Both were independent individuals who, having found their way to communities of inventive writers, stepped back and shaped their own idiosyncratic paths. Both responded decisively to the social upheavals of the 1930s and ‘40s. Oppen committed himself (...)
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  41. Moore's Realism and Non-Natural Properties: An Analysis of the Metaphysics of 'Principia Ethica'.Robert B. Baker - 1967 - Dissertation, University of Minnesota
     
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  42.  1
    Natural Law: A Lutheran Reappraisal.Robert C. Baker & Roland Cap Ehlke (eds.) - 2010 - Concordia Pub. House.
    Do human beings share a common morality? Natural Law: A Lutheran Reappraisal presents engaging essays from contemporary Lutheran scholars, teachers, and pastors, each offering a fresh reappraisal of natural law within the context of historic Lutheran teaching and practice. Thought provoking questions following each essay will help readers apply key Bible texts associated with natural law to their daily lives.
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  43. Philosophy and Sex (First Edition).Robert Baker & Fred Elliston (eds.) - 1975 - Prometheus Books.
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  44. Philosophy and Sex (Second Edition).Robert Baker & Frederick Elliston (eds.) - 1984 - Prometheus Books.
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  45. Propertius' Lost Bona.Robert J. Baker - 1969 - American Journal of Philology 90 (3):333.
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  46. Philosophy & Sex.Robert Baker & Frederick Elliston - 1975
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  47. The Codification of Medical Morality, Volume One: Medical Ethics and Etiquette in the Eighteenth Century.Robert Baker & Stephen Buckle - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (2):180-180.
     
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  48. The Rustle of Spring in Horace.Robert J. Baker - 1971 - American Journal of Philology 92 (1):71.
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  49. U Ntil Recently.Robert Baker - 2009 - In Vardit Ravitsky, Autumn Fiester & Arthur L. Caplan (eds.), The Penn Center Guide to Bioethics. Springer Publishing Company. pp. 9.
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  50. Complete Essays. Vol. III: 1930-1935.Aldous Huxley, Robert S. Baker & James Sexton - 2002 - Utopian Studies 13 (2):149-151.
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