Results for 'Robert H. Macarthur'

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  1. The Theory of Island Biogeography.Robert H. Macarthur & Edward O. Wilson - 2002 - Journal of the History of Biology 35 (1):178-179.
  2.  18
    Philosophical themes in the work of Robert H. Macarthur.Jay Odenbaugh - 2011 - In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of ecology. Waltham, MA: North-Holland. pp. 11--109.
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  3.  11
    Success and luck: good fortune and the myth of meritocracy.Robert H. Frank - 2016 - Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    How important is luck in economic success? No question more reliably divides conservatives from liberals. As conservatives correctly observe, people who amass great fortunes are almost always talented and hardworking. But liberals are also correct to note that countless others have those same qualities yet never earn much. In recent years, social scientists have discovered that chance plays a much larger role in important life outcomes than most people imagine. In Success and Luck, bestselling author and New York Times economics (...)
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  4. Gassmann, Robert H (2011). Coming to terms with dé 德 : The deconstruction of ‘virtue’ and a lesson in scientific morality. In: King, R; Schilling, D. How Should One Live? Comparing Ethics in Ancient China and Greco-Roman Antiquity. Berlin: de Gruyter, 92-.Robert H. Gassmann (ed.) - 2011
     
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  5.  65
    Passions Within Reason: The Strategic Role of Emotions.Robert H. Frank - 1988 - Norton.
    In this book, I make use of an idea from economics to suggest how noble human tendencies might not only have survived the ruthless pressures of the material world, but actually have been nurtured by them.
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  6.  36
    A Preface to Economic Democracy.Robert H. Dahl (ed.) - 1985 - University of California Press.
    Tocqueville pessimistically predicted that liberty and equality would be incompatible ideas. Robert Dahl, author of the classic _A Preface to Democratic Theory,_ explores this alleged conflict, particularly in modern American society where differences in ownership and control of corporate enterprises create inequalities in resources among Americans that in turn generate inequality among them as citizens. Arguing that Americans have misconceived the relation between democracy, private property, and the economic order, the author contends that we can achieve a society of (...)
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  7. Enumerative induction and best explanation.Robert H. Ennis - 1968 - Journal of Philosophy 65 (18):523-529.
  8. Introduction: The contours of contemporary free will debates.Robert H. Kane - 2001 - In Robert Kane (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. New York: Oxford University Press.
  9. Agency: Let's Mind What's Fundamental.Robert H. Wallace - 2023 - Philosophical Issues 33 (1):285–298.
    The standard event-causal theory of action says that an intentional action is caused in the right way by the right mental states. This view requires reductionism about agency. The causal role of the agent must be nothing over and above the causal contribution of the relevant mental event-causal processes. But commonsense finds this reductive solution to the “agent-mind problem”, the problem of explaining the relationship between agents and the mind, incredible. Where did the agent go? This paper suggests that this (...)
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  10. Can I Both Blame and Worship God?Robert H. Wallace - forthcoming - In Aaron Segal & Samuel Lebens (eds.), The Philosophy of Worship: Divine and Human Aspects. Cambridge University Press.
    In a well-known apocryphal story, Theresa of Avila falls off the donkey she was riding, straight into mud, and injures herself. In response, she seems to blame God for her fall. A playful if indignant back and forth ensues. But this is puzzling. Theresa should never think that God is blameworthy. Why? Apparently, one cannot blame what one worships. For to worship something is to show it a kind of reverence, respect, or adoration. To worship is, at least in part, (...)
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  11. Compatibilism as Non-Ideal Theory: A Manifesto.Robert H. Wallace - 2024 - In David Shoemaker, Santiago Amaya & Manuel Vargas (eds.), Oxford Studies in Agency and Responsibility Volume 8: Non-Ideal Agency and Responsibility. Oxford University Press.
    This paper articulates and responds to a challenge to contemporary compatibilist views of free will. Despite the popularity and appeal of compatibilist theories, many are left with lingering doubts about compatibilism. This paper explains this doubt in terms of the absurdity challenge: because a compatibilist accepts that they do not have causal access to all the actual sufficient causal sources of their own agency, the compatibilist can find their own agency absurd. By taking a cue from political philosophy, this paper (...)
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  12. A Dilemma for Reductive Compatibilism.Robert H. Wallace - 2023 - Erkenntnis 88 (7):2763–2785.
    A common compatibilist view says that we are free and morally responsible in virtue of the ability to respond aptly to reasons. Many hold a version of this view despite disagreement about whether free will requires the ability to do otherwise. The canonical version of this view is reductive. It reduces the pertinent ability to a set of modal properties that are more obviously compatible with determinism, like dispositions. I argue that this and any reductive view of abilities faces a (...)
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  13. Identifying implicit assumptions.Robert H. Ennis - 1982 - Synthese 51 (1):61 - 86.
  14. A Puzzle Concerning Gratitude and Accountability.Robert H. Wallace - 2022 - The Journal of Ethics 26 (3):455–480.
    P.F. Strawson’s account of moral responsibility in “Freedom and Resentment” has been widely influential. In both that paper and in the contemporary literature, much attention has been paid to Strawson’s account of blame in terms of reactive attitudes like resentment and indignation. The Strawsonian view of praise in terms of gratitude has received comparatively little attention. Some, however, have noticed something puzzling about gratitude and accountability. We typically understand accountability in terms of moral demands and expectations. Yet gratitude does not (...)
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  15.  28
    Letters from Ernst Mach to Robert H. Lowie.Ernst Mach & Robert H. Lowie - 1947 - Isis 37 (1/2):65-68.
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  16. The Tension in Critical Compatibilism.Robert H. Wallace - 2021 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (1):321-332.
    (Part of a symposium on an OUP collection of Paul Russell's papers on free will and moral responsibility). Paul Russell’s The Limits of Free Will is more than the sum of its parts. Among other things, Limits offers readers a comprehensive look at Russell’s attack on the problematically idealized assumptions of the contemporary free will debate. This idealization, he argues, distorts the reality of our human predicament. Herein I pose a dilemma for Russell’s position, critical compatibilism. The dilemma illuminates the (...)
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  17.  35
    Knowing Blue: Early Buddhist Accounts of Non-Conceptual Sense.Robert H. Sharf - 2018 - Philosophy East and West 68 (3):826-870.
    And I find myself knowing the things that I knew Which is all that you can know on this side of the blueIs there such a thing as direct, non-conceptual experience, or is all experience, by its very nature, conceptually mediated? Is some notion of non-conceptual sensory awareness required to account for our ability to represent and negotiate our physical environment, or is it merely an artifact of deep-seated but ultimately misguided Cartesian metaphysical assumptions? Perhaps conscious experience in humans is (...)
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  18. The theoretical significance of experimental relativity.Robert H. Dicke - 1964 - New York,: Gordon & Breach.
  19.  10
    The Curious Case of the Conscious Corpse: A Medieval Buddhist Thought Experiment.Robert H. Sharf - 2023 - In Christian Coseru (ed.), Reasons and Empty Persons: Mind, Metaphysics, and Morality: Essays in Honor of Mark Siderits. Springer. pp. 121-140.
    One of the arguments that has been directed against the Buddhist anātman (“non-self”) theory, by Dan Zahavi among others, is that the doctrine cannot account for why we never mistake our own bodies for the bodies of others. This is not, however, a new objection; it can be found, for example, in a list of objections to the anātman doctrine in the Dazhidulun (“Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom”), a medieval compendium attributed to Nāgārjuna and compiled and translated (and (...)
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  20. The rationality of rationality: Why think critically.Robert H. Ennis - forthcoming - Philosophy of Education.
     
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  21.  35
    Donald Davidson’s Triangulation Argument: A Philosophical Inquiry.Robert H. Myers & Claudine Verheggen - 2016 - New York: Routledge.
    According to many commentators, Davidson’s earlier work on philosophy of action and truth-theoretic semantics is the basis for his reputation, and his later forays into broader metaphysical and epistemological issues, and eventually into what became known as the triangulation argument, are much less successful. This book by two of his former students aims to change that perception. In Part One, Verheggen begins by providing an explanation and defense of the triangulation argument, then explores its implications for questions concerning semantic normativity (...)
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  22.  37
    The Conservative Mode: Robert A. Millikan and the Twentieth-Century Revolution in Physics.Robert H. Kargon - 1977 - Isis 68 (4):509-526.
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  23. Is Critical Thinking Culturally Biased?Robert H. Ennis - 1998 - Teaching Philosophy 21 (1):15-33.
    This paper attempts to respond to the critique that critical thinking courses may reflect a cultural bias. After elaborating a list of constitutive dispositions and abilities taught in the critical thinking curriculum (e.g. a direct approach to writing and speaking, care about the dignity and worth of every person, positions towards deductive reasoning, shared decision-making, etc.), the author considers arguments for why several of these might reflect Western, non-universal values. In each case, the author argues for the conclusion that these (...)
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  24.  72
    A plea for pity.Robert H. Kimball - 2004 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 37 (4):301-316.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:A Plea for PityRobert H. KimballIntroductionDoes the ability to feel pity toward the unfortunate represent one of humanity's better instincts, on par with the capacity for love, compassion, and forgiveness? Or is pity actually one of our morally baser emotions, like jealousy, envy, or hatred, because pity can include contempt for its object and an attitude of morally reprehensible superiority on the part of the pitier? Surprisingly, there is (...)
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  25.  72
    Argument appraisal strategy: A comprehensive approach.Robert H. Ennis - 2001 - Informal Logic 21 (2).
    A popular three-stage argument appraisal strategy calls for (1) identifying the parts of the argument, (2) classifYing the argument as deductive, inductive, or some other type, and (3) appraising the argument using the standards appropriate for the type. This strategy fails for a number of reasons. I propose a comprehensive alternative approach that distinguishes between inductive, deductive, and other standards; calls for the successive application of standards combined with assumption-ascription, according to policies that depend for their selection on the goals (...)
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  26.  71
    Is Yogācāra Phenomenology? Some Evidence from the Cheng weishi lun.Robert H. Sharf - 2016 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 44 (4):777-807.
    There have been several attempts of late to read Yogācāra through the lens of Western phenomenology. I approach the issue through a reading of the Cheng weishi lun, a seventh-century Chinese compilation that preserves the voices of multiple Indian commentators on Vasubandhu’s Triṃśikāvijñaptikārikā. Specifically, I focus on the “five omnipresent mental factors” and the “four aspects” of cognition. These two topics seem ripe, at least on the surface, for phenomenological analysis, particularly as the latter topic includes a discussion of “self-awareness”. (...)
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  27. Responsibility and the limits of good and evil.Robert H. Wallace - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 176 (10):2705-2727.
    P.F. Strawson’s compatibilism has had considerable influence. However, as Watson has argued in “Responsibility and the Limits of Evil”, his view appears to have a disturbing consequence: extreme evil exempts an agent from moral responsibility. This is a reductio of the view. Moreover, in some cases our emotional reaction to an evildoer’s history clashes with our emotional expressions of blame. Anyone’s actions can be explained by his or her history, however, and thereby can conflict with our present blame. Additionally, we (...)
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  28.  37
    Evidence for the effectiveness of Peer review.Robert H. Fletcher & Suzanne W. Fletcher - 1997 - Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (1):35-50.
    Scientific editors’ policies, including peer review, are based mainly on tradition and belief. Do they actually achieve their desired effects, the selection of the best manuscripts and improvement of those published? Editorial decisions have important consequences—to investigators, the scientific community, and all who might benefit from correct information or be harmed by misleading research results. These decisions should be judged not just by intentions of reviewers and editors but also by the actual consequences of their actions. A small but growing (...)
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    Robert T. Gunther: A Pioneer in the History of Science, 1869-1940A. E. Gunther.Robert H. Kargon - 1972 - Isis 63 (3):460-460.
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    End-of-Life Decision Making across Cultures.Robert H. Blank - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (2):201-214.
    Even more so than in other areas of medicine, issues at the end of life elucidate the importance of religion and culture, as well as the role of the family and other social structures, in how these issues are framed. This article presents an overview of the variation in end-of-life treatment issues across 12 highly disparate countries. It finds that many assumptions held in the western bioethics literature are not easily transferred to other cultural settings.
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  31. Word and Sacrament.Robert H. Fischer & Helmut T. Lehmann - 1961
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  32.  22
    Probably.Robert H. Ennis - unknown
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  33. Egoism Versus Rights.Robert H. Bass - 2006 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 7 (2):329-349.
    I develop an argument that key theses from Ayn Rand's ethics and political philosophy are incompatible with one another. Her ethical egoism is not compatible with her rights theory. Though Rand's version of rights theory is libertarian, the argument does not depend upon any claims peculiar to her theory, but would apply to the (in)compatibility of ethical egoism and almost any plausible rights theory.
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  34. Reflections on free will, determinism, and indeterminism.Robert H. Kane - manuscript
    _Some say there is no progress in philosophy, and certainly there is one sense in_ _which they are wrong. There are at least significant developments in philosophical_ _doctrines that have been persistently advocated in the past. With confidence I leave_ _you to arrive at a satisfactory understanding of 'significant'. There is no doubt that_ _Robert Kane has made some progress, probably more than any other contemporary_ _philosopher, in the laying out and defending of the doctrine that an understandable_ _freedom is (...)
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  35.  38
    Temporal man: the meaning and uses of social time.Robert H. Lauer - 1981 - New York, N.Y.: Praeger.
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  36.  42
    What’s Wrong with Argumentum ad Baculum? Reasons, Threats, and Logical Norms.Robert H. Kimball - 2006 - Argumentation 20 (1):89-100.
    A dialogue-based analysis of informal fallacies does not provide a fully adequate explanation of our intuitions about what is wrong with ad baculum and of when it is admissible and when it is not. The dialogue-based analysis explains well why mild, benign threats can be legitimate in some situations, such as cooperative bargaining and negotiation, but does not satisfactorily account for what is objectionable about more malicious uses of threats to coerce and to intimidate. I propose an alternative deriving partly (...)
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  37. Agentive Modals and Agentive Modality: A Cautionary Tale.Timothy Kearl & Robert H. Wallace - 2024 - American Philosophical Quarterly 61 (2):139–155.
    In this paper, we consider recent attempts to metaphysically explain agentive modality in terms of conditionals. We suggest that the best recent accounts face counterexamples, and more worryingly, they take some agentive modality for granted. In particular, the ability to perform basic actions features as a primitive in these theories. While it is perfectly acceptable for a semantics of agentive modal claims to take some modality for granted in getting the extension of action claims correct, a metaphysical explanation of agentive (...)
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  38.  45
    The role of business schools in managing the incongruence between doing what is right and doing what it takes to get ahead.Robert H. Schwartz, Sami Kassem & Dean Ludwig - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (6):465 - 469.
    This paper accepts as given that business students want to get ahead. It criticizes business schools for their failure to reduce the incongruence between doing what is right and doing what it takes to get ahead. Because of this failure business school graduates carry negative ideas, attitudes and behaviors vis-à-vis social responsibility from business schools into the business world. Recommendations are made for increasing the social responsibility of business schools.
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  39.  30
    Replies to Fischer and Haji.Robert H. Kane - 2000 - The Journal of Ethics 4 (4):338-342.
  40. A Phenomenological Theory of Ecological Responsibility and Its Implications for Moral Agency in Climate Change.Robert H. Scott - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (6):645-659.
    In a recent article appearing in this journal, Theresa Scavenius compellingly argues that the traditional “rational-individualistic” conception of responsibility is ill-suited to accounting for the sense in which moral agents share in responsibility for both contributing to the causes and, proactively, working towards solutions for climate change. Lacking an effective moral framework through which to make sense of individual moral responsibility for climate change, many who have good intentions and the means to contribute to solutions for climate change tend to (...)
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  41. Free will, determinism, and indeterminism.Robert H. Kane - 2002 - In Harald Atmanspacher & Robert Bishop (eds.), Between Chance and Choice: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Determinism. Thorverton UK: Imprint Academic. pp. 371--406.
  42. Compassion and Moral Responsibility in Avatar: The Last Airbender: “I was never angry; I was afraid that you had lost your way”.Robert H. Wallace - 2022 - In Helen De Cruz & Johan De Smedt (eds.), Avatar: The Last Airbender and Philosophy: Wisdom From Aang to Zuko. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 197-205..
    This public philosophy piece examines moral responsibility and alternatives to angry blame as exemplified in the TV show Avatar: The Last Airbender. Abstract: Many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important connection between holding someone responsible and being angry at them. The British philosopher P.F. Strawson argued that to blame someone‐to hold them responsible for a wrongdoing‐is just to feel and express certain kinds of moral anger toward them. Classical Buddhist thought suggests that anger is one of the poisons (...)
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  43.  46
    Robert Merrihew Adams, Finite and Infinite Goods: A Framework for Ethics:Finite and Infinite Goods: A Framework for Ethics.Robert H. Myers - 2002 - Ethics 112 (2):351-354.
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    Thalamic pathways for active vision.Rebecca A. Berman Robert H. Wurtz, Kerry McAlonan, James Cavanaugh - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (4):177.
  45.  17
    Robert Booth, Becoming a Place of Unrest: Environmental Crisis and Ecophenomenological Praxis.Robert H. Scott - 2022 - Environmental Values 31 (6):751-753.
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    Finding Value in Davidson.Robert H. Myers - 2004 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 34 (1):107 - 136.
    Can an effective argument against scepticism about objective values be modelled on Donald Davidson’s familiar argument against scepticism about external things?
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  47.  17
    Life, Health, and Disability Insurance: Understanding the Relationships.Robert H. Jerry - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (s2):80-89.
    Communitarian values are stronger in health insurance than in life or disability insurance. This correlates with increased tolerance for insurers' use of genetic information in disability insurance underwriting, which, in turn, is relevant to the scope and content of proposals to regulate such use.
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  48. A conception of rational thinking.Robert H. Ennis - forthcoming - Philosophy of Education.
     
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  49.  4
    Introduction to Buddhist East Asia.Robert H. Scott & James McRae - 2023 - In Robert H. Scott & James McRae (eds.), Introduction to Buddhist East Asia. SUNY Press. pp. 1-31.
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    Altruists with Green Beards: Still Kicking?Robert H. Frank - 2005 - Analyse & Kritik 27 (1):85-96.
    In earlier work, I proposed the ‘adaptive standard of rationality’, according to which narrow self-interest models can be broadened by positing additional tastes, but only upon a plausible showing that those tastes do not hamper resource acquisition in competitive environments. This proposal is related to the green beard hypothesis from biology, according to which altruism might be adaptive if its presence could be reliably signaled by some observable feature, such as a green beard. In their contribution to this issue Ernst (...)
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