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Robert G. Hudson [28]Robert Hudson [28]Robert L. Hudson [3]Robert P. Hudson [1]
  1. Why We Should Not Reject the Value-Free Ideal of Science.Robert Hudson - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (2):167-191.
    In recent years, the value-freeness of science has come under extensive critique. Early objectors to the notion of value-free science can be found in Rudner and Churchman, later objections occur in Leach and Gaa, and more recent critics are Kitcher, Douglas, and Elliott. The goal of this paper is to examine and critique two arguments opposed to the notion of a value-free science. The first argument, the uncertainty argument, cites the endemic uncertainty of science and concludes that values are needed (...)
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  2.  35
    Seeing Things: The Philosophy of Reliable Observation.Robert Hudson - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    In Seeing Things, Robert Hudson assesses a common way of arguing about observation reports called "robustness reasoning." Robustness reasoning claims that an observation report is more likely to be true if the report is produced by multiple, independent sources. Seeing Things argues that robustness reasoning lacks the special value it is often claimed to have. Hudson exposes key flaws in various popular philosophical defenses of robustness reasoning. This philosophical critique of robustness is extended by recounting five episodes in the history (...)
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  3.  72
    Mesosomes: A Study in the Nature of Experimental Reasoning.Robert G. Hudson - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (2):289-309.
    Culp (1994) provides a defense for a form of experimental reasoning entitled 'robustness'. Her strategy is to examine a recent episode in experimental microbiology--the case of the mistaken discovery of a bacterial organelle called a 'mesosome'--with an eye to showing how experimenters effectively used robust experimental reasoning (or could have used robust reasoning) to refute the existence of the mesosome. My plan is to criticize Culp's assessment of the mesosome episode and to cast doubt on the epistemic significance of robustness. (...)
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  4.  33
    The Reality of Jean Perrin's Atoms and Molecules.Robert Hudson - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (1):33-58.
    Jean Perrin’s proof in the early-twentieth century of the reality of atoms and molecules is often taken as an exemplary form of robustness reasoning, where an empirical result receives validation if it is generated using multiple experimental approaches. In this article, I describe in detail Perrin’s style of reasoning, and locate both qualitative and quantitative forms of argumentation. Particularly, I argue that his quantitative style of reasoning has mistakenly been viewed as a form of robustness reasoning, whereas I believe it (...)
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  5.  58
    The Methodological Strategy of Robustness in the Context of Experimental WIMP Research.Robert Hudson - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (2):174-193.
    According to the methodological principle called ‘robustness’, empirical evidence is more reliable when it is generated using multiple, independent (experimental) routes that converge on the same result. As it happens, robustness as a methodological strategy is quite popular amongst philosophers. However, despite its popularity, my goal here is to criticize the value of this principle on historical grounds. My historical reasons take into consideration some recent history of astroparticle physics concerning the search for WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles), one of (...)
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  6.  72
    What’s Really at Issue with Novel Predictions?Robert G. Hudson - 2007 - Synthese 155 (1):1 - 20.
    In this paper I distinguish two kinds of predictivism, ‘timeless’ and ‘historicized’. The former is the conventional understanding of predictivism. However, I argue that its defense in the works of John Worrall (Scerri and Worrall 2001, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 32, 407–452; Worrall 2002, In the Scope of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, 1, 191–209) and Patrick Maher (Maher 1988, PSA 1988, 1, pp. 273) is wanting. Alternatively, I promote an historicized predictivism, and briefly defend such (...)
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  7.  12
    What’s Really at Issue with Novel Predictions?Robert G. Hudson - 2007 - Synthese 155 (1):1-20.
    In this paper I distinguish two kinds of predictivism, 'timeless' and 'historicized'. The former is the conventional understanding of predictivism. However, I argue that its defense in the works of John Worrall and Patrick Maher is wanting. Alternatively, I promote an historicized predictivism, and briefly defend such a predictivism at the end of the paper.
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  8.  34
    Discoveries, When and by Whom?Robert G. Hudson - 2001 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (1):75-93.
    The Structure of Scientific Revolutions) and Alan Musgrave argue that it is impossible to precisely date discovery events and precisely identify discoverers. They defend this claim mainly on the grounds that so-called discoverers have in many cases misconceived the objects of discovery. In this paper, I argue that Kuhn and Musgrave arrive at their view because they lack a substantive account of how well discoverers must be able to conceptualize discovered objects. I remedy this deficiency by providing just such an (...)
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  9.  37
    Annual Modulation Experiments, Galactic Models and WIMPs.Robert G. Hudson - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (1):97-119.
  10. Classical Physics and Early Quantum Theory: A Legitimate Case of Theoretical Underdetermination.Robert Hudson - 1997 - Synthese 110 (2):217-256.
    In 1912, Henri Poincaré published an argument which apparently shows that the hypothesis of quanta is both necessary and sufficient for the truth of Planck''s experimentally corroborated law describing the spectral distribution of radiant energy in a black body. In a recent paper, John Norton has reaffirmed the authority of Poincarés argument, setting it up as a paradigm case in which empirical data can be used to definitively rule out theoretical competitors to a given theoretical hypothesis. My goal is to (...)
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  11. Perceiving Empirical Objects Directly.Robert G. Hudson - 2000 - Erkenntnis 52 (3):357-371.
    The goal of this paper is to defend the claim that there is such a thing as direct perception, where by ‘direct perception’ I mean perception unmediated by theorizing or concepts. The basis for my defense is a general philosophic perspective which I call ‘empiricist philosophy’. In brief, empiricist philosophy (as I have defined it) is untenable without the occurrence of direct perception. It is untenable without direct perception because, otherwise, one can't escape the hermeneutic circle, as this phrase is (...)
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  12.  27
    Background Independence and the Causation of Observations.Robert G. Hudson - 1994 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 25 (4):595-612.
  13.  17
    Searching for WIMPs.Robert G. Hudson - 2005 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 5 (2):245-262.
    The WIMP (weakly interacting dark matter) is currently the leading candidate for what is thought to be dark matter, the cosmological material claimed to make up almost 99% of the matter of the universe and which is indiscernible by means of electromagnetic radiation. There are many research groups dedicated to experimentally isolating WIMPs, and in this paper we describe the work of three of these groups, the Saclay group, DAMA and UKDM. This exploration into the recent history of astroparticle physics (...)
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  14.  4
    Annual Modulation Experiments, Galactic Models and WIMPs.Robert G. Hudson - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (1):97-119.
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  15.  75
    Faint-Hearted Anti-Realism and Knowability.Robert G. Hudson - 2009 - Philosophia 37 (3):511-523.
    It is often claimed that anti-realists are compelled to reject the inference of the knowability paradox, that there are no unknown truths. I call those anti-realists who feel so compelled ‘faint-hearted’, and argue in turn that anti-realists should affirm this inference, if it is to be consistent. A major part of my strategy in defending anti-realism is to formulate an anti-realist definition of truth according to which a statement is true only if it is verified by someone, at some time. (...)
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  16.  31
    The Generality Problem.Robert G. Hudson - 2004 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 42 (2):193-211.
  17. Disease and its Control the Shaping of Modern Thought.Robert P. Hudson - 1983
    This book is . . . a survey history of medicine from the earliest times, centered thematically on how changing concepts of disease have affected its management. . . . One finds a gratifying mastery of recent as well as classic scholarship in medical history and a careful sidestepping of positivistic excesses. . . . Disease and Its Control is a fresh and welcome synthesis of historical scholarship that will be accessible to interested laymen. (Annals of Internal Medicine).
     
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  18.  17
    Mesosomes and Scientific Methodology.Robert Hudson - 2003 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 25 (2):167 - 191.
    In his recent article, Nicolas Rasmussen (2001) is harshly critical of what he terms 'empirical philosophy of science', a philosophy that takes seriously the history of science in advancing philosophical pronouncements about science. He motivates his criticism by reflecting on recent history in microbiology involving the 'discovery' of a new bacterial organelle, the mesosome, during the 1950's and 1960's, and the subsequent retraction of this discovery by experimental microbiologists during the late 1970's and early 1980's. In particular, he argues that (...)
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  19.  24
    Reliability, Pragmatic and Epistemic.Robert G. Hudson - 1994 - Erkenntnis 40 (1):71 - 86.
    Experimental data are often acclaimed on the grounds that they can be consistently generated. They are, it is said, reproducible. In this paper I describe how this feature of experimental-data (their pragmatic reliability) leads to their epistemic worth (their epistemic reliability). An important part of my description is the supposition that experimental procedures are to certain extent fixed and stable. Various illustrations from the actual practice of science are introduced, the most important coming at the end of the paper with (...)
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  20.  8
    Effect of Context and Category Name on the Recall of Categorized Word Lists.Robert L. Hudson & James B. Austin - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (1):43.
  21.  8
    Empirical Constraints in the Aufbau.Robert G. Hudson - 1994 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 11 (2):237-251.
  22.  15
    First Page Preview.Jonathan Bain, Timothy Bays, Katherine A. Brading, Stephen G. Brush, Murray Clarke, Sharyn Clough, Jonathan Cohen, Giancarlo Ghirardi, Brendan S. Gillon & Robert G. Hudson - 2004 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 18 (2-3).
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  23. Land & Identity: Theory, Memory, and Practice.Christine Berberich, Neil Campbell & Robert Hudson (eds.) - 2012 - Editions Rodopi.
    This collection of essays aims to investigate the complex issues surrounding contemporary cultural discourses on land and identity – their production, construction, and reconstruction across a range of different texts and materials. The chapters offer disciplinary and trans-disciplinary approaches opening up discussion and new routes for research in a number of interrelated areas such as Countryside vs. City, Diaspora, Landscapes of Memory and Trauma, Migrational Spaces, and Ecology. They represent a number of innovative contemporary responses to how concepts of land (...)
     
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  24.  12
    Arnold I. Davidson. The Emergence of Sexuality: Historical Epistemology and the Formation of Concepts. Xvi+254 Pp., Illus., Bibl., Index. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002. $39.95. [REVIEW]Robert G. Hudson - 2003 - Isis 94 (4):691-692.
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  25. Améliorer les Théories de la Fiabilité.Robert Hudson - 2007 - Philosophiques 34 (2):363-366.
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  26.  11
    Category Clustering for Immediate and Delayed Recall as a Function of Recall Cue Information and Response Dominance Variability.Robert L. Hudson - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (3):575.
  27.  32
    Carnap's Empiricism, Lost and Found.Robert G. Hudson - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 43:81-88.
    Recent scholarship (by mainly Michael Friedman, but also by Thomas Uebel) on the philosophy of Rudolf Carnap covering the period from the publication of Carnap’s’ 1928 book Der Logische Aufbau der Welt through to the mid to late 1930’s has tended to view Carnap as espousing a form of conventionalism (epitomized by his adoption of the principle of tolerance) and not a form of empirical foundationalism. On this view, it follows that Carnap’s 1934 The Logical Syntax of Language is the (...)
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  28. Carnap, the Principle of Tolerance, and Empiricism.Robert Hudson - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (3):341-358.
    Kurt Gödel criticizes Rudolf Carnap's conventionalism on the grounds that it relies on an empiricist admissibility condition, which, if applied, runs afoul of his second incompleteness theorem. Thomas Ricketts and Michael Friedman respond to Gödel's critique by denying that Carnap is committed to Gödel's admissibility criterion; in effect, they are denying that Carnap is committed to any empirical constraint in the application of his principle of tolerance. I argue in response that Carnap is indeed committed to an empirical requirement vis‐à‐vis (...)
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  29. Defending Standards Contextualism.Robert Hudson - 2015 - Logos and Episteme 6 (1): 35-59.
    It has become more common recently for epistemologists to advocate the pragmatic encroachment on knowledge, the claim that the appropriateness ofknowledge ascriptions is dependent on the relevant practical circumstances. Advocacy of practicalism in epistemology has come at the expense of contextualism, the view that knowledge ascriptions are independent of pragmatic factors and depend alternatively on distinctively epistemological, semantic factors with the result that knowledge ascriptions express different knowledge properties on different occasions of use. Overall, my goal here is to defend (...)
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  30.  31
    Defending Shah’s Evidentialism From His Pragmatist Critics: The Carnapian Link.Robert Hudson - 2016 - Contemporary Pragmatism 13 (2):143-168.
    In an important 2006 paper, Nishi Shah defends ‘evidentialism’, the position that only evidence for a proposition’s truth constitutes a reason to believe this proposition. In opposition to Shah, Anthony Robert Booth, Andrew Reisner and Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen argue that things other than evidence of truth, so-called non-evidential or ‘pragmatic’ reasons, constitute reasons to believe a proposition. I argue that we can effectively respond to Shah’s pragmatist critics if, following Shah, we are careful to distinguish the evaluation of the reasons for (...)
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  31.  6
    Effects of Presentation, Recall, and Study Trials on Word Recall of a Highly Structured List.Robert L. Hudson & Kathleen S. Hudson - 1977 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 10 (1):60-62.
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  32. In Defense of Direct Perception.Robert Hudson - 1998 - The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 35:119-123.
    My goal in this paper is to defend the claim that one can directly perceive an object without possessing any descriptive beliefs about this object. My strategy in defending this claim is to rebut three arguments that attack my view of direct perception. According to these arguments, the notion of direct perception as I construe it is objectionable since: it is epistemically worthless since it leaves perceived objects uninterpreted; it cannot explain how perceived objects are identified; and it is ill-prepared (...)
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  33.  5
    K. Brad Wray, "Resisting Scientific Realism." Reviewed By.Robert Hudson - 2019 - Philosophy in Review 39 (4):224-226.
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  34. Lorraine Daston, Ed., Biographies of Scientific Objects Reviewed By.Robert G. Hudson - 2001 - Philosophy in Review 21 (4):249-251.
     
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  35. Lorraine Daston, Ed., Biographies of Scientific Objects. [REVIEW]Robert Hudson - 2001 - Philosophy in Review 21:249-251.
     
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  36. Leslie Stevenson and Henry Byerly, The Many Faces of Science: An Introduction to Scientists, Values, and Society Reviewed By.Robert G. Hudson - 1995 - Philosophy in Review 15 (4):292-294.
     
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  37.  31
    Model-Independence Vs. Robustness.Robert Hudson - unknown
    My goal in this paper is to consider two separate but connected topics, one historical, the other philosophical. The first topic concerns the forms of reasoning contemporary experimental astrophysicists use to investigate the existence of WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). These forms of reasoning take two forms, one model-dependent and the other model-independent, and we examine the arguments one WIMP research group (DAMA) uses to support the latter. The second topic concerns recent support Kent Staley has offered for a form (...)
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  38.  68
    Novelty and the 1919 Eclipse Experiments.Robert G. Hudson - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34 (1):107-129.
  39.  9
    Novelty and the 1919 Eclipse Experiments.Robert G. Hudson - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34 (1):107-129.
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  40.  6
    No Title Available: Dialogue.Robert Hudson - 2007 - Dialogue 46 (2):383-385.
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  41.  3
    No Title Available.Robert Hudson - 2005 - Dialogue 44 (4):792-793.
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  42.  33
    Pritchard’s Angst.Robert G. Hudson - 2006 - Acta Analytica 21 (3):85-92.
    In this paper, I raise some questions about Pritchard ’s internalist argument for scepticism. I argue that his internalism begs the question in support of scepticism. Correlatively I advance what I take to be a better internalist argument for scepticism, one that leaves open the possibility of empirically adjudicating sceptical hypotheses. I close by discussing what it means to be an internalist.
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  43.  32
    Reconstructing Reason and Representation. [REVIEW]Robert Hudson - 2007 - Dialogue 46 (2):383-385.
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  44. Saving Pritchard’s Anti-Luck Virtue Epistemology: The Case of Temp.Robert Hudson - 2014 - Synthese 191 (5):1-15.
    Virtue epistemology is faced with the challenge of establishing the degree to which a knower’s cognitive success is attributable to her cognitive ability. As Duncan Pritchard notes, in some cases one is inclined to a strong version of virtue epistemology, one that requires cognitive success to be because of the exercise of the relevant cognitive abilities. In other cases, a weak version of virtue epistemology seems preferable, where cognitive success need only be the product of cognitive ability. Pritchard’s preference, with (...)
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  45.  9
    Should We Strive to Make Science Bias-Free? A Philosophical Assessment of the Reproducibility Crisis.Robert Hudson - forthcoming - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-17.
    Recently, many scientists have become concerned about an excessive number of failures to reproduce statistically significant effects. The situation has become dire enough that the situation has been named the ‘reproducibility crisis’. After reviewing the relevant literature to confirm the observation that scientists do indeed view replication as currently problematic, I explain in philosophical terms why the replication of empirical phenomena, such as statistically significant effects, is important for scientific progress. Following that explanation, I examine various diagnoses of the reproducibility (...)
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  46.  18
    The Book of Evidence Peter Achinstein Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Science New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 290 Pp., $79.95. [REVIEW]Robert G. Hudson - 2004 - Dialogue 43 (1):184-.
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  47. The Book of Evidence. [REVIEW]Robert G. Hudson - 2004 - Dialogue 43 (1):184-185.
    Anyone interested in how analytic methods can clearly and efficiently dispatch controversial issues arising in the philosophy of science is encouraged to read Peter Achinstein’s The Book of Evidence.
     
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  48. The Empirical Basis To Skepticism.Robert Hudson - 2007 - Minerva 11:101-112.
    Broadly speaking, there are two different ways in which one might defend skepticism – an a priori wayand an empirical way. My first task in this paper is to defend the view that the preferred way to defendskepticism is empirical. My second task is to explain why this approach actually makes sense. Iaccomplish this latter task by responding to various criticisms one might advance against the possibilityof empirically defending skepticism. In service of this response, I distinguish between two differentkinds of (...)
     
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  49.  1
    The Empirical Basis to Skepticism.Robert G. Hudson - 2007 - Minerva - An Internet Journal of Philosophy 11 (1).
    Broadly speaking, there are two different ways in which one might defend skepticism – an a priori way and an empirical way. My first task in this paper is to defend the view that the preferred way to defend skepticism is empirical. My second task is to explain why this approach actually makes sense. I accomplish this latter task by responding to various criticisms one might advance against the possibility of empirically defending skepticism. In service of this response, I distinguish (...)
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  50.  1
    The Emergence of Sexuality: Historical Epistemology and the Formation of Concepts. [REVIEW]Robert Hudson - 2003 - Isis 94:691-692.
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