Results for 'Robert I. Griffiths'

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  1.  63
    I. Emotions, Thoughts and Feelings: What is a ‘Cognitive Theory’ of the Emotions and Does It Neglect Affectivity?: Robert C. Solomon.Robert C. Solomon - 2003 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 52:1-18.
    I have been arguing, for almost thirty years now, that emotions have been unduly neglected in philosophy. Back in the seventies, it was an argument that attracted little sympathy. I have also been arguing that emotions are a ripe for philosophical analysis, a view that, as evidenced by the Manchester 2001 conference and a large number of excellent publications, has now become mainstream. My own analysis of emotion, first published in 1973, challenged the sharp divide between emotions and rationality, insisted (...)
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  2. Emotions, Thoughts, and Feelings: What is a Cognitive Theory of the Emotions and Does It Neglect Affectivity?Robert C. Solomon - 2003 - In A. Hatimoysis (ed.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1-18.
    I have been arguing, for almost thirty years now, that emotions have been unduly neglected in philosophy. Back in the seventies, it was an argument that attracted little sympathy. I have also been arguing that emotions are a ripe for philosophical analysis, a view that, as evidenced by the Manchester 2001 conference and a large number of excellent publications, has now become mainstream. My own analysis of emotion, first published in 1973, challenged the sharp divide between emotions and rationality, insisted (...)
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  3.  58
    Evolution and Two Popular Proposals for the Definition of Function.Robert Arp - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):19-30.
    In the biological realm, a complete explanation of a trait seems to include an explanation in terms of function. It is natural to ask of some trait, "What is its function?" or "What purpose in the organism does the particular trait serve?" or "What is the goal of its activity?" There are several views concerning the appropriate definition of function for biological matters. Two popular views of function with respect to living things are Cummins' organizational account and the Griffiths/Godfrey-Smith (...)
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  4.  39
    Patterns, Models, and Predictions: Robert MacArthur’s Approach to Ecology.Yoichi Ishida - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):642-653.
    Robert MacArthur's mathematical ecology is often regarded as ahistorical and has been criticized by historically oriented ecologists and philosophers for ignoring the importance of history. I clarify and defend his approach, especially his use of simple mathematical models to explain patterns in data and to generate predictions that stimulate empirical research. First I argue that it is misleading to call his approach ahistorical because it is not against historical explanation. Next I distinguish three kinds of criticism of his approach (...)
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  5. Computability and Recursion.Robert I. Soare - 1996 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):284-321.
    We consider the informal concept of "computability" or "effective calculability" and two of the formalisms commonly used to define it, "(Turing) computability" and "(general) recursiveness". We consider their origin, exact technical definition, concepts, history, general English meanings, how they became fixed in their present roles, how they were first and are now used, their impact on nonspecialists, how their use will affect the future content of the subject of computability theory, and its connection to other related areas. After a careful (...)
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  6.  24
    Turing Oracle Machines, Online Computing, and Three Displacements in Computability Theory.Robert I. Soare - 2009 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 160 (3):368-399.
    We begin with the history of the discovery of computability in the 1930’s, the roles of Gödel, Church, and Turing, and the formalisms of recursive functions and Turing automatic machines . To whom did Gödel credit the definition of a computable function? We present Turing’s notion [1939, §4] of an oracle machine and Post’s development of it in [1944, §11], [1948], and finally Kleene-Post [1954] into its present form. A number of topics arose from Turing functionals including continuous functionals on (...)
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  7. The Infinite Injury Priority Method.Robert I. Soare - 1976 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 41 (2):513-530.
  8.  55
    Computability Theory and Differential Geometry.Robert I. Soare - 2004 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 10 (4):457-486.
    Let M be a smooth, compact manifold of dimension n ≥ 5 and sectional curvature | K | ≤ 1. Let Met (M) = Riem(M)/Diff(M) be the space of Riemannian metrics on M modulo isometries. Nabutovsky and Weinberger studied the connected components of sublevel sets (and local minima) for certain functions on Met (M) such as the diameter. They showed that for every Turing machine T e , e ∈ ω, there is a sequence (uniformly effective in e) of homology (...)
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  9.  33
    Computational Complexity, Speedable and Levelable Sets.Robert I. Soare - 1977 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 42 (4):545-563.
  10. Consistent Quantum Theory - Robert B. Griffiths, Cambridge, 2001, Pp. 400, US $95, ISBN 0521803497.R. Omnes - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 34 (2):329-331.
     
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  11. Sets with No Subset of Higher Degrees.Robert I. Soare - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (1):53-56.
  12.  64
    Dynamic Properties of Computably Enumerable Sets.Robert I. Soare - 1996 - In S. B. Cooper, T. A. Slaman & S. S. Wainer (eds.), Computability, Enumerability, Unsolvability: Directions in Recursion Theory. Cambridge University Press. pp. 224--105.
  13. Quantum Locality.Robert B. Griffiths - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (4):705-733.
    It is argued that while quantum mechanics contains nonlocal or entangled states, the instantaneous or nonlocal influences sometimes thought to be present due to violations of Bell inequalities in fact arise from mistaken attempts to apply classical concepts and introduce probabilities in a manner inconsistent with the Hilbert space structure of standard quantum mechanics. Instead, Einstein locality is a valid quantum principle: objective properties of individual quantum systems do not change when something is done to another noninteracting system. There is (...)
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  14.  52
    A Proposed Ethical Framework for Vaccine Mandates: Competing Values and the Case of HPV.Robert I. Field & Arthur L. Caplan - 2008 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18 (2):111-124.
    Debates over vaccine mandates raise intense emotions, as reflected in the current controversy over whether to mandate the vaccine against human papilloma virus (HPV), the virus that can cause cervical cancer. Public health ethics so far has failed to facilitate meaningful dialogue between the opposing sides. When stripped of its emotional charge, the debate can be framed as a contest between competing ethical values. This framework can be conceptualized graphically as a conflict between autonomy on the one hand, which militates (...)
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  15. A Note on Degrees of Subsets.Robert I. Soare - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (2):256.
  16.  32
    Introduction: Self and Emotion.Robert I. Levy - 1983 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 11 (3):128-134.
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  17.  18
    Grothendieck Topology as Geometric Modality.Robert I. Goldblatt - 1981 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 27 (31‐35):495-529.
  18.  26
    Grothendieck Topology as Geometric Modality.Robert I. Goldblatt - 1981 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 27 (31-35):495-529.
  19. The Chinese Room Argument--Dead but Not yet Buried.Robert I. Damper - 2004 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (5-6):159-169.
    This article is an accompaniment to Anthony Freeman’s review of Views into the Chinese Room, reflecting on some pertinent outstanding questions about the Chinese room argument. Although there is general agreement in the artificial intelligence community that the CRA is somehow wrong, debate continues on exactly why and how it is wrong. Is there a killer counter-argument and, if so, what is it? One remarkable fact is that the CRA is prototypically a thought experiment, yet it has been very little (...)
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  20. Quantum Counterfactuals and Locality.Robert B. Griffiths - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (5):674-684.
    Stapp’s counterfactual argument for quantum nonlocality based upon a Hardy entangled state is shown to be flawed. While he has correctly analyzed a particular framework using the method of consistent histories, there are alternative frameworks which do not support his argument. The framework dependence of quantum counterfactual arguments, with analogs in classical counterfactuals, vitiates the claim that nonlocal (superluminal) influences exist in the quantum world. Instead it shows that counterfactual arguments are of limited use for analyzing these questions.
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  21.  85
    A Psychological Definition of Illusion.Robert I. Reynolds - 1988 - Philosophical Psychology 1 (2):217-223.
    The psychological concept of illusion is defined as a process involving an interaction of logical and empirical considerations. Common usage suggests that an illusion is a discrepancy between one's awareness and some stimulus. Following preliminary definitions of classes of stimuli, five definitions of illusion are considered, based upon the possible discrepancies between awareness and a stimulus. It is found that each of these definitions fails to make important distinctions, even to the point of equating all illusory and perceptual phenomena. This (...)
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  22. The New Quantum Logic.Robert B. Griffiths - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (6):610-640.
    It is shown how all the major conceptual difficulties of standard (textbook) quantum mechanics, including the two measurement problems and the (supposed) nonlocality that conflicts with special relativity, are resolved in the consistent or decoherent histories interpretation of quantum mechanics by using a modified form of quantum logic to discuss quantum properties (subspaces of the quantum Hilbert space), and treating quantum time development as a stochastic process. The histories approach in turn gives rise to some conceptual difficulties, in particular the (...)
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  23.  9
    Consistent Quantum Measurements.Robert B. Griffiths - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 52 (Part B):188-197.
  24.  12
    Perceptual Play and Teaching the Aesthetics of Comedy: A Paradigm.Robert I. Williams - 1988 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 22 (2):15.
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  25.  71
    Digital Dilemmas: Ethical Issues for Online Media Professionals.Robert I. Berkman - 2003 - Iowa State Press.
    This important new text establishes a framework for discussing, understanding, and ultimately making sound decisions on meeting these ethical challenges.
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  26.  10
    I—Robert Stalnaker.Robert Stalnaker - 2001 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 75 (1):141-156.
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  27. The Logic of Searle’s Chinese Room Argument.Robert I. Damper - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (2):163-183.
    John Searle’s Chinese room argument is a celebrated thought experiment designed to refute the hypothesis, popular among artificial intelligence scientists and philosophers of mind, that “the appropriately programmed computer really is a mind”. Since its publication in 1980, the CRA has evoked an enormous amount of debate about its implications for machine intelligence, the functionalist philosophy of mind, theories of consciousness, etc. Although the general consensus among commentators is that the CRA is flawed, and not withstanding the popularity of the (...)
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  28.  3
    The Application of a Search Heuristic by Skilled Problem Solvers.Robert I. Reynolds - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (1):55-56.
  29.  5
    Introduction: Self and Emotion.Robert I. Levy - 1983 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 11 (3):128-134.
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  30.  27
    The Power of Space in a Traditional Hindu City.Robert I. Levy - 1997 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 1 (1):55-71.
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  31.  10
    Ethnography, Comparison, and Changing Times.Robert I. Levy - 2005 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 33 (4):435-458.
  32.  3
    Ethnography, Comparison, and Changing Times.Robert I. Levy - 2005 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 33 (4):435-458.
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  33.  30
    Probabilities and Quantum Reality: Are There Correlata? [REVIEW]Robert B. Griffiths - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (10):1423-1459.
    Any attempt to introduce probabilities into quantum mechanics faces difficulties due to the mathematical structure of Hilbert space, as reflected in Birkhoff and von Neumann's proposal for a quantum logic. The (consistent or decoherent) histories solution is provided by its single framework rule, an approach that includes conventional (Copenhagen) quantum theory as a special case. Mermin's Ithaca interpretation addresses the same problem by defining probabilities which make no reference to a sample space or event algebra (“correlations without correlata”). But this (...)
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  34.  40
    I—Robert Audi: Moral Perception and Moral Knowledge.Robert Audi - 2010 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 84 (1):79-97.
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  35.  13
    Degrees of Orderings Not Isomorphic to Recursive Linear Orderings.Carl G. Jockusch & Robert I. Soare - 1991 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 52 (1-2):39-64.
    It is shown that for every nonzero r.e. degree c there is a linear ordering of degree c which is not isomorphic to any recursive linear ordering. It follows that there is a linear ordering of low degree which is not isomorphic to any recursive linear ordering. It is shown further that there is a linear ordering L such that L is not isomorphic to any recursive linear ordering, and L together with its ‘infinitely far apart’ relation is of low (...)
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  36.  18
    The Consistency of Consistent Histories: A Reply to d'Espagnat. [REVIEW]Robert B. Griffiths - 1993 - Foundations of Physics 23 (12):1601-1610.
    This article is a response to various assertions made by B. d'Espagnat about the consistent history approach to quantum mechanics. It is argued that the consistent history interpretation allows for counterfactual definitions, does not imply that the future influences the past, is “realistic” according to d'Espagnat's own definition of that term, and provides a consistent substitute for classical logic in the quantum domain.
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  37. Definability, Automorphisms, and Dynamic Properties of Computably Enumerable Sets.Leo Harrington & Robert I. Soare - 1996 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 2 (2):199-213.
    We announce and explain recent results on the computably enumerable (c.e.) sets, especially their definability properties (as sets in the spirit of Cantor), their automorphisms (in the spirit of Felix Klein's Erlanger Programm), their dynamic properties, expressed in terms of how quickly elements enter them relative to elements entering other sets, and the Martin Invariance Conjecture on their Turing degrees, i.e., their information content with respect to relative computability (Turing reducibility).
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  38.  20
    Computability of Homogeneous Models.Karen Lange & Robert I. Soare - 2007 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 48 (1):143-170.
    In the last five years there have been a number of results about the computable content of the prime, saturated, or homogeneous models of a complete decidable theory T in the spirit of Vaught's "Denumerable models of complete theories" combined with computability methods for degrees d ≤ 0′. First we recast older results by Goncharov, Peretyat'kin, and Millar in a more modern framework which we then apply. Then we survey recent results by Lange, "The degree spectra of homogeneous models," which (...)
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  39.  15
    Mead, Freeman, and Samoa: The Problem of Seeing Things as They Are.Robert I. Levy - 1984 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 12 (1):85-92.
  40.  25
    Hilbert Space Quantum Mechanics is Noncontextual.Robert B. Griffiths - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (3):174-181.
    It is shown that quantum mechanics is noncontextual if quantum properties are represented by subspaces of the quantum Hilbert space rather than by hidden variables. In particular, a measurement using an appropriately constructed apparatus can be shown to reveal the value of an observable A possessed by the measured system before the measurement took place, whatever other compatible observable B may be measured at the same time.
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  41.  6
    Mead, Freeman, and Samoa: The Problem of Seeing Things as They Are.Robert I. Levy - 1984 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 12 (1):85-92.
  42.  3
    Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal.Ronald Inden & Robert I. Levy - 1994 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 114 (2):318.
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  43.  2
    On the Nature and Functions of the Emotions: An Anthropological Perspective.Robert I. Levy - 1982 - Social Science Information 21 (4-5):511-528.
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  44.  5
    The Recursively Enumerable Degrees Have Infinitely Many One-Types.Klaus Ambos-Spies & Robert I. Soare - 1989 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 44 (1-2):1-23.
  45.  15
    Codable Sets and Orbits of Computably Enumerable Sets.Leo Harrington & Robert I. Soare - 1998 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 63 (1):1-28.
    A set X of nonnegative integers is computably enumerable (c.e.), also called recursively enumerable (r.e.), if there is a computable method to list its elements. Let ε denote the structure of the computably enumerable sets under inclusion, $\varepsilon = (\{W_e\}_{e\in \omega}, \subseteq)$ . We previously exhibited a first order ε-definable property Q(X) such that Q(X) guarantees that X is not Turing complete (i.e., does not code complete information about c.e. sets). Here we show first that Q(X) implies that X has (...)
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  46.  21
    Grounding Symbols in the Physics of Speech Communication.Simon F. Worgan & Robert I. Damper - 2007 - Interaction Studies 8 (1):7-30.
    The traditional view of symbol grounding seeks to connect an a priori internal representation or ‘form’ to its external referent. But such a ‘form’ is usually itself systematically composed out of more primitive parts, so this view ignores its grounding in the physics of the world. Some previous work simulating multiple talking/listening agents has effectively taken this stance, and shown how a shared discrete speech code can emerge. Taking the earlier work of Oudeyer, we have extended his model to include (...)
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  47.  4
    Al-Azraq's Surrender Treaty with Jaume I and Prince Alfonso in 1245: Arabic Text and Valencian Context.Robert I. Burns & Paul E. Chevedden - 1989 - Der Islam: Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East 66 (1):1-37.
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  48.  3
    A Cross-Cultural Investigation of the Shared Values Relationship.Barry Z. Posner & Robert I. Westwood - 1995 - International Journal of Value-Based Management 8 (3):197-206.
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  49.  41
    Definable Properties of the Computably Enumerable Sets.Leo Harrington & Robert I. Soare - 1998 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 94 (1-3):97-125.
    Post in 1944 began studying properties of a computably enumerable set A such as simple, h-simple, and hh-simple, with the intent of finding a property guaranteeing incompleteness of A . From the observations of Post and Myhill , attention focused by the 1950s on properties definable in the inclusion ordering of c.e. subsets of ω, namely E = . In the 1950s and 1960s Tennenbaum, Martin, Yates, Sacks, Lachlan, Shoenfield and others produced a number of elegant results relating ∄-definable properties (...)
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  50.  34
    Boolean Algebras, Stone Spaces, and the Iterated Turing Jump.Carl G. Jockusch & Robert I. Soare - 1994 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (4):1121 - 1138.
    We show, roughly speaking, that it requires ω iterations of the Turing jump to decode nontrivial information from Boolean algebras in an isomorphism invariant fashion. More precisely, if α is a recursive ordinal, A is a countable structure with finite signature, and d is a degree, we say that A has αth-jump degree d if d is the least degree which is the αth jump of some degree c such there is an isomorphic copy of A with universe ω in (...)
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