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Robert N. Johnson [30]Robert Johnson [11]Roberta Johnson [3]Robert M. Johnson [3]
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Robert Johnson
University of Missouri, Columbia
Robert Johnson
Norwich University
Robert Johnson
Al Akhawayn University
  1. Kant's Conception of Merit.Robert N. Johnson - 1996 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 77:310.
    It is standard to attribute to Kant the view that actions from motives other than duty deserve no positive moral evaluation. I argue that the standard view is mistaken. Kant's account of merit in the Metaphysics of Morals shows that he believes actions not performed from duty can be meritorious. Moreover, the grounds for attributing merit to an action are different from those for attributing moral worth to it. This is significant because it shows both that his views are reasonably (...)
     
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  2. Virtue and Right.Robert N. Johnson - 2003 - Ethics 113 (4):810-834.
  3. Internal Reasons and the Conditional Fallacy.Robert N. Johnson - 1999 - Philosophical Quarterly 49 (194):53-72.
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  4. Kant's Moral Philosophy.Robert N. Johnson - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) argued that moral requirements are based on a standard of rationality he dubbed the “Categorical Imperative” (CI). Immorality thus involves a violation of the CI and is thereby irrational. Other philosophers, such as Locke and Hobbes, had also argued that moral requirements are based on standards of rationality. However, these standards were either desirebased instrumental principles of rationality or based on sui generis rational intuitions. Kant agreed with many of his predecessors that an analysis of practical reason (...)
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  5.  53
    Weakness Incorporated.Robert N. Johnson - 1998 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 15 (3):349 - 367.
    Kant held that “an incentive can determine the will [Willkür] to action only so far as the individual has incorporated it into his maxim”, a view dubbed the “Incorporation Thesis” by Henry Allison (hereafter, “IT”). Although many see IT as basic to Kant’s views on agency, it also seems irreconcilable with the possibility of a kind of weakness, the kind exhibited by a person who acts on incentives that run contrary to principles she holds dear. The problem is this: According (...)
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  6.  50
    Self-Improvement: An Essay in Kantian Ethics.Robert N. Johnson - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Is there any moral obligation to improve oneself, to foster and develop various capacities in oneself? From a broadly Kantian point of view, Self-Improvement defends the view that there is such an obligation and that it is an obligation that each person owes to him or herself. The defence addresses a range of arguments philosophers have mobilized against this idea, including the argument that it is impossible to owe anything to yourself, and the view that an obligation to improve onself (...)
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  7.  3
    ``Virtue and Right&Quot.Robert N. Johnson - 2003 - Ethics 113 (4):810--834.
  8.  10
    Kantian Ethics Almost Without Apology.Robert N. Johnson - 1997 - Philosophical Review 106 (4):594.
    Alas, you were at a Kant conference—or many philosophers’ idea of one—and if you are shocked, perhaps you are not a Kantian. For this scenario illustrates two fundamental criticisms of Kant’s vision of morality as “duty”: It is outrageous to hold that even for the hero “all the good he can ever perform still is merely duty”. And those who, like these parents, are moved to every morally significant action by a sense of duty are, far from exemplary, morally repugnant. (...)
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  9. Reasons and Advice for the Practically Rational.Robert Neal Johnson - 1997 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):619-625.
    This paper defends a model of the internalism requirement against Michael Smith's recent criticisms of it. On this "example model", what we have reason to do is what we would be motivated to do were we rational. After criticizing the example model, Smith argues that his "advice model", that what we have reason to do is what we would advise ourselves to do were we rational, is obviously preferable. The author argues that Smith's criticisms can quite easily be accommodated by (...)
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  10.  59
    Value and Autonomy in Kantian Ethics.Robert N. Johnson - 2007 - In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics. Clarendon Press.
  11. 10. Jacob Levy, The Multiculturalism of Fear Jacob Levy, The Multiculturalism of Fear (Pp. 891-895).Roger Crisp, Larry S. Temkin, Robert Sugden, Robert N. Johnson, George Klosko & Paul Hurley - 2003 - Ethics 113 (4).
  12.  99
    Ethics Training: A Genuine Dilemma for Engineering Educators. [REVIEW]John Lincourt & Robert Johnson - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (2):353-358.
    This is an examination of three main strategies used by engineering educators to integrate ethics into the engineering curriculum. They are: (1) the standalone course, (2) the ethics imperative mandating ethics content for all engineering courses, and (3) outsourcing ethics instruction to an external expert. The expectations from each approach are discussed and their main limitations described. These limitations include the insular status of the stand-alone course, the diffuse and uneven integration with the ethics imperative, and the orphaned status of (...)
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  13.  38
    Was Kant a Virtue Ethicist?Robert N. Johnson - 2008 - In Monika Betzler (ed.), Kant's Ethics of Virtues. De Gruyter. pp. 61-76.
    You might think a simple “No” would suffice as an answer. But there are features of Kant’s ethics that appear to be strikingly similar to virtue oriented views, so striking that some Kantians themselves have argued that Kant’s ethics in fact shares these features with virtue ethics. In what follows, I will argue against this view, though along the way I will acknowledge the features of Kant’s view that make it appear more like a kind of virtue ethics than it (...)
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  14.  52
    Internal Reasons: Reply to Brady, Van Roojen and Gert.Robert N. Johnson - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (213):573–580.
    In an earlier paper I identified two desiderata of a theory of practical reasons which favour internalism, and then argued that forms of this doctrine which are currently on offer lose either one or the other in trying to avoid the conditional fallacy. Michael Brady, Mark van Roojen and Josh Gert have separately attempted to respond to my argument. I set out reasons why all fail.
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  15. The Moral Law as Causal Law.Robert N. Johnson - 2009 - In Jens Timmermann (ed.), Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
    Much recent work on Kant's argument that the Categorical Imperative is the fundamental principle of morality has focused on the gap in that argument between the conclusion that rational agents conform to laws that apply to every rational agent, and the requirement contained in the Universal Law of Nature formula.1 While it seems plausible – even trivial– that a rational agent, insofar as she is a rational agent, conforms to whatever laws there are that are valid for all rational agents, (...)
     
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  16. Love in Vain.Robert Johnson - 1998 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 36 (S1):45-50.
    Kant famously argued in the Groundwork that our fundamental moral obligation is simply to respect the humanity in persons. However, his fuller view, found in the Metaphysic of Morals, is that the humanity in persons not only demands our respect, but also our love. Neither of these demands, of course, requires that we feel anything for others, and Kant is much more specific here about what constitutes respect between persons. But in elaborating this position he also claims that these demands (...)
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  17. Good Will and the Moral Worth of Acting From Duty.Robert N. Johnson - 2009 - In Thomas E. Hill (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Kant's Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The first section of the Groundwork begins “It is impossible to imagine anything at all in the world, or even beyond it, that can be called good without qualification— except a good will.”1 Kant’s explanation and defense of this claim is followed by an explanation and defense of another related claim, that only actions performed out of duty have moral worth. He explains that actions performed out of duty are those done from respect for the moral law, and then culminates (...)
     
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  18. A Logic Book.Robert M. Johnson - 1992
     
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  19.  5
    Reasons and Advice for the Practically Rational.Robert Neal Johnson - 1997 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):619-625.
    This paper defends a model of the internalism requirement against Michael Smith’s recent criticisms of it. On this “example model”, what we have reason to do is what we would be motivated to do were we rational. After criticizing the example model, Smith argues that his “advice model”, that what we have reason to do is what we would advise ourselves to do were we rational, is obviously preferable. The author argues that Smith’s criticisms can quite easily be accommodated by (...)
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  20. Happiness as a Natural End.Robert N. Johnson - 2002 - In Mark Timmons (ed.), Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: Interpretative Essays. Clarendon Press.
  21. Self-Development as an Imperfect Duty.Robert Johnson - manuscript
    'You ought to make something of yourself.' That certainly has the ring of truth about it. But is there really any obligation to develop yourself? Those who let abilities lie idle are shortsighted, of course. But are they guilty of anything more than imprudence? It is easy to think that there could be a moral fault in failing to help others such as your children to develop their talents and abilities. But what about not developing your own? And if this (...)
     
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  22.  92
    Expressing a Good Will: Kant on the Motive of Duty.Robert N. Johnson - 1996 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 34 (2):147-168.
    If any action is to be morally good it is not enough that it should conform to the moral law-it must also be done for the sake of the moral law: where this is not so, the conformity is only too contingent and precarious, since the nonmoral ground at work will now and then produce actions which accord with the law, but very often actions which transgress it.
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  23. Obligation.Robert Johnson - manuscript
    Since Plato wrote of political obligation in his dialogue Crito, obligation in general has been of ongoing interest to philosophers. In that dialogue, Socrates argues that he was under an obligation to obey the laws of Athens and comply with a sentence of death. During the course of the argument, he raises and offers solutions to many of the central issues about obligation that philosophers still puzzle over. For instance, how can obligations have the grip on us that they do—in (...)
     
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  24.  59
    Direct Product and Decomposition of Certain Physically Important Algebras.Robert W. Johnson - 1996 - Foundations of Physics 26 (2):197-222.
    I consider the direct product algebra formed from two isomorphic Clifford algebras. More specifically, for an element x in each of the two component algebras I consider elements in the direct product space with the form x ⊗ x. I show how this construction can be used to model the algebraic structure of particular vector spaces with metric, to describe the relationship between wavefunction and observable in examples from quantum mechanics, and to express the relationship between the electromagnetic field tensor (...)
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  25. Relativism.Robert Johnson - manuscript
    Although relativism is most often associated with ethics, one can find defenses of relativism in virtually any area of philosophy. In what follows, I will narrow my focus considerably. I first discuss the general structure of relativist positions and arguments. I will then examine several influential ideas concerning relativism in the late 20th century. Finally, I end by considering the rise of relativism in one area outside of ethics, epistemology.
     
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  26.  34
    Repurchase Announcements, Lies and False Signals.Beverly Kracher & Robert R. Johnson - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (15):1677-1685.
    Prior stock repurchase studies have found evidence that the announcement of a repurchase program sends a positive signal to the market. Firms engaging in open-market repurchase programs do not have to report how, when, and if they actually repurchased any shares. Evidence following the stock market crash of 1987 indicates that many firms announcing repurchase plans did not actually repurchase any share and, by their own admission, had no intention of repurchasing shares. Companies announcing plans and not following through are (...)
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  27. Value and Autonomy in Kantian Ethics.Robert N. Johnson - 2007 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 2:133-148.
     
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  28.  39
    Kantian Ethics Almost Without Apology.Robert N. Johnson - 1997 - Philosophical Review 106 (4):594-595.
    Alas, you were at a Kant conference—or many philosophers’ idea of one—and if you are shocked, perhaps you are not a Kantian. For this scenario illustrates two fundamental criticisms of Kant’s vision of morality as “duty”: It is outrageous to hold that even for the hero “all the good he can ever perform still is merely duty”. And those who, like these parents, are moved to every morally significant action by a sense of duty are, far from exemplary, morally repugnant. (...)
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  29.  62
    Review: The Authority of Reason. [REVIEW]Robert N. Johnson - 2002 - Mind 111 (443):676-679.
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  30. Moral Indifference.Robert Johnson - unknown
    opposed ways. 6:408-9 Understood as "moral apathy", to be indifferent is to be uninfluenced..
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  31.  17
    A Model for Making Decisions About Ethical Dilemmas in Student Assessment.Robert L. Johnson, Jin Liu & Yin Burgess - 2017 - Journal of Moral Education 46 (2):212-229.
    In this mixed-methods study we investigated the development of a generalized ethics decision-making model that can be applied in considering ethical dilemmas related to student assessment. For the study, we developed five scenarios that describe ethical dilemmas associated with student assessment. Survey participants completed an online survey to express their decision-making process when faced with ethical dilemmas relating to student assessment. Based on the literature and the educators’ written responses to the scenarios, elements to consider in an ethics decision-making model (...)
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  32.  6
    Problems and Paradigms: Fine Tuning of DNA Repair in Transcribed Genes: Mechanisms, Prevalence and Consequences.C. Stephen Downes, Anderson J. Ryan & Robert T. Johnson - 1993 - Bioessays 15 (3):209-216.
  33.  41
    Prichard, Falk, and the End of Deliberation.Robert N. Johnson - 2007 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (5):pp. 131-147.
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  34. Kantian Irrealism.Robert N. Johnson - manuscript
    Kantian ethics can at times appear to defend the position that there is a unique sort of value that plays a foundational role in morality. For instance, Kant's most well known work in ethics, the Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, begins by trying to establish that a good will is good without qualification' and then ends with a first statement of the fundamental principle that divides right from wrong, the Categorical Imperative.1 This presentation can make it seems as if (...)
     
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  35.  1
    Geometry of an Intense Auroral Column As Recorded in Rock Art.Marinus van der Sluijs & Robert J. Johnson - 2013 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 27 (2).
    In 2003, Peratt demonstrated that rock art images worldwide bear a remarkable similarity to high-energy plasma discharge formations. In later papers, Peratt located the plasma discharge column in which all of these would have occurred at the Earth’s South Pole. This article accepts the relation between the rock art images and the plasma formations, but concludes that the geometry of the reconstruction is incompatible with the global occurrence of the rock art images. As a corollary, the finer details of the (...)
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  36.  37
    Minding One's Manners: Revisiting Moral Explanations.Robert N. Johnson - 1998 - Philosophical Studies 90 (2):181-203.
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  37.  17
    Differentiation of Endothelial Cells: Analysis of the Constitutive and Activated Endothelial Cell Phenotypes.Hellmut G. Augustin, Detlef H. Kozian & Robert C. Johnson - 1994 - Bioessays 16 (12):901-906.
  38.  6
    María Zambrano’s and Albert Camus’s Communal Ethics.Roberta Johnson - 2018 - History of European Ideas 44 (7):876-886.
    ABSTRACTMaria Zambrano and Albert Camus had much in common, especially their sympathy for the Second Spanish Republic and their ethical vision. Both intellectuals employed literary forms to explore philosophical ideas allegorically, explicitly notions related to exile and solitude. Works included in the study are ‘Delirio de Antigone,’ La tumba de Antigone, and Delirio y destino [Delirum and Destiny] by Zambrano and The Plague and The Myth of Sysifus by Camus. Zambrano’s works are interpreted as allegories of Franco’s Spain, while Camus’s (...)
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  39.  13
    Dependence and Thought as Determinants of Interpersonal Hostility.Abraham Tesser & Robert Johnson - 1974 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 4 (4):428-430.
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  40.  9
    The Commons Debates of 1628Commons Debates.J. G. A. Pocock, Robert C. Johnson, Mary Frear Keeler, Maija Jansson Cole & William B. Bidwell - 1978 - Journal of the History of Ideas 39 (2):329.
  41.  8
    Prichard, Falk, and the End of Deliberation.Robert N. Johnson - 2007 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (Supplement):131-147.
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  42.  19
    The Most Real Being: A Biblical and Philosophical Defense of Divine Determinism.Robert Aaron Johnson - 2008 - Faith and Philosophy 25 (1):109-112.
  43.  10
    Children’s Discrimination Learning as Related to Delayed Punishment.Kenneth L. Witte & Robert K. Johnson - 1973 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 2 (3):146-148.
  44. The Good of Self-Development.Robert N. Johnson - manuscript
    So Michael Slote argues. There is and can be no obligation to foster one's own wellbeing for Kantians, only an obligation to foster the wellbeing of others. And any distinctively Kantian position both denies that our own wellbeing is the source of our moral duties and denies that a concern for wellbeing can be a morally worthy motive. So not only is the agent's own good not foundational to morality; it is of no moral importance. Hence, Slote concludes, the devaluation (...)
     
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  45.  7
    Daniel Carl Solander. Naturalist on the "Endeavour." by Roy Anthony Rauschenberg. [REVIEW]Robert Johnson - 1969 - Isis 60:411-412.
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  46.  5
    Daniel Carl Solander. Naturalist on the "Endeavour.". Roy Anthony Rauschenberg.Robert E. Johnson - 1969 - Isis 60 (3):411-412.
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  47.  2
    Book Review: Light of Truth and Fire of Love: A Theology of the Holy Spirit. [REVIEW]Robert A. Johnson - 1998 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 52 (3):322-323.
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  48.  3
    The Authority of Reason.Robert N. Johnson - 2002 - Mind 111 (443):676-679.
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  49.  1
    Antigone's Tomb: ‘Prologue’.Roberta Johnson - 2018 - History of European Ideas 44 (7):977-986.
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  50.  1
    Les Constitutions Des Premières Carmélites En France. [REVIEW]Robert Johnson - 1968 - Speculum 43 (2):391-392.
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