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  1.  3
    The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - Princeton University Press.
    This book is the first complete survey and critical appraisal of the large body of research that has appeared during approximately the last decade concerning the analysis of knowing. Robert K. Shope pays special attention to the social aspects of knowing and proposes a new formulation of the fundamental structure of the Gettier problem. Originally published in 1983. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University (...)
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  2. The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research.Robert K. Shope - 1983 - Princeton: New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
    The Description for this book, The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research, will be forthcoming.
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  3. The Conditional Fallacy in Contemporary Philosophy.Robert K. Shope - 1978 - Journal of Philosophy 75 (8):397-413.
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  4. The Analysis of Knowing.Robert K. Shope - 1984 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 89 (1):131-132.
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  5.  10
    ``The Conditional Fallacy in Contemporary Philosophy&Quot.Robert K. Shope - 1978 - Journal of Philosophy 75 (8):397--413.
  6.  31
    Conditions and Analyses of Knowing.Robert K. Shope - 2002 - In Paul K. Moser (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 25--70.
    In “Conditions and Analyses of Knowledge”, Robert Shope focuses on the conditions that must be satisfied for a person to have knowledge, specifically knowledge that something is so. Traditionally, knowledge has been analyzed in terms of justified true belief. Shope addresses philosophers’ disagreements concerning the truth and belief conditions. After introducing the justification condition, he presents challenges that have provoked several attempts to replace or to supplement the justification condition for knowledge. Shope presents and assesses several of these, including early (...)
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  7. Remembering, Knowledge, and Memory Traces.Robert K. Shope - 1973 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 33 (March):303-22.
  8.  5
    Reason, Truth and History.Robert K. Shope - 1985 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 45 (4):644-649.
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  9.  43
    Rawls, Brandt, and the Definition of Rational Desires.Robert K. Shope - 1978 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 8 (2):329 - 340.
    Philosophers, psychiatrists, and social scientists would welcome clarification of the distinction between rational and irrational desires. It may be proper to say that rational desires are those which manifest rationality. But since this seems a rather unilluminating characterization, philosophers sometimes offer definitions of what constitute such manifestations of rationality. I shall consider definitions provided by John Rawls and Richard Brandt. Their definitions are unsatisfactory mainly because they include subjunctive conditionals. An alternative approach, which avoids conditionals, is attractive. But it encounters (...)
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  10.  53
    Cognitive Abilities, Conditionals, and Knowledge: A Response to Nozick.Robert K. Shope - 1984 - Journal of Philosophy 81 (1):29-48.
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  11.  20
    Explanation in Terms of "the Cause".Robert K. Shope - 1967 - Journal of Philosophy 64 (10):312-320.
  12. The Nature of Meaningfulness: Representing, Powers, and Meaning.Robert K. Shope - 1999 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Shope presents a unified perspective on meaningfulness, spanning such varied topics as the meaningfulness of linguistic expressions and conventional signs, Freud's conception of the meaningfulness of various mental phenomena and instances of behavior, a person's meaning to do something, meaning in the arts, and even life's having a meaning. Shope's perspective is based upon a 'constitutive' analysis of what it is for one item to represent another. Criticizing the views of philosophers who attempt to analyze such representing in causal terms, (...)
     
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  13.  68
    Abnormality, Cognitive Virtues, and Knowledge.Robert K. Shope - 2008 - Synthese 163 (1):99-118.
    Causal analyses of one’s knowing that p have recently emphasized the involvement of cognitive virtues in coming to believe that p. John Greco suggests that in order to deal with Gettier-type cases, a virtue analysis of knowing should include a requirement that one’s knowing does not in a certain way involve abnormality. Yet Greco’s emphasis on statistical abnormality either renders his analysis subject to a generality problem or to objections regarding certain Gettier-type cases. When we instead consider abnormality in the (...)
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  14.  41
    Prima Facie Duty.Robert K. Shope - 1965 - Journal of Philosophy 62 (11):279-287.
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  15.  3
    Freud on Conscious and Unconscious Intentions.Robert K. Shope - 1970 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 13:149.
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  16.  49
    Eliminating Mistakes About Eliminative Materialism.Robert K. Shope - 1979 - Philosophy of Science 46 (4):590-612.
    Richard Rorty's eliminative materialism is an attack on dualism that has frequently been misrepresented and incorrectly criticized. By taking account of the mistakes that philosophers have made concerning eliminative materialism, a proper definition of the doctrine and a clarification of its relation to traditional materialism will emerge, as well as an understanding of its true strengths and weaknesses. The discussion centers around the original manner in which Rorty defended eliminative materialism by means of analogies to the elimination of talk about (...)
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  17.  13
    Cognitive Abilities, Conditionals, and Knowledge.Robert K. Shope - 1984 - Journal of Philosophy 81 (1):29-48.
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  18.  18
    The Psychoanalytic Theories of Wish‐Fulfilment and Meaning.Robert K. Shope - 1967 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 10 (1-4):421-438.
    Psychoanalysis regards many previously inexplicable phenomena as wish?fulfilments, which have meaning inasmuch as they express the person's wishes or affects. This might appear to make such psychoanalytic explanations rather like ordinary explanations of conduct and to enlarge the area of intentional and possibly that of responsible behavior. But a critique of these psychoanalytic accounts will show that they are very unlike accounts in terms of ordinary notions of fulfilling or expressing wishes and that the psychoanalytic concept of wish?fulfilment differs sufficiently (...)
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  19.  19
    Knowledge and Falsity.Robert K. Shope - 1979 - Philosophical Studies 36 (4):389 - 405.
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  20.  9
    "Reason, Truth and History" by Hilary Putnam. [REVIEW]Robert K. Shope - 1985 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 45 (4):644.
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  21.  4
    Acknowledgments.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press.
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  22.  9
    A Causal Theory of Intending.Robert K. Shope - 1990 - Journal of Philosophical Research 15:361-394.
    Having an intention can be analyzed in terms of certain causal powers possessed by an instance of one’s having a thought of a certain state of affairs, where a certain preference is what causes those powers to be present. A suitable understanding of such a prcference emerges from a discussion of Wayne A. Davis’ analysis of intending. However, Davis’ emphasis on belief and desire rather than on instances of having a thought leads to difficulties for his analysis of intending. After (...)
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  23.  36
    A Causal Theory of Intending.Robert K. Shope - 1990 - Journal of Philosophical Research 15:361-394.
    Having an intention can be analyzed in terms of certain causal powers possessed by an instance of one’s having a thought of a certain state of affairs, where a certain preference is what causes those powers to be present. A suitable understanding of such a prcference emerges from a discussion of Wayne A. Davis’ analysis of intending. However, Davis’ emphasis on belief and desire rather than on instances of having a thought leads to difficulties for his analysis of intending. After (...)
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  24.  3
    Bibliography.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press. pp. 239-250.
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  25.  5
    Backmatter.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press. pp. 257-257.
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  26.  3
    Contents.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press.
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  27.  12
    CHAPTER 3: Additions to Standard Analyses II: Limitations on the Presence of Falsehoods in Justification.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press. pp. 81-95.
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  28.  6
    CHAPTER 2: Additions to Standard Analyses I: Subjunctive Conditionals.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press. pp. 45-80.
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  29.  5
    CHAPTER 4: Additions to Standard Analyses III: Limitations on the Justifying Power of Evidence or Grounds.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press. pp. 96-118.
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  30.  13
    Challenge and Response: Justification in Ethics.Ethical Knowledge. [REVIEW]Robert K. Shope - 1974 - Journal of Philosophy 71 (2):46-55.
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  31.  6
    CHAPTER 5: Causal Analyses, Conclusive Reasons Analyses, and Reliability Analyses.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press. pp. 119-170.
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  32.  5
    CHAPTER 6: Deletions From Standard Analyses.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press. pp. 171-200.
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  33.  11
    CHAPTER 7: Falsity and Rational Inquiry—a Solution to the Gettier Problem and a Perspective on Social Aspects of Knowing.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press. pp. 201-238.
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  34.  15
    CHAPTER 1: The Significance of the Gettier Problem for an Analysis of Knowing.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press. pp. 1-44.
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  35.  6
    Dispositional Treatment of Psychoanalytic Motivation Terms.Robert K. Shope - 1970 - Journal of Philosophy 67 (7):195-208.
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  36.  3
    Frontmatter.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press.
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  37.  15
    Firth's Critique of Epistemological Rule-Utilitarianism.Robert K. Shope - 1991 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 51 (1):129-135.
  38.  2
    Firth's Critique of Epistemological Rule-Utilitarianism.Robert K. Shope - 1991 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 51 (1):129-135.
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  39. Functional Equivalence and the Defense of Materialism.Robert K. Shope - 1973 - Philosophical Forum 4 (4):500-12.
  40.  6
    Geoffrey Clive 1927-1975.Robert K. Shope - 1975 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 49:154 - 155.
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  41.  4
    Index.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press. pp. 251-256.
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  42.  32
    Justification, Reliability, and Knowledge.Robert K. Shope - 1989 - Philosophia 19 (2-3):133-154.
  43.  39
    Knowledge as Justified Belief in a True, Justified Proposition.Robert K. Shope - 1979 - Philosophy Research Archives 5:35-72.
    When analyzing 'justified factual knowledge that h', we must speak of justified belief in h and also of h's being a justified proposition. Gettier-type problems can be dealt with by requiring that the belief in h be justified through its connection with a 'justification-explaining chain' related to h. The social aspects of knowledge can be encompassed by analyzing what it is for h to be a justified proposition in terms of h's relation to the rationality of an 'epistemic community'.The discussion (...)
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  44.  61
    Non-Deviant Causal Chains.Robert K. Shope - 1991 - Journal of Philosophical Research 16:251-291.
    Causal processes that are technically called deviant or wayward causal chains must be ruled out when analyzing various phenomena, including intentional action, perception, and the operation of causal mechanisms involved in the manifesting of causal powers. Irving Thalberg is incorrect in arguing that this problem does not arise when analyzing intentional action. After criticizing solutions proposed by Christopher Peacocke and David Lewis, I provide a general analysis of non-deviance. In application to intentional action, the account is seen to be preferable (...)
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  45.  11
    Non-Deviant Causal Chains.Robert K. Shope - 1991 - Journal of Philosophical Research 16:251-291.
    Causal processes that are technically called deviant or wayward causal chains must be ruled out when analyzing various phenomena, including intentional action, perception, and the operation of causal mechanisms involved in the manifesting of causal powers. Irving Thalberg is incorrect in arguing that this problem does not arise when analyzing intentional action. After criticizing solutions proposed by Christopher Peacocke and David Lewis, I provide a general analysis of non-deviance. In application to intentional action, the account is seen to be preferable (...)
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  46.  36
    Nondeviant Chains in Intentional Action.Robert K. Shope - 1996 - Journal of Philosophical Research 21:15-49.
    When employing causal terminology in analyzing intentional action, and sometimes in analyzing additional phenomena, philosophers have required that relevant causal chains be free of what they call causal deviance or waywardness. But there is a wider type of deviance that needs to be excluded, of which causal deviance is only a species. Carl Ginet’s On Action considers examples of both types of deviance. A criticism of his treatment of such examples leads to a more satisfactory general analysis of nondeviant chains (...)
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  47.  6
    Nondeviant Chains in Intentional Action.Robert K. Shope - 1996 - Journal of Philosophical Research 21:15-49.
    When employing causal terminology in analyzing intentional action, and sometimes in analyzing additional phenomena, philosophers have required that relevant causal chains be free of what they call causal deviance or waywardness. But there is a wider type of deviance that needs to be excluded, of which causal deviance is only a species. Carl Ginet’s On Action considers examples of both types of deviance. A criticism of his treatment of such examples leads to a more satisfactory general analysis of nondeviant chains (...)
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  48.  4
    Preface.Robert K. Shope - 2017 - In The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton University Press.
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  49.  33
    Physical and Psychic Energy.Robert K. Shope - 1971 - Philosophy of Science 38 (1):1-12.
    In order to assess the tenacity of psychoanalysts in continuing to use a concept of psychic energy, it is advisable to consider whether, as they sometimes claim, the concepts of energy, force, and work in psychoanalysis are akin to those in the natural sciences. Strong disanalogies suggest that the psychoanalytic concepts are quite different and used equivocally even within psychoanalysis. However, they may not be subject to the objections which certain critical psychoanalysts have raised.
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  50. Powers, Causation, and Modality.Robert K. Shope - 1988 - Erkenntnis 28 (3):321 - 362.
    A complex theory concerning powers, natures, and causal necessity has emerged from the writings of P. H. Hare, E. H. Madden, and R. Harré. In the course of rebutting objections that other critics have raised to the power account of causation, I correct three of its genuine difficulties: its attempt to analyze power attributions in terms of conditional statements; its characterization of the relation between something's powers and its nature; and its doctrines concerning conceptual necessity. The resulting interpretation of causal (...)
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