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Robert Klitzman [30]Robert L. Klitzman [7]
  1.  1
    Whether to Waive Parental Permission in HIV Prevention Research Among Adolescents: Ethical and Legal Considerations.Laurie J. Bauman, Claude Ann Mellins & Robert Klitzman - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (1):188-201.
    Critical ethical questions arise concerning whether studies among adolescents of new behavioral and biomedical HIV preventive interventions such as Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis should obtain parental permission. This paper examines the relevant regulations and ethical guidance concerning waivers of parental permission, and arguments for and against such waivers. Opponents of such waivers may argue that adolescent decision-making is “too immature” and that parents always have rights to decide how to protect their children. Yet requiring parental permission may put adolescents at risk, and/or (...)
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  2.  22
    Addressing ethical challenges in HIV prevention research with people who inject drugs.Liza Dawson, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Alex John London, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Robert Klitzman, Irving Hoffman, Scott Rose & Jeremy Sugarman - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (3):149-158.
    Despite recent advances in HIV prevention and treatment, high HIV incidence persists among people who inject drugs. Difficult legal and political environments and lack of services for PWID likely contribute to high HIV incidence. Some advocates question whether any HIV prevention research is ethically justified in settings where healthcare system fails to provide basic services to PWID and where implementation of research findings is fraught with political barriers. Ethical challenges in research with PWID include concern about whether research evidence will (...)
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  3.  17
    Addressing Ethical Challenges in HIV Prevention Research with People Who Inject Drugs.Liza Dawson, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Alex John London, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Robert Klitzman, Irving Hoffman, Scott Rose & Jeremy Sugarman - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):149-158.
    Despite recent advances in HIV prevention and treatment, high HIV incidence persists among people who inject drugs. Difficult legal and political environments and lack of services for PWID likely contribute to high HIV incidence. Some advocates question whether any HIV prevention research is ethically justified in settings where healthcare system fails to provide basic services to PWID and where implementation of research findings is fraught with political barriers. Ethical challenges in research with PWID include concern about whether research evidence will (...)
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  4.  43
    Voluntariness of Consent to Research: A Conceptual Model.Paul S. Appelbaum, Charles W. Lidz & Robert Klitzman - 2009 - Hastings Center Report 39 (1):30-39.
    Voluntariness of consent to research has not been sufficiently explored through empirical research. The aims of this study were to develop a more comprehensive approach to assessing voluntariness and to generate preliminary data on the extent and correlates of limitations on voluntariness. We developed a questionnaire to evaluate subjects’ reported motivations and constraints on voluntariness. 88 subjects in five different areas of clinical research—substance abuse, cancer, HIV, interventional cardiology, and depression—were assessed. Subjects reported a variety of motivations for participation. Offers (...)
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  5.  24
    Us Irbs Confronting Research in the Developing World.Robert L. Klitzman - 2012 - Developing World Bioethics 12 (2):63-73.
    Increasingly, US-sponsored research is carried out in developing countries, but how US Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) approach the challenges they then face is unclear.METHODS: I conducted in-depth interviews of about 2 hours each, with 46 IRB chairs, directors, administrators and members. I contacted the leadership of 60 IRBs in the United States (US) (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding), and interviewed IRB leaders from 34 (55%).RESULTS: US IRBs face (...)
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  6.  26
    Models of Consent to Return of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research.Paul S. Appelbaum, Erik Parens, Cameron R. Waldman, Robert Klitzman, Abby Fyer, Josue Martinez, W. Nicholson Price & Wendy K. Chung - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (4):22-32.
  7.  5
    Buying and Selling Human Eggs: Infertility Providers’ Ethical and Other Concerns Regarding Egg Donor Agencies.Robert Klitzman - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):71.
    BackgroundEgg donor agencies are increasingly being used as part of IVF in the US, but are essentially unregulated, posing critical ethical and policy questions concerning how providers view and use them, and what the implications might be.MethodsThirty-seven in-depth interviews of approximately 1 h were conducted – with 27 IVF providers and 10 patients.ResultsClinicians vary in their views and interactions concerning egg donor agencies, ranging widely in whether and how often they use agencies. Agencies may offer egg recipients increased choices, but (...)
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  8.  3
    Struggles in Defining and Addressing Requests for “Family Balancing”: Ethical Issues Faced by Providers and Patients.Robert Klitzman - 2016 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 44 (4):616-629.
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  9.  14
    Reliance Agreements and Single IRB Review of Multisite Research: Concerns of IRB Members and Staff.Charles W. Lidz, Ekaterina Pivovarova, Paul Appelbaum, Deborah F. Stiles, Alexandra Murray & Robert L. Klitzman - 2018 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 9 (3):164-172.
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  10.  13
    How Local IRBs View Central IRBs in the US.Robert Klitzman - 2011 - BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):13.
    Background: Centralization of IRB reviews have been increasing in the US and elsewhere, but many questions about it remain. In the US, a few centralized IRBs (CIRBs) have been established, but how they do and could operate remain unclear. Methods: I contacted 60 IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), and interviewed leaders from 34 (response rate = 55%) and an additional 12 members and administrators. Results: These interviewees had often interacted with (...)
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  11.  19
    Views and Experiences of IRBs Concerning Research Integrity.Robert Klitzman - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (3):513-528.
    Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) can play vital roles in observing, monitoring, and responding to research integrity (RI) issues among researchers, yet many questions remain concerning whether, when, and in what ways these boards adopt these roles. I contacted 60 IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), and interviewed leaders from 34 (response rate=55%), and an additional 12 members and administrators. IRBs become involved in a variety of RI problems, broadly defined, and face (...)
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  12.  24
    Bringing science and advocacy together to address health needs of people who inject drugs.Liza Dawson, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Alex John London, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Robert Klitzman, Irving Hoffman, Scott Rose & Jeremy Sugarman - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (3):165-166.
    In crafting our paper on addressing the ethical challenges in HIV prevention research with people who inject drugs, 1 we had hoped to stimulate further discussion and deliberation about the topic. We are pleased that three commentaries on our paper have begun this process. 2 3 4 The commentaries rightly bring up important issues relating to community engagement and problems in translating research into practice in the fraught environments in which PWID face multiple risks. These risks include acquisition of HIV (...)
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  13.  22
    Reviewing HIV‐Related Research in Emerging Economies: The Role of Government Reviewing Agencies.Patrina Sexton, Katrina Hui, Donna Hanrahan, Mark Barnes, Jeremy Sugarman, Alex John London & Robert Klitzman - 2016 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (1):4-14.
    Little research has explored the possible effects of government institutions in emerging economies on ethical reviews of multinational research. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth telephone interviews with 15 researchers, Research Ethics Committees personnel, and a government agency member involved in multinational HIV Prevention Trials Network research in emerging economies. Ministries of Health or other government agencies often play pivotal roles as facilitators or barriers in the research ethics approval process. Government agency RECs reviewing protocols may face particular challenges, as they can (...)
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  14.  22
    Views of the Process and Content of Ethical Reviews of Hiv Vaccine Trials Among Members of Us Institutional Review Boards and South African Research Ethics Committees.Robert Klitzman - 2008 - Developing World Bioethics 8 (3):207-218.
    ABSTRACTGiven the ethical controversies concerning HIV vaccine trials , we aimed to understand through an exploratory study how members of institutional review boards in the United States and research ethics committees in South Africa view issues concerning the process and content of reviews of these studies. We mailed packets of 20 questionnaires to 12 US IRB chairs and administrators and seven REC chairs to distribute to their members. We received 113 questionnaires . In both countries, members tended to be white (...)
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  15.  6
    Questions, Complexities, and Limitations in Disclosing Individual Genetic Results.Robert Klitzman - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (6):34 – 36.
  16.  16
    Bringing Science and Advocacy Together to Address Health Needs of People Who Inject Drugs.Liza Dawson, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Alex John London, Kathryn E. Lancaster, Robert Klitzman, Irving Hoffman, Scott Rose & Jeremy Sugarman - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (3):165-166.
    In crafting our paper on addressing the ethical challenges in HIV prevention research with people who inject drugs,1 we had hoped to stimulate further discussion and deliberation about the topic. We are pleased that three commentaries on our paper have begun this process.2 3 4 The commentaries rightly bring up important issues relating to community engagement and problems in translating research into practice in the fraught environments in which PWID face multiple risks. These risks include acquisition of HIV as well (...)
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  17.  19
    Qualifying Confidentiality: Historical and Empirical Issues and Facts.Robert Klitzman - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (2):26 – 27.
  18.  10
    Views and Experiences of IRBs Concerning Research Integrity.Robert Klitzman - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (3):513-528.
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  19.  10
    HIV and the Law: Integrating Law, Policy, and Social Epidemiology.Zita Lazzarini & Robert Klitzman - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (4):533-547.
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  20.  14
    HIV and the Law: Integrating Law, Policy, and Social Epidemiology.Zita Lazzarini & Robert Klitzman - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (4):533-547.
  21.  6
    Detecting, Preventing, and Responding to “Fraudsters” in Internet Research: Ethics and Tradeoffs.Jennifer E. F. Teitcher, Walter O. Bockting, José A. Bauermeister, Chris J. Hoefer, Michael H. Miner & Robert L. Klitzman - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):116-133.
    Internet-based health research is increasing, and often offers financial incentives but fraudulent behavior by participants can result. Specifically, eligible or ineligible individuals may enter the study multiple times and receive undeserved financial compensation. We review past experiences and approaches to this problem and propose several new strategies. Researchers can detect and prevent Internet research fraud in four broad ways: through the questionnaire/instrument ; through participants' non-questionnaire data and seeking external validation through computer information,, and 4) through study design. These approaches (...)
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  22.  23
    How US Institutional Review Boards Decide When Researchers Need to Translate Studies.Robert Klitzman - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (3):193-197.
    Informed consent is crucial in research, but potential participants may not all speak the same language, posing questions that have not been examined concerning decisions by institutional review boards and research ethics committees’ about the need for researchers to translate consent forms and other study materials. Sixty US IRBs were contacted, and leaders from 34 and an additional 12 members and administrators were interviewed. IRBs face a range of problems about translation of informed consent documents, questionnaires and manuals—what, when and (...)
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  23.  4
    How Agencies Market Egg Donation on the Internet: A Qualitative Study.Jason Keehn, Eve Howell, Mark V. Sauer & Robert Klitzman - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):610-618.
    We systematically examined the content of the websites of 46 agencies that buy and sell human eggs to understand how they market themselves to both donors and recipients. We found that these websites use marketing techniques that obscure the realities of egg donation, presenting egg donation as a mutually beneficial and fulfilling experience. Sites emphasize egg donors' emotional fulfillment and address recipients' anxieties by stressing the ability to find the perfect “fit” or “match”, suiting recipients’“preferences”/“desires”, and even designing/customizing a child. (...)
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  24. Clinicians, Patients and the Brain.Robert Klitzman - 2005 - In Judy Illes (ed.), Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice, and Policy. Oxford University Press.
     
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  25.  15
    Complications of Culture in Obtaining Informed Consent.Robert Klitzman - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):20 – 21.
  26.  1
    Experiment on Identical Siblings Separated at Birth: Ethical Implications for Researchers, Universities, and Archives Today.Robert L. Klitzman & Adam M. Kelmenson - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2019-105983.
    Several films, including Three Identical Strangers, examined ethical problems in an experiment that involved identical siblings who were adopted as infants and separated into different families to examine the effects of nature versus nurture. The study was primarily designed and directed by Dr Peter Neubauer. The experiment, conducted in the 1960’s through 1980’s, serves as an important cautionary case study, raising several critical and ongoing ethical issues faced by researchers, universities and archives today. The organisation coordinating the study donated the (...)
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  27.  7
    Contexts, Anyone?: The Need for Contextualization in the Debate About the Moral Status of Embryos.Robert Klitzman & Joseph Siragusa - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (6):56-58.
  28.  6
    The Reporting of IRB Review in Journal Articles Presenting HIV Research Conducted in the Developing World.Robert L. Klitzman, Kelly Kleinert, Hoda Rifai‐Bashjawish & Cheng Shiung Leu - 2011 - Developing World Bioethics 11 (3):161-169.
  29.  6
    Additional Implications of a National Survey on Ethics Consultation in United States Hospitals.Robert Klitzman - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):47 – 48.
  30.  12
    The Importance of Social, Cultural, and Economic Contexts, and Empirical Research in Examining "Undue Inducement".Robert Klitzman - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (5):19 – 21.
  31.  17
    “Will They Be Good Enough Parents?”: Ethical Dilemmas, Views, and Decisions Among Assisted Reproductive Technology Providers.Robert Klitzman - 2017 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 8 (4):253-265.
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  32.  41
    The Reporting of Irb Review in Journal Articles Presenting Hiv Research Conducted in the Developing World.Robert L. Klitzman, Kelly Kleinert, Hoda Rifai-Bashjawish & L. E. U. Shiung - 2011 - Developing World Bioethics 11 (3):161-169.
    Objectives: We investigated how often journal articles reporting on human HIV research in four developing world countries mention any institutional review boards (IRBs) or research ethics committees (RECs), and what factors are involved.Methods: We examined all such articles published in 2007 from India, Nigeria, Thailand and Uganda, and coded these for several ethical and other characteristics.Results: Of 221 articles meeting inclusion criteria, 32.1% did not mention IRB approval. Mention of IRB approval was associated with: biomedical (versus psychosocial) research (P = (...)
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  33.  12
    The Authors Reply.Paul S. Appelbaum, Wendy Chung, Abby J. Fyer, Robert L. Klitzman, Josue Martinez, Erik Parens, W. Nicholson Price & Cameron Waldman - 2015 - Hastings Center Report 45 (1):4-4.
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  34.  15
    Paul S. Appelbaum is Elizabeth K.Susan Gilbert, Joyce A. Griffin, Gregory E. Kaebnick, Robert Klitzman & Charles W. Lidz - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
  35.  7
    17 Coercion and Undue Influence in Decisions to Participate in Psychiatric Research.Paul S. Appelbaum, Charles W. Lidz & Robert Klitzman - 2011 - In Thomas W. Kallert, Juan E. Mezzich & John Monahan (eds.), Coercive Treatment in Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Aspects. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 293.
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  36.  6
    "Post-Residency Disease" and the Medical Self: Identity, Work, and Health Care Among Doctors Who Become Patients.Robert Klitzman - 2006 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (4):542-552.