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Robert Michels [33]Roberto Michels [1]
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Robert Michels
Universidade de Lisboa
  1. On how (not) to define modality in terms of essence.Robert Michels - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (4):1015-1033.
    In his influential article ‘Essence and Modality’, Fine proposes a definition of necessity in terms of the primitive essentialist notion ‘true in virtue of the nature of’. Fine’s proposal is suggestive, but it admits of different interpretations, leaving it unsettled what the precise formulation of an Essentialist definition of necessity should be. In this paper, four different versions of the definition are discussed: a singular, a plural reading, and an existential variant of Fine’s original suggestion and an alternative version proposed (...)
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  2. The strong arm of the law: a unified account of necessary and contingent laws of nature.Salim Hirèche, Niels Linnemann, Robert Michels & Lisa Vogt - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):10211-10252.
    A common feature of all standard theories of the laws of nature is that they are "absolutist": They take laws to be either all metaphysically necessary or all contingent. Science, however, gives us reason to think that there are laws of both kinds, suggesting that standard theories should make way for "non-absolutist" alternatives: theories which accommodate laws of both modal statuses. In this paper, we set out three explanatory challenges for any candidate non-absolutist theory and discuss the prospects of the (...)
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  3. Political Parties.Robert Michels, E. Paul & C. Paul - 1917 - International Journal of Ethics 27 (2):259-260.
     
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  4. Plural metaphysical supervaluationism.Robert Michels, Cristian Mariani & Giuliano Torrengo - 2021 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    It has been argued that quantum mechanics forces us to accept the existence of metaphysical, mind-independent indeterminacy. In this paper we provide an interpretation of the indeterminacy involved in the quantum phenomena in terms of a view that we call Plural Metaphysical Supervaluationism. According to it, quantum indeterminacy is captured in terms of an irreducibly plural relation between the actual world and various misrepresentations of it.
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  5. Husserlian Eidetic Variation and Objectual Understanding as a Basis for an Epistemology of Essence.Robert Michels - 2020 - Logos and Episteme 11 (3):333-353.
    Vaidya has recently argued that while Husserl’s method for acquiring knowledge of essence through use of our imagination is subject to a vicious epistemic circle, we can still use the method to successfully attain objectual understanding of essence. In this paper, I argue that the Husserlian objectual understanding-based epistemology envisaged by Vaidya suffers from a similar epistemic circularity as its knowledge-based foil. I argue that there is a straight-forward solution to this problem, but then raise three serious problems for an (...)
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  6. The limits of non-standard contingency.Robert Michels - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (2):533-558.
    Gideon Rosen has recently sketched an argument which aims to establish that the notion of metaphysical modality is systematically ambiguous. His argument contains a crucial sub-argument which has been used to argue for Metaphysical Contingentism, the view that some claims of fundamental metaphysics are metaphysically contingent rather than necessary. In this paper, Rosen’s argument is explicated in detail and it is argued that the most straight-forward reconstruction fails to support its intended conclusion. Two possible ways to save the argument are (...)
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  7. Contemporary (Analytic Tradition).Robert Michels - 2024 - In Kathrin Koslicki & Michael J. Raven (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Essence in Philosophy. Routledge.
    This paper provides an overview of the history of the notion of essence in 20th century analytic philosophy, focusing on views held by influential analytic philosophers who discussed, or relied on essence or cognate notions in their works. It in particular covers Russell and Moore’s different approaches to essence before and after breaking with British idealism, the (pre- and post-)logical positivists’ critique of metaphysics and rejection of essence (Wittgenstein, Carnap, Schlick, Stebbing), the tendency to loosen the notion of logical necessity (...)
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  8. The modal status of the laws of nature. Tahko’s hybrid view and the kinematical/dynamical distinction.Salim Hireche, Niels Linnemann, Robert Michels & Lisa Vogt - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (1):1-15.
    In a recent paper, Tuomas Tahko has argued for a hybrid view of the laws of nature, according to which some physical laws are metaphysically necessary, while others are metaphysically contingent. In this paper, we show that his criterion for distinguishing between these two kinds of laws — which crucially relies on the essences of natural kinds — is on its own unsatisfactory. We then propose an alternative way of drawing the metaphysically necessary/contingent distinction for laws of physics based on (...)
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  9. Correct Conceivability and its Role in the Epistemology of Modality.Robert Michels - 2020 - Les Principes Métaphysiques.
    The starting point of this paper is an argument to the conclusion that the definition of metaphysical possibility in terms of correct conceivability, conceivability informed by knowledge of relevant essences, found in Rosen (2006) is equivalent to a version of the essentialist definition of metaphysical necessity. This argument appears to show that correct conceivability is a notion of conceivability by name only and is therefore of no interest to epistemologists of modality. In this paper, I present the equivalence argument, explain (...)
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  10. Are all laws of nature created equal? Meta-laws versus more necessary laws.Salim Hirèche, Niels Linnemann & Robert Michels - 2023 - Erkenntnis:1-19.
    Two approaches to elevating certain laws of nature over others have come to prominence recently. On the one hand, according to the meta-laws approach, there are meta-laws, laws which relate to laws as those laws relate to particular facts. On the other hand, according to the modal, or non-absolutist, approach, some laws are necessary in a stricter sense than others. Both approaches play an important role in current research, questioning the ‘orthodoxy’ represented by the leading philosophical theories of natural laws—Humeanism, (...)
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  11. Essential Truths and Their Truth-Grounds.Robert Michels - 2018 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 5:790-815.
    This paper motivates and defends a principle which captures a systematic connection between essence, truth, and grounding. It says that if a proposition expresses an essential truth, i.e., if it is true in virtue of the nature of some objects, then there are grounds for its truth which involve these objects. Together with the assumption that a fact can only be grounded in facts which are relevant to it, this principle is then applied in an argument against the monotonicity of (...)
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  12. Soames’s argument 1 against strong two-dimensionalism.Robert Michels - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 161 (3):403-420.
    This paper criticizes Soames’s main argument against a variant of two-dimensionalism that he calls strong two-dimensionalism. The idea of Soames’s argument is to show that the strong two-dimensionalist’s semantics for belief ascriptions delivers wrong semantic verdicts about certain complex modal sentences that contain both such ascriptions and claims about the truth of the ascribed beliefs. A closer look at the formal semantics underlying strong two-dimensionalism reveals that there are two feasible ways of specifying the truth conditions for claims of the (...)
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  13. Cross-World Comparatives for Modal Realists.Robert Michels - 2018 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 25 (3):368-391.
    Divers (2014) argues that a Lewisian theory of modality which includes both counterpart theory and modal realism cannot account for the truth of certain intuitively true modal sentences involving cross-world comparatives. The main purpose of this paper is to defend the Lewisian theory against Divers’s challenge by developing a response strategy based on a degree-theoretic treatment of comparatives and by showing that this treatment is compatible with the theory.
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  14. The Formalization of Arguments.Robert Michels - 2020 - Dialectica 74 (2).
    The purpose of this introduction is to give a rough overview of the discussion of the formalization of arguments, focusing on deductive arguments. The discussion is structured around four important junctions: i) the notion of support, which captures the relation between the conclusion and premises of an argument, ii) the choice of a formal language into which the argument is translated in order to make it amenable to evaluation via formal methods, iii) the question of quality criteria for such formalizations, (...)
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  15.  36
    Special Supplement: The XYY Controversy: Researching Violence and Genetics.Diane Bauer, Ronald Bayer, Jonathan Beckwith, Gordon Bermant, Digamber S. Borgaonkar, Daniel Callahan, Arthur Caplan, John Conrad, Charles M. Culver, Gerald Dworkin, Harold Edgar, Willard Gaylin, Park Gerald, Clarence Harris, Johnathan King, Ruth Macklin, Allan Mazur, Robert Michels, Carola Mone, Rosalind Petchesky, Tabitha M. Powledge, Reed E. Pyeritz, Arthur Robinson, Thomas Scanlon, Saleem A. Shah, Thomas A. Shannon, Margaret Steinfels, Judith P. Swazey, Paul Wachtel & Stanley Walzer - 1980 - Hastings Center Report 10 (4):1.
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  16.  46
    Physical Manipulation of the Brain.Henry K. Beecher, Edgar A. Bering, Donald T. Chalkley, José M. R. Delgado, Vernon H. Mark, Karl H. Pribram, Gardner C. Quarton, Theodore B. Rasmussen, William Beecher Scoville, William H. Sweet, Daniel Callahan, K. Danner Clouser, Harold Edgar, Rudolph Ehrensing, James R. Gavin, Willard Gaylin, Bruce Hilton, Perry London, Robert Michels, Robert Neville, Ann Orlov, Herbert G. Vaughan, Paul Weiss & Jose M. R. Delgado - 1973 - Hastings Center Report 3 (Special Supplement):1.
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  17. Der Patriotismus.Robert Michels - 1929 - Annalen der Philosophie Und Philosophischen Kritik 8:139-140.
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  18. Metaphysical modality and essentiality.Robert Michels - 2013 - Dissertation, University of Geneva
    Essentialists claim that we can distinguish between an object's essential and its accidental properties. Following important developments in modal logic during the 1960s and 70s, the orthodox view was that the essential properties of an object are its necessary properties. In his influential 1994 paper "Essence and Modality", Kit Fine argues that the orthodox view is wrong. His two main claims are that first, essentiality cannot be defined in terms of necessity and second, that necessity should instead be defined in (...)
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  19.  1
    Sexual Ethics: A Study of Borderland Questions.Robert Michels - 2018 - Routledge.
    In his treatment of the issues raised by the movements of women for equal rights a century ago, Michels anticipated controversies and conflicts about which people care deeply today. He took a clear position in support of the desirability of equality between the sexes. In consequence, it remains relevant to current debates within feminism over equality and difference and the corresponding challenge to, and feminist critique of, social science arising from the (re) emergence of "difference" feminism.Sexual Ethics constitutes both an (...)
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  20.  26
    Special Supplement: MBD, Drug Research and the Schools.Daniel Callahan, Leslie Dach, Harold Edgar, Willard Gaylin, Gerald Klerman, Ruth Macklin, Robert Michels, Robert C. Neville, David Rothman, Margaret Steinfels, Judith P. Swazey, George J. Annas, Larry Brown, Albert DiMascio, Daniel X. Freedman, George Hein, Hubert Jones, Melvin H. King, Ronald Lipman, Sheila Rothman & Robert L. Sprague - 1976 - Hastings Center Report 6 (3):1.
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  21.  17
    Case Studies in Bioethics: Forced Transfer to Custodial Care.Lawrence Hessman, Charles Fried, Robert Michels & Steven Sieverts - 1979 - Hastings Center Report 9 (3):19.
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  22.  14
    Case Studies in Bioethics: The Right to Refuse Psychoactive Drugs.Jack Himmelstein & Robert Michels - 1973 - Hastings Center Report 3 (3):8.
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  23.  13
    Ethics Education or Moral Persuasion?Robert Michels - 1991 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 2 (3):166-166.
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  24.  15
    Ethical Issues of Psychological and Psychotherapeutic Means of Behavior Control.Robert Michels - 1973 - Hastings Center Report 3 (2):11-13.
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  25.  8
    Probleme der Sozialphilosophie.Robert Michels - 1914 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 11 (10):276-278.
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  26. Soziologie als Gesellschaftswissenschaft.Robert Michels - 1927 - Annalen der Philosophie Und Philosophischen Kritik 6:46-46.
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  27.  7
    Sexual Ethics.Robert Michels - 1915 - International Journal of Ethics 25 (3):417-419.
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  28. Sozialismus in Italien.Robert Michels - 1925 - Annalen der Philosophie Und Philosophischen Kritik 5 (5):171-171.
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  29.  11
    The Use—and Misuse—of Psychiatric Consults.Robert Michels - 1985 - Hastings Center Report 15 (4):32-32.
  30.  29
    David Wiggins, Continuants: Their Activity, Their Being and Their Identity. Twelve Essays, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2016, 239 pp., $50.00 (£35.00) (hardback), ISBN: 9780198716624. [REVIEW]Robert Michels - 2018 - Dialectica 72 (2):325-328.
    Book review of: David Wiggins, Continuants: Their Activity, Their Being and Their Identity. Twelve Essays.
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  31.  62
    Erratum to: Soames’s argument 1 against strong two-dimensionalism. [REVIEW]Robert Michels - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (2):575-575.
  32. Political Parties, translated by E. and C. Paul, by C. Delisle Burns. [REVIEW]Robert Michels - 1916 - International Journal of Ethics 27:259.
     
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  33. Sexual Ethics, by E. S. P. Haynes. [REVIEW]Robert Michels - 1914 - International Journal of Ethics 25:417.
     
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