Efforts to identify antecedents of employee turnover are likely to offer value to organizations through money saved on recruitment and new-hire training. The authors utilized the stakeholder perspective to corporate social responsibility to examine the effects of a perceived climate for ethics on the relationship between diversity climate and voluntary turnover intentions. Specifically, they examined how ethics climate (employees' perceptions that their organization values and enforces ethically correct behavior) affected the diversity climate-turnover intentions relationship. Results indicated that ethics climate moderated (...) the diversity climateturnover intentions relationship. Turnover intentions were lowest among workers perceiving both a prodiversity and highly ethical climate. These results reinforce the need to communicate both diversity values and ethical standards to employees. (shrink)
Subtle fault detection plays a vital role in reservoir development studies because faults may form baffles or conduits that significantly control how a petroleum reservoir is swept. Small-throw faults are often overlooked in interpreting seismic amplitude data. However, seismic attributes can aid in mapping small faults. Over the years, dozens of seismic attributes have been developed that offer additional features for interpreters with associated caveats. Using the Maui 3D seismic data acquired in the Offshore Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, we have (...) generated seismic attributes that are typically useful for fault detection. We find that multiattribute analysis provides greater geologic information than would be obtained by the analysis of individual attribute volumes. We extract the geologic content of multiple attributes in two ways: interactive corendering of different seismic attributes and the unsupervised machine learning algorithm self-organizing maps. Corendering seismic attributes that are mathematically independent but geologically interrelated provides a well-integrated structural image. We suggest eight combinations of 16 various attributes useful for a human interpreter with interest in fault and fracture detection. Current interpretation display capabilities constrain corendering to only four attribute volumes. Therefore, we use principal component analysis and SOM techniques to efficiently integrate the geologic information contained within many attributes. This approach gathers the data into one classification volume based on the interrelationships between seismic attributes. We show that our resulting SOM classification volume better highlights small faults that are difficult to image using conventional seismic interpretation techniques. We find that SOM works best when a fault exhibits anomalous features for multiple attributes within the same voxel. However, human interpreters are more adept at recognizing spatial patterns within various attributes and can place them in an appropriate geologic context. (shrink)
Ancient Greek philosophers, medieval theologians, Enlightenment thinkers, and contemporary humanists alike have debated all aspects of human sexuality, including its purpose, permissibility, normalcy, and risks. _Philosophizing About Sex_ provides a philosophical guide to those longstanding and important debates. Each chapter takes a general issue and shows how ongoing public discussions of sexuality can be illuminated by careful philosophical investigation. Debates over topics such as sexual assault, sexual orientation, sex education, prostitution, and “sexting” involve larger questions about morality, law, science, and (...) politics and cannot be intelligently discussed in isolation from broader issues. By asking deceptively simple questions, this book shows how difficult but important it is to arrive at satisfying answers. (shrink)
Net reservoir discrimination and rock type identification play vital roles in determining reservoir quality, distribution, and identification of stratigraphic baffles for optimizing drilling plans and economic petroleum recovery. Although it is challenging to discriminate small changes in reservoir properties or identify thin stratigraphic barriers below seismic resolution from conventional seismic amplitude data, we have found that seismic attributes aid in defining the reservoir architecture, properties, and stratigraphic baffles. However, analyzing numerous individual attributes is a time-consuming process and may have limitations (...) for revealing small petrophysical changes within a reservoir. Using the Maui 3D seismic data acquired in offshore Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, we generate typical instantaneous and spectral decomposition seismic attributes that are sensitive to lithologic variations and changes in reservoir properties. Using the most common petrophysical and rock typing classification methods, the rock quality and heterogeneity of the C1 Sand reservoir are studied for four wells located within the 3D seismic volume. We find that integrating the geologic content of a combination of eight spectral instantaneous attribute volumes using an unsupervised machine-learning algorithm results in a classification volume that can highlight reservoir distribution and identify stratigraphic baffles by correlating the SOM clusters with discrete net reservoir and flow-unit logs. We find that SOM classification of natural clusters of multiattribute samples in the attribute space is sensitive to subtle changes within the reservoir’s petrophysical properties. We find that SOM clusters appear to be more sensitive to porosity variations compared with lithologic changes within the reservoir. Thus, this method helps us to understand reservoir quality and heterogeneity in addition to illuminating thin reservoirs and stratigraphic baffles. (shrink)
It is widely thought among philosophers that Joseph Butler's criticism of psychological egoism in his Sermons is, in the words of A.E. Duncan-Jones, 'the classic refutation of it.' Indeed, no less a philosopher than David Hume restated and put forth Butler's central argument against hedonistic egoism - without due credit - as part of his own critique. Yet recent commentators have begun to question Butler's arguments, albeit usually with sympathy and in the hope of saving what they take to be (...) his insights. I propose to focus on Butler's main objection to hedonistic psychological egoism, to show how and why it fails to refute plausible forms of the thesis, and briefly to indicate why philosophical attempts to disprove this theory of motivation are misguided. (shrink)
Agent-relativity, as an attribute of principles for moral decision, reasons for action, and values, has been a topic of discussion in recent ethical theory primarily in the context of objections to act-consequentialism. Thus, Samuel Scheffler explains that act-consequentialist theories “first specify some principle for ranking overall states of affairs from best to worst from an impersonal point of view.” These rankings are not agent-relative, i.e., “they do not vary from person to person, depending on what one’s particular situation is.” Scheffler (...) notes that this is because “they do not embody judgements about which overall states of affairs are best for particular individuals, but rather judgements about which states of affairs are best, all things considered, from an impartial standpoint.” Act-consequentialism then directs each agent always to bring about the highest-ranked state of affairs that he or she can. (shrink)
Written with insight and humor, _College Sex - Philosophy for Everyone_ investigates a broad array of philosophical issues relating to student sex. Examines the ethical issues of dating, cheating, courtship, homosexual experimentation, and drug and alcohol use Considers student-teacher relationships, sexual experimentation, the meaning of sex in a college setting and includes two essays based on influential research projects on ‘friends with benefits’ Many of the authors teach classes that explore the philosophy of love and sex, and most are scholars (...) from the Society of the Philosophy of Sex and Love. (shrink)
Efforts to identify antecedents of employee turnover are likely to offer value to organizations through money saved on recruitment and new-hire training. The authors utilized the stakeholder perspective to corporate social responsibility to examine the effects of a perceived climate for ethics on the relationship between diversity climate and voluntary turnover intentions. Specifically, they examined how ethics climate affected the diversity climate–turnover intentions relationship. Results indicated that ethics climate moderated the diversity climate–turnover intentions relationship. Turnover intentions were lowest among workers (...) perceiving both a pro-diversity and highly ethical climate. These results reinforce the need to communicate both diversity values and ethical standards to employees. (shrink)
Each contributor to this book has used personal experience as the basis from which to frame his individual sociological perspectives. Because they have personalized their work, their accounts are real, and recognizable as having come from 'real' persons, about 'real' experiences. There are no objectively-distanced disembodied third person entities in these accounts. These writers are actual people whose stories will make you laugh, cry, think, and want to know more.
The contributors in _Expanding and Restricting the Erotic_ offer a multidisciplinary perspective on the ways in which what is considered acceptable within the realm of the erotic has altered over time to the current situation where the erotic is being both expanded and restricted.
The central question which I address is whether appeal to a hypothetical contract between moral persons is acceptable as a method for justifying basic ethical principles. ;My first two substantive chapters concern general issues in metaethics, particularly the shortcomings of both standard naturalist and noncognitivist theories of evaluative language; some conditions of acceptability for methods of moral justification are proposed and supported as well. Firth's and Hare's methods fail to satisfy these criteria, while Brandt's present approach and Rawls' method of (...) reflective equilibrium largely succeed. Rawls, quite correctly, intends his contract argument to apply only within the framework of this more basic method. ;Major aspects of Rawls' contract theory are examined at length in Chapter IV. My central concern is with the reasons Rawls gives for regarding his interpretation of the initial contract situation as the "rationally preferred" one. The concepts of impartiality, neutrality, and fairness are discussed at the outset. I then proceed to explain and criticize Rawls' reasons for imposing a "thick veil of ignorance" on the contractors. The argument that natural assets and social contingencies are "morally arbitrary" and hence should not influence the choice of principles of justice is found to be open to serious objection and to rest upon a specific type of egalitarian moral commitment. Rawls' "Kantian" argument is shown to lack sufficient support and to involve an unwarranted exclusion of certain deontological, perfectionist, and other teleological theories from serious consideration. ;Grice's contract theory, which omits the "veil," is examined in Chapter V, together with his account of prudential reasoning and his argument for a necessary connection between moral obligation and rationality. His type of contract approach is demonstrated to be unworkable due to vague description of the initial situation. Moreover, it has unacceptable implications and cannot serve as an appropriate basis for moral justification in any case. ;I conclude that the ideal contract method is at best a very conditional procedure of moral justification, far more suitable for some types of moral conceptions than for others. It seems unlikely, furthermore, that achievement of wide reflective equilibrium or "full rationality" in Brandt's sense would result in a consensus favoring any one description of the initial contract situation. (shrink)
Over the past twenty odd years, North America has witnessed the complete medicalization of unhappiness by transforming it into depression, which has been conceived in psychologically reductionistic terms. Many are unhappy with this state of affairs, including the contemporary American novelists, Walker Percy, Richard Ford, and Jonathan Franzen. This paper explores why they are unhappy with this trend and why they reject psychological reductionism in favor of a vision of life that is more thoroughly moral in its outlook.
Debate concerning virtual reality is often drawn in terms of sharply defined dichotomies--for example, between "real" (or "actual") and "virtual," "authentic" and "inauthentic," and "natural" and "artificial." In this paper we offer an alternative approach by suggesting a conception of a virtual world that highlights a continuity and commonality with our sense of everyday reality. We accomplish this in part by an examination of the English picturesque garden as if it were a virtual world partially constructed out of ideas and (...) objects collected during travels to foreign lands on the Grand Tour. Such foreign travel transformed not only the English person's sense of self, but also altered the English landscape. We conclude that in one sense the "real" England is also a "virtual" reality. (shrink)
Combining rock-property analysis with multicomponent seismic imaging can be an effective approach for reservoir quality prediction in the Bakken Formation, North Dakota. The hydrocarbon potential of shale is indicated on well logs by low density, high gamma-ray response, low compressional-wave and shear-wave velocities, and high neutron porosity. We have recognized the shale intervals by cross plotting sonic velocities versus density. Intervals with total organic carbon content higher than 10 wt% deviate from lower TOC regions in the density domain and exhibit (...) slightly lower velocities and densities. We consider TOC to be the principal factor affecting changes in the density and P- and S-wave velocities in the Bakken shales, where VP/ VS ranges between 1.65 and 1.75. We generate the synthetic seismic data using an anisotropic version of the Zoeppritz equations, including estimated Thomsen’s parameters. For the tops of the Upper and Lower Bakken, the amplitude shows a negative intercept and a positive gradient, which corresponds to an amplitude variation with offset of class IV. The P-impedance error decreases by 14% when incorporating the converted-wave information in the inversion process. A statistical approach using multiattribute analysis and neural networks delimits the zones of interest in terms of P-impedance, density, TOC content, and brittleness. The inverted and predicted results show reasonable correlations with the original well logs. The integration of well log analysis, rock physics, seismic modeling, constrained inversions, and statistical predictions contributes to identifying the areas of highest reservoir quality within the Bakken Formation. (shrink)
This paper employs Ian Hacking’s notion of interactive kinds to examine the recent construction of the kind, “depressed adolescent.” I examine first how adolescents themselves were constructed. I then trace how, in North America, we have moved in the past thirty-odd years from a situation of virtually no adolescent depression to the current situation where it is estimated that approximately one in four adolescents is depressed. I offer some reasons why we should be uncomfortable both with the exponential increases in (...) this kind and with the way in which depressed adolescents are being treated at present. In conclusion, I tentatively suggest some ways of proceeding in the future. (shrink)
This anthology brings together original essays and selections from important recent articles and from books that are classics in the field. The topics covered are sexual roles, equality, and social policy; sexual norms and ethics; erotic love; and friendship and familial love. This will be the most up-to-date and comprehensive anthology in the field. It will be suitable not only for courses on the philsophical aspects of sex and love, but also for courses in applied moral and social philsophy.
This updated edition of a well-established anthology of social and political philosophy combines extensive selections from classical works with significant recent contributions to the field, many of which are not easily available. Its central focus is on the liberal currents in modern Western political thought--variants of classical liberalism, modern liberalism, and libertarianism--with specific focus on differing conceptions of political obligation, freedom, distributive justice, and representative democracy. The text is organized into four thematic sections: Political Obligation and Consent, Freedom and Coercion, (...) Justice and Equality, and Democracy and Representation, making it easily accessible to students. Each chapter features selections from classical thinkers alongside writings by influential contemporary philosophers and political theorists, thus tracing the historical development and transformation of Western political thought on key issues in the field. Among the classical authors represented in this collection are Plato, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Mill. Contemporary contributors include John Rawls, Isaiah Berlin, Thomas Scanlon, Robert Nozick, Thomas Nagel, Ronald Dworkin, and Hanna Pitkin. Each section is preceded by an introductory overview and followed by a helpful, current bibliography providing guides to further reading. (shrink)
The [Formula: see text] Léogâne fan delta in southwestern Haiti borders the epicentral region of the devastating magnitude 7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010. The flat plain of the Léogâne area experienced some of the worst shaking, destruction of buildings, and loss of life caused by the Haiti earthquake. This intense shaking was attributed by previous workers to either activation of a blind thrust fault some 4 km beneath the Léogâne fan delta or to strike-slip motion along a shallow, (...) ground-breaking fault that ruptured the uppermost part of the fan delta. Our research team from the University of Houston and the Haiti Bureau of Mines and Energy collected shallow seismic and gravity data in the fan delta where previous studies of earthquake aftershocks, coastal uplift of coral reefs, and radar interferometry all indicated a maximum amount of coseismic uplift. Our objective was to acquire geophysical information on the subsurface stratigraphy, structure, and material properties of the fan. S-wave seismic studies revealed an average velocity of [Formula: see text] for the first 30 m. These velocity values suggest that the near-surface sediments at Léogâne are a seismically hazardous class D sediment type. Interpretation of our various seismic data sets has indicated prolonged sedimentary environments of fluvial channeling and channel migration to a depth of approximately 350 m as expected in this fan delta setting. There was no clear evidence on our seismic reflection lines for substantial faulting in the seismically slow, shallow fan delta sediments. Integrated geophysical data analyses indicated south-dipping seismically slow layers on the southern end of the Léogâne fan with a less well defined northward dip with the broad, anticlinal axis aligned with the area of maximum coseismic uplift at the coast. The sudden, coseismic upheaval of the ground surface above the proposed blind thrust combined with extreme shaking of the seismically weak sediments contributed to the destructiveness of the earthquake on the Léogâne fan delta. (shrink)
Time-lapse seismic analysis plays a vital role in reservoir management and reservoir simulation model updates. However, 4D seismic data are subject to interference and tuning effects. Being able to resolve and monitor thin reservoirs of different quality can aid in optimizing infill drilling or in locating bypassed hydrocarbons. Using 4D seismic data from the Maui field in the offshore Taranaki Basin of New Zealand, we generate typical seismic attributes sensitive to reservoir thickness and rock properties. We find that spectral instantaneous (...) attributes extracted from time-lapse seismic data illuminate more detailed reservoir features compared with those same attributes computed on broadband seismic data. We have developed an unsupervised machine-learning workflow that enables us to combine eight spectral instantaneous seismic attributes into single classification volumes for the baseline and monitor surveys using self-organizing maps. Changes in the SOM natural clusters between the baseline and monitor surveys suggest production-related changes that are caused primarily by water replacing gas as the reservoir is being swept under a strong water drive. The classification volumes also facilitate monitoring water saturation changes within thin reservoirs as well as illuminating thin baffles. Thus, these SOM classification volumes indicate internal reservoir heterogeneity that can be incorporated into reservoir simulation models. Using meaningful SOM clusters, geobodies are generated for the baseline and monitor SOM classifications. The recoverable gas reserves for those geobodies are then computed and compared with production data. The SOM classifications of the Maui 4D seismic data seem to be sensitive to water saturation change and subtle pressure depletions due to gas production under a strong water drive. (shrink)